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Notes on Penmanship. 

While it is not difficult to present to a 
rlii*s of students a lesson on penmanship. 
new to tfma. still, to at least, a large numher 
of the renders of the Jouunal, our notes 
will not eontain perhaps but little originality; 
but 08 we are booked for this month, and not 
having a superabundance of time on hand, 
we at least will try and moke it short, if not 
sweet, and should any one be benefitted by 
our effort, we can only say that they will 
be welcome to all they receive and that we 
will be thankful for having in any way 
advanced their interests. 

In the first place, the examples herein 
presented were written with speed aud at 
random, without forethought, therefore they 
ore prnclicol. The plain, practical capitals. 
t/wuffh not remarkahleforbeautyorperfectiofi, 
were written at the rate of two sets per 
minute, with the movement generally known 
as the mumnlar. aud this rate of speed 
will be found rapid enough for any prac- 
tical work one may enter into. The lines 
of writi*^ were written with the same 
speed, and are given to show bow near to 
the point of perfection rapid writing can be 
executed. We think that all plain, practical 
capitals should be placed on the base line, 
aud should extend above. The diccrxi'ti/ of 
form is a mere matter of taste, but vniformity 
is essential. 

The movement to be used for all plain, 
practical writing is the mitscular, of 
whicli a dozen different versions can be 
found in former numbers of the penmen's 
papers, and, in consequence, we will not 
burden our readers with a rehash, for they 
all contain points of excellence ; wc also 
say nothing in regard to the positions 
of pen, paper, hand or Imdy, fm- fhn/ 
are on the list and in the '/ .' / - ' ,./,./('.* 
papers nearly each awl . k 

tlieff s/iould be ; butinncii , ■ ; -m 

have no use for tlicm. Nu > iliui iiiu\ luiuuI 
should be used, or ever thought of, by a 
person who wishes to secure a plain, practi- 
cal aud easy hand. Any moTiement that de- 
mands ittore titan one position foi- arm or 
hand, in its equilateral perpendicular or hori- 
zontal course, ia detrimental to rapidity and 
to nnifurm loritinff. 

Tlie drills that you work on should be 
something that apply directly to the forma- 
tion of a letter, and should not be diversified 
to a great extent. 

Too many superfluous lines aud fiourishes 
arc ft detriment to the student who is work- 
ing for a plain, pmcticnl hand. They may 
give bim movement it is true, but movement 
without form is worse than form withoui 
movement. It is a poor teacher who cannot 
demonstrate to a student in one week's time 
everything pertaining to muscular move 
ment, and it is a good teacher who can in- 
struct in one year's time a student so that 
he may be able to produce on paper the 
forms that can he derived from that move- 
On the other bond, it is a poorstudeut 
who cannot, witli good instruction, secure 
both form aud movement in that time, and 
in fact, one who is devoid of both common 
seuse and perceptive faculties. To the 
student who wishes to secure a band of this 
kind, practical In Itself for all business pur- 
suits pertaining to the commercial world. I 
have only to say you will be forced to work 
with a determination to succeed, with an 

energy to conquor, and with an ambition to 
overcome seeming impossibilities. Yiin, 
energy and push is what drives tfie world, and 
tftc same ingredients i?i moderate doses is what 
is required to make good writers. 

drive things wilb a will. A professional 
penman should know all movements, and 
should he able to use one equally as well as 
another. He should be able, if called upon, 
to execute at will any class of work that 





To the student who reaches for a big 
standard, or to the one who expec s and 
tends to reach the aeme of perfection. I i 
simply say, place yourself under the insti 

may be desired. To obtain this result re- 
quires the closest kind of application, and 
the more intricate the copy may be the re 
suit will be belter in the end. . 

tion of some teacher of recogui>:ed merit, or 
if you have not the means, subscribe for the 
penmen's papers, read carefully, study 
thoroughly, and practice faithfully. If you 

Never be satisfied with anything you may 
do, for if you reach that point your im- 
provement is liable to stop then and thtre. 
Push, push, push work. work, work, is 


are working for a high rate of perfection, I 
know of no better inveslmeut than for one 
to purchase a full set of the New Spenccrion 
Compendium, in which can be found the 

the only road to perfection and success. 
We here pri sent some advanced copies for 

As far as paper, ink and pens are con- 

perfected forms of all styles of penmauship 
that are used at the present time. Above 
all. never allow yourself to work in a slow 
manner ; learn to be rapid, use force and 

cerned, find out that which is the best, pur- 
chase them at all times, use plenty of them, 
and work and study with [i rush, rush. rush. 
To the teacher we can only say, he alive. 

Try and gain the confidence 
and good will of all of your 
students ; study them, be a 
friend to them, and have 
them friends of yours. Be 
generous in the way of instruc- 
tion., and be not set in one 
particular rut, but enlarge 
your ideas and you will thus 
promote a like purpose in the 
minds of your students. 

Be energetic and enthusias- 
tic in the school-room, make 
the writing hour one of pleasure as well as 
profit. At the present time we arc teach- 
ing six classes per day, forty minutes to a 
class, and our students ore just as enthusias- 
tic and as willing as the day they entered. 

To do this, you must be on the jump, use 
the blackboard tborotighly, illustrate in a 
practical manner, use language that all can 
understand and keep things alive with 
energy. Make all of your analyzatioos in a 
concise and brief manner. 

Remember a dull tenehei' is worse than a 
stupid pupil, for the student is liable to 
reach greatness by his own hard work, 
whereas the teacher, if backward and slow, 
has reached his limit. 

The only way to success is to be a gentle- 
man to all, to work for the interests of your 
students in every way, by thorough applica- 
tion to their wants and to your business. 

System and Style. 

There are two thincs in particular which 
every penman wishes to cultivate, viz., 
system and style. By some these two qual- 
ities, or acquirements, are thought to be 
incompatible, or at least opposed to each 
other ; but in reality they ore successive 
stages of the same development. One 
is based upon the other, aud the two 
cannot exist except conjointly. To particu- 
larize : it is necessary, for the acquirement 
of what any true critic can pronounce 
"siyte." that an artist first be grounded in 
a definite and reliable system. Style is not 
a natural qualification, as too many seem to 
think. It is not that which naturally and 
inevitably belongs to a man, as does his gait 
in walking. Artistic style is something to 
be acquired ; and it never can be acquired 
unless a man approaches it by system. It 
is plain, then, that these two qualities arc 
inseparable. System is the basis of style ; 
style is the uniform product of system. 
Therefore, the two must exist, if at all, to- 
gether. They never can exist separiitely. 

It would be of practical advantage to 
many young penmen, if they could have 
this very close relation between system and 
style impressed upon them at the beginning 
of their course of study. There is a per- 
nicious impression prevailing among tyros 
and amateurs in every art, that style is 
something personal and peculiar to them- 
selves ; that it is bound to "come out," just 
as soon as they begin ,to produce anything. 
A teacher is sometimes astonished, upon 
calling a pupil's attention to some more or 
less serious fault in execution, to be inform- 
ed— " Oh, that is my style! I coiildn't 
change that, you know : its as natural for 


me ft8 it is lo breathe." The pupil is thus 
iDClined rather to cultivate than to discipline 
his peculiarities — which arc, in nine cases 
out of ten, his faults. Perhaps he does not 
realise, until (oo lale, that lie has been pro- 
ceeding upon an entirely wrong method. 
Now if he could have impressed upon him 
at the beginning the fact that all truly arU'ii- 
tie atyle it a profluH, not a pernanoi poaaestion , 
lie would be .saved much labor and embar- 
rassment in the future. " If a product," he 
asks himself. " " of what is it the product 1 " 
Style is the product of syatera. It is some- 
thing to be acquired, and acquired by a 
methodical and uniform course of study 
ood practice. Nothing can be more per- 
nicious, more misleading, than the idea that 
a man's style lies at his fingers' ends. His 
faults and mannerisms lie there, no doubt; 
but as for his style, that is something of 
which he knows nothing as yet, and which 
remain to be evolved. 

" Well, then," some may say, "how are 
we to account for style in art, for that va- 
riety of expression, for that personal quality 
which distinguishes the work of every artist 
from that of every other ?" I reply, in (he 
first place, that style is distinguished in par- 
ticulars rather than in general features; that 
it is something which the artist adds to the 
common and uniform treatment of the 
subject. The landscape artists paint their 
skies substantially alike, so far as the prin- 
ciples of perspective, tint, etc., are concern- 
ed. The general treatment is the same ; 
hut the artist's style, his personality, that 
which distinguishes him, appears in the 
particulars of his treatment. If an artist 
attempted to paint an entirely original, per- 
sonal and peculiar sky, he would be laughed 
at. Yet this would be apt to be his idea of 
"style" at the outset. So in all the arts. 
Style is an ultimate, not a primary thing. 
It is a postlude, not a prelude. I account 
for it as the final outcome of art. It cannot 
be divorced from the system, the tecuique, 
the uniformity of general treatment with 
which all artists begin, and in which they 
are all agreed. 

Therefore, and secondly, style is an artis- 
tic acquirement. It is not something which 
a man can foreknow. An artist's style, in 
the end, may be something very different 
from what he supposed at first that it would 
be, lie must not mistake a mannerism, an 
inference from mere temperament, a pen- 
chant, a notion to be his real, ultimate, rip- 
ened style. I repeat it — he can know noth- 
ing of Ats style until he knows all about the 
common system, out of which grows, gradu- 
ally and almost imperceptibly, the style of 
each individual artist. 

Let the young penman, then, throw over- 
board, at the beginning of his career, every- 
thing hut the detennination to lefirn. If he 
scorns system, let him be assured he will 
never arrive at consistent and artistic style. 
Like a builder who attempts to construct a 
house without scaffolding, he will soon find 
his walls falling in upon themselves. 

Instead of the Telephone. 

An Ohio man by the name of Samuel V, 
Essick has invented an electrical type-writer 
which transmits messages by wire long dis- 
tances, and it was exhibited to a number of 
capitalists, electricians, and newspaper men 
at 145 Broadway recently. It is a simple 
arrangement with a keyboard, which, when 
key is touched, brings the right letter 
down on a sheet of paper which moves 
along automatically at one side, so that 
words are printed as by an ordinary type- 
writer, and the machine at the other end of 
the wire acts in unison, printing the mes- 
sage in the same way. It does all the work 
of the operator at the ordinary telegraph in- 
strument. It is intended by the National 
Printing Telegraph Company, which owns 
the patent, to put it in use in the nianner of 
the Bell telephone instruments, connections 
to be made at a central office. Mrs. Jones 
of New York will be able to call up Mrs. 
Brown of Philadelphia, and while Mrs. 
Jones is talking Mrs. Brown can be dressing 
the baby and reading the message from the 
machine. Every reader of a message has it 
duplicated for himself. 

Remember, you can get the Jotjhnal one 
year, and a 75-cent book free, for $1 ; or a 
$1 book and the JonRNAL for $1.25. Do 
your friends a favor by telling them. 

Writing and Writing-Masters, 

Forty Years Ago. 
Editors Penman's Am Jouiinal : 

You ask me to tell what 1 know about 
wrilinp and writing-masters of forty years 
ago. The request does not offend me. al- 
though I sometimes wish I wa.'* too young 
to remember so far back in the century. I 
have known people to affect great indiffer- 
ence ot growing old ; but I neither affect it 
nor feel it. As hard and unsatisfying as 
this world is, I would like to take the 
chances of remaining in it for a few hundred 
years, not only to grow better and wiser 
myself, but to witness the development of 
things generally. Of course, I believe, with 
all hopeful souls, that this life is only an 
ante-room to the more perfect life beyond ; 
and I have a more or less hazy notion that 
in that better life we shall be permitted lo 
know— and possibly have a little hand in— 
what is passing here ; but I notice in my- 
self, as I do in the most ardent believers in 
a ble.ssed immortality, that I am in no hurry 
to take on the change, and find myself 
clinging with wonderful tenacity to purely 
worldly objects and worldly loves, prefer- 
ring to bear the ills I hove than fly to others 
that I know not of. There are, however, 
some compensations for growing old, and 
you offer me one in kindly asking me to 
recall incidents of forty years ago. 

Forty years ago I had been teaching writ- 
ing three years, and had no hesitation in say- 
ing on my little handbills that I was one of 
the most accomplished teachers in the 
country. In fact, I honestly thought I was. 
I had not then heard of Spencer, and the 
word "Spencerian," as applied to penman- 
ship, had not been born. Even steel pens 
were not in use, and the best ink I could 
get was extracted from butternut bark. Of 
course, I am speaking of the backwoods 
country where my boyhood was spent, and 
where " modern improvements" were slow 
in getting hold of the communities. The 
first writing school I attended was in 1838, 
I was then twelve years old, and had an 
unusual love for the " gray goose cjuill." 
My father was a very neat penman, and I 
never ceased to admire the skill and grace 
of the copies he used to set for me. One of 
them was impressed on my mind — and 
body — in a most forcible way. It read : 
"Foolishness is bound up in the heart of a 
child, but the rod of correction will drive 
it far from him." The beauty of that copy 
was that the writer of it fully believed in 
its sentiment, and acted upon his belief : 
but with all his unselfish efforts on my be- 
half, I had enough foolishness left to last 
me through. 

The writing school of which I speak was 
taught by a Baptist minister named Barlow, 
half brother to J. H. Barlow of New York, 
whose beautiful pen-designs so frequently 
appear jn the Jouhnal. It was a night 
school, three evenings in a week, twenty 
lessons in the course— each pupil to furnish 
hie, own paper, ink and pens, and his own 
candles, and lo pay two dollars. There was 
no ruled paper in those days ; or if there 
was it had not been generally introduced 
into our part of the country, so the paper 
had to be ruled by hand. This was done 
almost universally with a lead plummet and 
a Hat wooden ruler, both home-made. The 
plummet was hammered out of a bullet, 
and sharpened wedge-like at one end, the 
other having a hole to admit of a string by 
which it was usually attached to the ruler, 
also punctured at one end. The inkstand 
was of pewter, run in a mould, square at 
the bottom, and decreasing in size to the 
top. This was also a homemade article 
which required sortie skill in the manufac- 
ture. The ink, as I have intimated, was a 
decoction of butternut bark, and was of a 
brownish tinge ; although about this time 
it began to be fashionable to use ink powder, 
which, carefully diluted with rain water, 
made a better quality of fluid, A little later, 
blue ink was introduced and had a steady 
run of ten or fifteen years. To avoid the 
catastrophe of ink spilling— which could 
not have been to save the carpel.s, for no- 
body had any carpets — it was customary to 
till the inkstand with loose cotton, and then 
put enough of the fluid in to saturate it 
thoroughly, and yet to leave it so that if the 
inkstand were turned topsy turvy no ink 
wnidd run out. 

I shall never forget the excitement created 

in the neighborhood by the 
that "Elder Barlow" was going to open a 
wriliug-school. Everyboy and girl for miles 
around, who could raise two dollars, de- 
termined at once to go. Money was scarce 
in our family, and as there were five boys 
of us, all eligible, the financial diftieulty 
came quickly to the front. I was about as 
unselfish as boys in general, but I think it 
would have taken more grace than usually 
foils to a twelve-year-old lad to enable me 
to willingly take an even chance in this 
loitery — for I think it was decided that one 
of us could go. I don't know how the lot 
fell upon me, but it did ; and if there was 
ever a prouder hoy in the State of Ohio than 
I was when with my stitched copy-book, 
my ruler and plummet, my pewter inkstand, 
my half dozen newly plucked goose quills, 
and last, though by no means lea^t. my 
' ' dipped " candle, rolled up in brown paper, 
I have never learned his name. I wouldn't 
have changed places at that moment with 
Rutherford Ilayes ol- Jim Garfield. The 
tallow "dip" of those days was a great in- 
stitution as an illuminator. The point 
usually was to make the wick as small as 
possible so that the candle might laM a long 
time. Twenty of these candles in a room 
would make about half as much light us an 
ordinary gas jet. Candlesticks were not 
very common, and the usual method of 
making the candle " stand" was to drop a 
little melted tallow upon the desk and set 
the nether end of the dip in it and wait for 
it to cool. A better device than this was a 
turnip or a potato cut into an extemporized 
candlestick ; and some enterprising fellows 
would even manufacture a permanent article 
out of a wooden block. Brass, japaued and 
even tin candlestics were the perquisites of 
the well-to-do. 

I didn't know what the outcome of these 
twenty lessons was — whether any good 
writers were made, nor even how much I 
learned myself. Mr. Barlow was a pains- 
taking teacher, and his carefully and slowly 
written copies were a delight to my eyes, 
but he wrote mostly with the finger move- 
ment, and had not the enthusing quality 
that makes us recall with such zest Peirce 
and Hinmnn of the present, and Lusk and 
Williams of the past. Two years after this 
there came into our village a genuine travel- 
ing writing master by the name of Shull. 
He burst upon us like a full grown circus, 
with his pen-drawn menagerie of beasts, 
birds, fishes and men. Large sheets of 
paper^such as we had never dreamed could 
exist, were entirely covered with blue, red 
and black ink, curved and corkscrewed into 
the shapes of swooping eagles, bounding 
stags, prowling lions and swimming fish. 
On other sheets were illuminated letters, 
elaborately wrought and ornately embellish- 
ed, with finely executed script interspersed 
with flourished capitals — all done with the 
"wholeai'm movement" which was the 
stock in trade of this new light among 

These rare specimens were displayed upon 
the walls of the only tavern, and thither 
gathered the hoys and girls to gape and 
wonder, and wonder and gape at the great 
marvel that had come to us. 

Shull was a natural showman, and al- 
though himself a very ordinary pennuui so 
far as form was concerned, did more than 
any teacher I had known to infuse enthusi- 
asm into his classes. He practiced the 
"muscular movement" without giving it 
that name, aud laid the foundation of a 
number of good writers. 

One of the best writers of whom I knew 
previous to my coming in contact with the 
disciples of P. R. Spencer was Joel 11. 
Barlow of whom I have previously spoken. 
He came among us in 1842, and was con- 
sidered a great prodigy. I remember 
wheedling him into executing some birds 
and flourishing for me. He charged me 
twenty-five cents for the work, but as that 
was more money than I had ever owned up 
ro that time. I hud to throw the jnb on his 
hands. I gained something, however, in 
witnessing the performance. 

I had intended in this sketch ti> sptiik of 
my personal experiences as a traveling 
writing-master, but it is a dangerous theme, 
and I will not enter upon it. People who 
are growing old should hove some privileges 
and even indulgences, but when they get 
into "personal reminiscences" it becomes 
necessary for somebody to "sit down" on 
them. I will save "somebody" that trouble. 
S. S- Packahd. 

Mr. Little's Drawing Lessons. 
Editors Penman's Aht Joibnai, : 

However much I admire Prof. I.lttlcs 
drawing lessons in the Jouunal, and bis 
genius in pictorial representation. I feel in- 
clined to question his theory as set forth in 
his lesson in the February Jouhnai.. His 
manner of reversing the instruction in 
drawing seems to me too much like putting 
the cart before the horse. "Get thfrm to 
iPorkMi a knowledgcof thesubjectfollow." 
He would in no way hamper the pupils 
with rules and definitions, or with directions 
as to how to go to work, but " have thi- 
pupils draw from the sUirt." He would not 
liegiu by the study and drawing of lines, 
but introduce the pupils at once into the 
realms of nature. 

Now, I hove no reason to believe that Mr. 
Little does not understand his business, and 
I do not care to have this article considered 
as a criticism on his methods ; in fact. I 
would rather have it understood that ignor- 
ance of the subject and a desire to know 
the opinions of others have pruinpted me to 
write Ibis. 

As far as I can understand, Mr. Little is 
a genius in his own line ; hut there are an 
army of teachers who are required lo teach 
drawing in the public schools throughout 
the land, who do not lay cloim to genius ; 
who would never think of converting the 
outline of a cherry into a child's face grin- 
ning at a buzzing bee. They have to follow 
some recognized system of drawing, aud the 
systems with which the writer is familiar 
begins with the study and making and 
measuring of lines. It is true that some of 
the systems, and I think the best ones, 
recognize the importance of drawing from 
objects, and provide suitable appliances for 
that purpose. By means of such apparatus, 
as well as text-hooks and drawing books, 
any teacher with ordinary ability and a 
reasonable amount of preparation can teach 
drawing systematically and progressively. 

I do not think that any sane person enter- 
tains the idea that the only object in teach- 
ing drawing is to make professional design- 
ers of the pupils, any more than the object 
in teaching bookkeeping is only to make 
professional bookkeepers, or in teaching 
penmanship only to make professional pen- 
men. But neitlier do I understand that "to 
be taught to represent what they see in 
nature and mechanics" is the most import- 
ant thing in drawing. To a Th. Nast. the 
power to represent what he sees, or imagines 
he sees, and "to do it rapidly." no doubt is 
the important desideratum in drawing. To 
a Geo, E. Litti,e, the power to carricature 
and to convert a few simple, modest, un- 
assuming lines into comical pictures so as 
to make the children "laugh and clop their 
hands with joy," no doubt is valuable. But, 
suppose all pupils who are tought drawing 
should develop into o Nast or a LirrLK, 
what then '/ We shall probably never have 
but one Little and one Naht at a time, 
although we always have a lot of artists 
who are a Little Nasty. 

But to be serious, would it be asking too 
much to request Prof. Little to give us in 
the next or future issues of the JotmNAi,, a 
clear and definite explanation of the objects 
ot drawing as a school study. Of what 
use is drawing to the multitude of pupils 
who do not expect to become professional 
draftsmen, designers, mechanics or artists ? 
Why is it important that pupils should learn 
to " represent what they see in nature and 
mechanics?" (Italics mine.) Our people may 
be said to he divided into three classes as 
regards their educational views. First, the 
utilitarian class, who view everything from 
a bread and butter standpoint ; second, the 
intellectual class, who consider a study 
valuable only so far as it develops the intel- 
lectual powers: third, the oistheiie class, 
with whom a love of the beautiful is pre- 
dominent. Does drawing meet the require- 
ments of either or all of these classes ? 

Respectfully, E. K. Isaacs. 
VAi.i-Aitifu. Ink., March 10, ISHO. 

The Writing-Ruler has become a standard 
article with those who profess to hove a suit- 
able outfit for practical writing. It is to the 
writer what the chart and compass is to the 
mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a reliable 
penmanship chart and compass, sent by the 
JODBNAX 00 receipt of 30 cents. 

The Varieties and Processes of 


Iin making types a "puQCh.*; a "matrix" 
and n "mould" are successively employed. 
The punch is n rod of hardened steel, having 
It letter at one end. formed by hammering 
down the depressed portions when the metal 
wiis in a soft state. This punch is employed 
lo make an impression in the matrix, which 
is a piece of copper about an inch and a 
quarter long by an eighth of an inch in 
width, and deep in proportion to the size of 
the letter to be made. The mould is an 
ingenious little apparatus, composed of 
two halves, which are held together by a 
spring, 80 that the internal cavity thus 

metal poured in at once is verj- minute. 
But this is not the moat remarkable port of 
the operation ; for the celerity with which 
the type is made excites more surprise in a 
stranger than the small quantity of metal 
cast at once. The type-founder closes the 
mould, dips the little spoon into the meUcd 
metal, fills the mould, jerks it above his 
head, opens it by means of the spring, and 
removc-s the cast type from it— all in one- 
eighth part of a minute, and this series of 
operations he repeats nearly five hundred 
times every hour. 

When the types are cast, they are cleaned 
from the superfluous melai and rubbed on 
the two opposite sides to make them flat 
and smooth. They are next set up on end. 
face downwards, and a plane is run over 
them to ensure all the types being exactly of 

most frequently in printing are placed 
nearest to the hand of the compositor and 
are kept in compartments larger than the 
others. The compartments do not follow 
the order of the alphabet in their general 
classification, and thus appear to a looker- 
on lo be very confused and badly arranged ; 
but there is a reason for every feature of 
the arrangement, ascertained by long ex- 
perience. In filling his case with type pre- 
vious to setting to work, the compositor 
finds it necessary to put more than an aver- 
iige quantity of those which are required 
most, and it is necessary to appeal to expe- 
rience as to which letters are so circum- 

Accordingly, the general character of 
each language becomes so well known in 
this respect to the type-founder and the 

CHRISTIE'S School of Business. 

one of his letters: "In examining the 
Knglish books that were printed between 
the Restoration and the accession of George 
II.. we may observe that all substantioDS 
were begun with a capital, in which we imi- 
tated our mother' tongue, the German. This 
was more particularly useful to those who 
were not well acquainted with the English, 
there being such a prodigious number of 
our words that are both verbs and substan- 
tionsandspellcdiuthc same manner, though 
often accented differently in pronunciatioD. 
This method has, by the fancy of printers 
of late years, been entirely laid aside, from 
an idea that suppressing the capitals shows 
the character to greater advantage — those 
letters prominent above the line disturbing 
its even regular appearance. The effect of 
this change is so considerable that a learned 
man of France who used to read our books, 
though not perfectly acquainted with our 
language, in conversation with me on the 
subject of our authors, attributed the greater 
obscurity he found in our modern hooks 
compared with those of the period above 
mentioned, to a changed style for the v 

of which mistake I con- 
vinced him by making for him each sub- 
stantiou with a capital in a paragraph, 
which he iheu easily understood, though 
before lie could not comprehend it. This 
shows the inconvenience of that pretended 

The custom which Franklin thus con- 
demns Is certainly not less prevalent n 
than it was when he wrote. 

{To be continued.) 

i phuto engraved frmn a Utter received from Prof. Christie. Althoagk written withmil any idea of its bein{/ 
', present it as a specimen of good practical xoriting. 

formed shall serve as a mould for casting; 
and the matrix is adjusted in it. 

The mould being thus formed, the type 
metal is prepared at a small furnace. 
The mixed metal is melled in a pot; and 
the workman, holding the mould in his left 
hand, takes up a little of the melted metal 
in ft very small spoon or laddie, and pours 
it into the mould. As soon as the mould is 
tilled, the workman givesa sudden jerk with 
his hand, by which the metal is forced into 
all the little crevices and depressions of the 
mould ; then, loosening the spring by which 
the two halves of the mould are held to- 
gether, he opens the mould sufticiently to 
remove the cast letter from it ; he next 
closes the mould again, and proceeds just as 
before, lading in with the little spoon 
enough to fill the mould time after time. 
When it is considered that the cavity of the 
mould, and consequently the size of the 
type which can be cast in it. is only about 
an inch long, an eighth of an inch wide, and 
generally much less than that in thickness, 
it may be supposed that the quantity of 

the same length — a point essential to the 
proper arrangement of them in printing. 
The types are then formed into "fonts" or 
sets, and delivered to the compositor. 

The compositor, whose labors consist in 
setting up the several letters in the proper 
order for printing, is provided with an ap- 
paratus called a "frame." This frame is a 
sort of desk, in front of which the composi- 
tor stands while at work. The frame con- 
tains two pairs of "cases." one pair for 
lioman letters and one for Italics. Each 
case contains a great number of divisions or 
compartments for the several letters of the 
alphabet. The upper case of each pair con- 
tains compartments for the capital letters, 
the numerals, the accented vowels and 
marks of reference for notes ; while the 
lower case of each pair contains the small 
letters, the stops and the spaces which are 
to be placed between the words. The com- 
partments are very numerous and are plan- 
ned with respect both to theirslzesand their 
relative positions in the case, with singular 
ingenuity. Those letters which are required 

compositor that the relative quantities of all 
the different letters required have been de- 
termined very exactly. Thus in Latin and 
French words there are more of the c. 1. 1. 
m, p, q, s, u and v than in English. 

In the English language the "e" occurs 
more frequently than any other letter. A 
"font "or set of small letters for printing 
contains twelve thousand e's and the whole 
alphabet requires the following propor- 
tions : — 


Learn to Write a Good Hand. 
There is a certain kind of affectation that 
clerk's hand." but no one de- 
that legible handwriting is useful, and 
an elegant script is always prepossessing. 
There is much woeful blundering due lo 
bad bandwritiug, and many a literary aspir- 
ant has had its communications rejected for 

The silly idea that 
ability never write good hands will uoi bear 
examination, and it will commonly be found 
that neatness and perspicuity in this de- 
partment attest like qualities in other chnn- 
nels. In short, it is of service to any one to 

at least a good plain hand, and shiv- 
inly and illegible penmanship always cause 

embarrassment and often downright 
mortification. These things being granted, 
it is of importance that young people 
should aim to write well as an essential 
factor of success in life. Besides this con- 
sideration, they should take into account 
how much pleasure they can give in their 
correspondence by a really chaste and ad- 
mirable penmanship. Form, as well as 
substance, should be regarded by every one 
who desires to take decent rank in business, 
in society, or in any refined field of intellec- 
tual cucTgy. — Cfiromcle-Telegraph. 

.... 8,500 



b .. . 




? 6,200 

s 8.000 

t 0,000 

u 3.400 

i siooo 






... 400 

m 3.000 



With respect to the use of Capitals in 
printing, Benjamin Franklin, who had been 
a printer, mode the following woiarks in 

Fine Specimen of Penmanship. 

There are a few copies of the IJlaine and 
Logan campaign pieces left, which we will 
now niiiil al 2()c. each, or by the dozen 41.85. 
ThLSL- piiccs lire not, nor have they been, 
iilTiTid fornny other purpose than as speci- 
mens r>f artistic penmanship, and, as such, 
are richly worth the price named. The copies 
are handsomely printed on plate paper, 
19 X 24. ^^ 

Superior Pens. 

Just rfca'rfd—ii new lot of " Ames" Pen- 
men's Favorite Pens," made from new dies 
and with extra care. Every effort has been 
made to secure a belter pen than any now 
in the market, and we believe we have suc- 
ceeded. Sample quarter ^tow sent for 25 
cents, regular price, 30 cents. Try them. 

Am WOl'KN VI. 


A systeinulic triiioiDg of the hand both in 
writing and dmn-ing is regarded as a ueces 
sary accomplisbment of tliis nineteenth 
century. The greatest goud is secured under 
the Bupervisiou of a competent specialist, 
who builds from year to year upon positive 
ndvancenient, and wastes no time (us gcu- 
ernlisls do) in trying to undo false ideas and 
incorrect habits which in their second stage 
are too dangerous to contemplate. 

If this could be properly understood and 
appreciated, then additional care to our 
most excellent system of education would 
surely pay. 

Beginners, i. e., children of five or six 
years of ago, should be taught the use of a 
slate pencil. The common kinds that sell 
for 10, 13 and 25 cents per hundred are not 
(iuitable and should not be used. They in- 
variably break into several pieces when let 
fall, which renders them too short for use. 
even though tbey be properly sharpened. 
Any pencil that docs not extend above the 
third joint of first finger cannot be held cor- 
rectly and, if used. 

What must be the result, with children, of 
lidlding their slate pencils incorrectly the 
greater part of the day while doing the 
geiierul work of the school ? 

Can the ape-cial work be made to count as 
long as error is chosen or permitted the 
greater part of the lime ? 

It is certainly an impossibility for the 
average adult to write with a short, blunt 
slate pencil ; what then should be expected 
of the child? The employment of such 
means cannot be practiced with impunity. 

Where the iit-ncils arc not furnished by 
tlie '■ Board," flip reacber deems ita necessity 
and provides a few. which generally run 
short, and the process of breaking into two 
or more pieces is necessary to supply all. 

The first year or two is not generally re- 
garded fls of much importance by the aver- 
age parent, and so the child is illy jirovided 
for. Why teachers do not properly attend 
to this matter I cannot imagine, unless it is 
that they are not reguind, and take advant- 
age of the situation. 

If pupils do not hold their pens correctly, 
or if the teachers find it difficult to teacb the 
proper penholding, it will be found, upon 
iuvesiigatiou. that the prime cause lay in 
the fact that gfit/H, blunt slate pencils were 
used instead of covered pencils, of regular 
leugth with proper sharpening. The trouble 
and expense attached to doing what is right 
iu the matter should not impel one to do 
wrong. That it is wrong to attempt to teach 
pupils with improper materials no one will 
attempt to palliate or deny. 

When wrong is committed and admitted, 
if possible, it should be righted. 

In this case it is possible, and a mere sug- 
gestion ought to be enough to induce all 
interested in the matter to banish the ignor- 
ance of the past, and profit by the lessons 
so well learned by those who are ever striv- 
ing to make the art of instruction both 
pleasant and profitable. 

When childreu provide their own pencils 
there exists certain rights that you cannot 
well control — pencils are lost and excuses 
made which defeat every purpose of the 
teacher. Let the pencils, both «tofc and fcad, 
be provided by the " Board." The teacher 
is then made responsible, and each pupil al- 
ways has a pencil without any bickerings, 
and no ill feelings are ever engendered. 
The cedar-covered slate pencil is the best, 
and the No. 4 Dixon (Hexagon) is by far 
the best lead pencil for the use of children. 

In addition to providing the pencils, it is 
of the greatest importance that they be 
kept sharpened, and that too in a manner 
that will be conducive to the very best re- 
sults. A good knife in skillful hands may 
do the work reasonably well, but a poor 
knife iu unskillful bands will do the work 
miserably ill. The truth is. that the pencil 
will at no time be in fit condition to do work 
at all respectable. 

Recent inventions have removed all ob- 
stacles, and no teacher need ever complain 
again of blunt slate and lead pencils. Ma 
chines for sharpening pencils are to be had 
at a very modenite cost, and it will liot be 

long before the schools of our country i 
be well provided for in this direction. 

is now in general use, and is the only one 
which gives entire satisfaclion. Each of 
the public schools of Keokuk is supplied and not only are the pencils fur- 
nished, sharpened regularly, but each pupil 
is allowed to sharpen his own, as any child 
can use the "sharpener" perfectly. 

The pencils always being in good con- 
dition, the pupils strive to do excellent work, 
which alone is worth a thousand times the 
cost of mnchme. 

The "sharpener" is especially adapted 
for schools, draftsmen, and general office 
use. It is simple in operation, durable in 
construction, rapid, cleanly and absolutely 
positive in accomplishing its work. It is 
equally effective for lead and slate pencils, 
and for economy of time, labor and patience 
is worth many times its weight in gold. 

Men and Deeds. 
Wanted : Men. 
systems fit and wise, 
falttis Willi i1)^d eyes, 

power with eraclous smllV-s, 
even the potent pen ; 
Wanted : Men. 

Wanted: Deeds, 
■dsof \\iniiliii!n(>le, 
iiRhCsfrom Ifte remote. 

Not words of 

Not fond religious airs, 
Not Bweellv languid pr 

Wanted ; Deeds. 


Movement and form in writing are not 
antagonistic, and although this assertion has 
been made lime and again by some of our 
leading penmen, there are a few enthusiasts 
who still claim that by movement and 
mocement alone can one learn to write. True, 
they may tack on a few sentences about 
form, in their argument, but in such a man- 
ner as not to detract from their movement 

It is an acknowledged fact among the best 
penmen, that form and movement must go 
"hand in hand." Of course, if the first few 
le-isons are spent developing movement, that 
does not mean that the teacher is neglecting 
form, although, as all teachers of experience 
know that the first thing to do with students 
(business college and the older students in 
public schools, not, of course, the pupils in 
the lower grades,) is to get them accustomed 
to the new position and movement. 

We must first see form in our minds, and 
tlien have a sufficiently developed movement 
to enable us to execute what we see. To say 
that all we want is movement, and that form 
will take care Of itself, has been tried and 
docs not produce the results claimed for it. 
On the oiher band, there are some who 
put such a stress on form that they never 
allow a student to get much freedom in his 
writing, because of their continual criticisms 
about form. A student should have the 
form thoroughly explained to him, and then 
should try to execute the letter with as free 
a movement as possible, and at the same 
time aim to get a form as near as possible 
like the copy. If at first he does not get 
the form, he should not have his writing 
criticised so severely that be will drop from 
the muscular to a slow finger movement in 
his attempt to please his taskmaster and get 

Teachers of writing do not differ as much 
about this matter as one would suppose, 
judging from their opinions in the penmen's 
papers. One expresses an opinion that 
students should be taught more movement, 
not meaning to discard form however. 
Another one .says he thinks that he has bit 
upon the best plan— give them form— not 
intending to drop movement though. And 
so on flri infinitum. Now, they both believe 
the same thing, that movement and form 
are like labor and capital— one dependent 
upon the other. No matter bow much 
movement we have, we cannot make a form, 
unless we first see that form in our mind 
and have a standard of criticism, and no 
matter how well defined the letter may be 
in our mind, unless we have movement, wc 
cannot write as easily, gracefully and as 
rapidly as we could if we have the arm and 
baud properly trained. 

Holding the Plow in Turkey. 

Our witty statesman, S. S. Cox, who is 
now U. S. Minister to Turkey, in a letter to 
the Syracuse (N. Y.) CViHTffr, relates in his 
characteristic style his experience at plow- 
ing in that country ; 

" Mrs. Cox drove me out — I mean a 
coachman did— upon the grand hilLs and 
into the superb valleys that suburb this city. 
There are, be it known, fine farms and gar- 
dens plenty upon those bills. From them 
one may overlook Asia and almost Africa. 
Well, we saw a man, a full-breasted well- 
turbaned Turk, with a goad and sash of 
endless length, driving two noble oxen— 
descendants of the ox which forded herr 
with Europa many ccnturits n\in , wi.rlliv 
to be sacrificed to Jove, who li:iil nfiml hi- 
hind Olympus seventy miks uwny— wlnu I 
took the plow handle ! There was unly one 
handle. Ceres smiled seriously. 1 haw'd 
and gee'd the oxen, but they did not under- 
stand the lingo of Ohio cattle. ' Box and 
Cox ' is an ofd farce, but Ox and Cox— well, 
I brought out of that field more mud than 
Cincinnatus did when he left the only 'share' 
he took stock in. and made Rome howl for 
him as a patriot and a 'Cult.' My shoe- 
black charfTcd nic five piasters extra for the 
soil I did not turn up, i-xcept on my boots. 
And this from llif fiirmer's friend, justfrom 
the sciatic (.oiii t. and in view of an Asciatic, 
who ii.-gardt.ll niy elfort with an earthly 
gravity ! ikriaiaemcnt, there are splendid 
arivas about here. Indeed, some say the 
Turks themselves will have a drive I The 
war seems imminentr— 1 March. The armi- 
stice lasts till then. The Serbs arc mad 
'cause they were licked ; the Russians mad 
because they did not help the prince lick 
and the Turk looks on and says ; 

Kismet ! 


'ill hav( 

Back Numbers. 

Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbera. The following we cjin send, 
and no others : All numbers for 1879, ex- 
cept January, May and November; all 
numbers for 1880, except July, Sep- 
tember and November; all numbers for 
1881, except Dceetnber ; all for 1883. except 
Jun^; all for 1883, but Jamiai^ ; all for 
1884; all for 1885. All the 75 numbers, back 
of 1886, will be moUed for |a, or any of the 
numbers at 10 cents each. 

How Proof Reading Sounds. 

Some writer has produced a poem entitled 
"Sounds from the Sanctum." It reads just 
too pretty, and gives rise to the thought that 
the author never visited the sanctum when 
business was in full blast. If be had called 
about midnight, for instance, be would have 
seen two saints, one poring over a proof 
slip, the other holding the copy, and the 
sounds would have been something like 

Proof Reader— "As flowers without the 
sunshine fair— comma— so— comma— with- 
out you — comma— do I — full -stop— breathe 
a dark and dismal marc — " 

Copy Holder— "Thunder ! not niarr— 

Proof Reader — "I breathe a dark and dis- 
mal air — comma — of flowers — comma — " 

Copy Holder— "Shoot the comma." 

Proof Reader — "*Tis done. As flowers 
without the sunshine fair — semicolon — con- 
found slug seven, he never justifies his lines 
— No joy in life — comma — no worms — " 

Copy Holder — "Warmth." 

Proof Reader — "No warmth I share — 
comma — and health and vigorous flies — " 

Copy Holder— "Blazes! Health and vigor 



Reader — ' 




full stop 


about the 


nd of 


is on deck 

.-Da .Vo 


s Itrgiiiter. 


Drawing Lesson. 

(Copyrighted by ( 

In the sketches furnished by Mr. Little 
for the present article we again find admira- 
bly presented several very familiar objects. 
In practicing these exercises Mr. Little 
deems it advisable to devote much attention 
specially to outlines. All should be made 
free hand, either with pen or pencil on 
paper, or with crayon upon the black board, 1 

Hints on Organizing and Teach- 
ing Writing Schools to the 
Traveling Teacher of 

When a young man or woman has taken 
n rcnirse of lessons under some good pro- 
fessional penman, and gained a considerable 
(it'K^ree of skill, they naturally ask them- 
selves these questions : "Will my skill be 
appreciated ? Can I make my livelihood 
as a traveling teacher of penmanship? If so, 
how shall I begin ? 

To such as these I venture to give a few 
words of advice, having been in the same 
position myself, and having some experience 
as a traveling teacher of penmanship. 

If you expect to succeed in any branch of 
business, you must be honest, energetic, 
industrious and, above all, a thorough gen- 
tleman or lady. When you go into a place 
for the purpose of organizing a writing 

bouse, and stiilf flint yen ^v ill lio HLuUiii.i lu 
a short time u ilii -p.riiiMii^- uf your work. 

Calla meeliiii: -"HI,' niL:li!.atHl illustrate 
your method (if it^u-hiTi:: iiciiiiiansliip, using 
the blackboard freely ; illustrate therelation 
that one letter bears to another, the system 
of movement exercises, counting, etc., etc. 
Simplify your work as much as possible, 
show that while you are mastering one let- 
ter, that you are not only mastering that one 
letter or principle, but also some other letter 
or principle. 

' The object of this is to show that men are 
not natural penmen, but are made good 
writers by the proper instruction. There is 
a tendency on the part of some (old fogies 
that ought to have lived in the dark ages) 
to run down the business of a traveling 
teacher of penmanship, by stating that un- 
less it is natural for a man to write well, be 
will never become such by any instruction. 

After the meeting, have a small table to 
write on, and some cheap cards ; take a seat 

io iltvtlop. If you are short of such ex- 
ercises, and have not the ability to invent 
some of your own, send $5 lo C. H, Peirce, 
Keokuk, Iowa, and secure one of bis books 
on movement exercises, which you wili find 
to be an excellent investment. 

Prepare your lessons thoroughly before 
going to the class. Write out the movement 
exercises, letters, etc., before the lesson. 
Use the blackboard freely lo illustrate the 
lesson, and also to point out the pupils" 
fault. When you notice a very common 
error in the pupils' work, go to the black- 
board and make the same error and ask the 
class, as a whole, to criticise, and tell where 
the faults are. By this method you call 
into use your scholars' analytical faculties ; 
each scholar learns to analyze and criticise 
their own work and that of others. Give 
them a drill each lesson on position, show 
how important it is that they should sit in 
an easy position ; also drill each one on 
position of .band and pen, and break them 

jUmrishiiig pen arltsts, 

We v>ovM imprean upon 

was p/iof^-cngmml from original copy by E. IC. Imacs, Valparaiso, Ind., and is evidently a hit upon some of our 
1, who seem to imagine that their atrnidiiig as penmen consists in the variety rathe?- t?ian the merit of flmr pfoduetions. 
,,- «,^«~^ v...i,.^B upon th^mi-nd of our readers tlhat this sort of penmanship is little to he desired. The tendency of real pen art is to 
ilitfpense with flourishes, and especiaUy that species which, even though executed leith sMll, has no market value whatever. So far as flourishing 
can be made to serve as an ornmnent to lettering or other designs of utility, or as a discipline to the hand, it is cmnmendable, but most oftJie vast 
balk of this class of work is time and labor wasted. 

school, first go and see the principal of the 
school, get him interested in your work, 
show him your method of instruction, ask 
him to give you the privilege of showing 
your work to the scholars, and of announc- 
ing your bvisiness in the school ; if he has 
children, give them the privilege of attend- 
ing your school free of charge, or at half 
price. Then go and see the directors of the 
school, secure the use of the school building 
if possible, if not, secure some good hall. 
Have some neat ciiculars printed ; get some 
of your work photo-engraved and printed 
on the circulars, this will show your skill 
and draw attention to them. 

Next, have some of your work framed 
and placed in some public place so that all 
may have a chance to see it. If some genius 
happens to criticise the most artistic part of 
of your work in your hearing, don't get 
vexed with hiiu for bis ignorance; or, on the 
other hand, if they praise your work don't 
get bigoted and suifl the air as though you 
were the only one who could do good work 
with the pen. 

J Go and see the leading men of the place, 
and give them a short outline of your 
method of instruction, and secuie their in- 
tluence ; next pass your circulars to every 

at the table and write the parties names, 
giving each one present a card with their 
name on. These will be shown around 
among their friends, and will do a great 
amount of good advertising, as all have seen 
you execute the writing, which tends to 
give confidence in your ability. 

Next day you would do well to repeat the 
same thing in the post-office, writing a card 
for all coming in, free of charge. This 
method will get both parents and children 
interested in the subject. Then visit every 
house in the place, if possible, taking speci- 
mens of your pen work with you. and 
endeavor to show the importance of a beau- 
tiful handwriting to all classes of people. 

How to conduct your classes successfully, 
is another very important point to notice. 
After organizing the classes, the next im- 
portant step is : IIow should they be con- 
ducted so as to keep up an interest in the 
work, and also to keep good order. 

To this I would answer, keep your 
scholars busy ; don't let them dwell on one 
thing too long. If you want to develop 
some particular letter, give them different 
exercises, and always let the exercises have 
a bearing on the particular letter you wish 

of the very 
too tightly. 

fault of holding the pen 

■age your students, give 
one or two premiums to the ones making 
the most improvement while taking the 
course of lessons. The premiums may con- 
sist of some specimen of your own pen 
work, or the "Standard Practical," a com- 
pendium, by the Spencer Authors, which 
makes a very valuable premium. 

You may run across persons who will not 
feel like paying you the tuition in advance. 
We always make the following proposition: 
Ask the scholars to select some reliable per- 
son in the class to act as secretary, and have 
each one deposit half the tuition with the 
secretary, with the distinct understanding 
that when the term is half through the sec- 
retary must pay over the money to the 
teacher, and that the scholars must pay the 
the remaining half of the tuition over to the 
secretary, and at the close of the term the 
secretary pays over the last half of the 
tuition. By this method both teacher and 
pupil are safe. 

In soma future article we may give our 
ideas and outline a course of lessons for the 
traveling teacher of penmanship. 

that birchen tree, 
a wtiaok. 

111 youthful days it tickled 

The teacher did lay ou my hack 

It taught me what I ought 
.\nd showed me nher " 
And still 1 do ilehzht 

where I ought to f 

-light to see. 

good old-fashlooed birchen t 

KiNOBViLLE, O., March 30, 1886. 
Editors Penman's Art Jouknai, : 

I have been greatly interested in the series 
of writing lessons now running in your ex- 
cellent Journal, and hence I offer no 
apology in making what seems to me a fair 
criticism of some points in them. These 
criticisms are not aimed at any particular 
lesson or person, nor made with intention 
of disparaging, in the least, any aspiring 
teacher who may seek to benefit the readers 
of the Journal, by a full expose of his 
views in its columns. On the contrary. I 
would frame the lessons more effective if 
possible, and I believe they can be made so. 
In the first place, I think they are too long, 
and the attempt is to crowd too many ideas 
into a single lesson. Trying to do so is a 
mistake. It were far better to make each 
lesson short and incisive, covering only one 
or two essential points. In this way much 
clearer views of each step would be had, 
and young teachers might be led to avoid 
a very common error with beginners, viz., 
talking and explaining too much — fatal mis- 
take if one desires to make lasting impres- 
sions on the minds of his pupils. Can it not 
be arranged to have A. give a lesson on 
Movement — nothing else. B. on Form and 
how best to develop it. C. on Business 
Writing, and so continue to the end of the 
chapter. I presume we all feel as though 
we could cover the entire ground creditably, 
and possibly we might ; but I am fully con- 
vinced that the readers of the Journal, 
especially the younger ones, would receive 
much greater benefit from short lessons on 
essential points, concisely put, than from 
longer ones which nearly always wane in 
interest toward the end. 

The world is full of loose theories, loose 
thinking, and worse practice. In writing, 
asalmosteverythingelse, a little good theory, 
and plenty of systematic practice will pro- 
duce far better results than to reverse the 
order. The most successful lesson I ever 
gave had the fewest words, and the most 
tedious one I ever listened to was nearly all 
talk. The latter was given by a very fine 
practical writer, but was utterly lacking in 
value to his pupils. Fine executive ability 
and teaching quality should go hand in 
hand ; but it often occurs that an inferior 
writer will produce excellent results in his 
classes. Medicme, law and theology, even, 
have their specialists, and why not penman- 
ship. One succeeds finely as a teacher of 
the art. Another develops wondeiful power 
and facility in execution. Another, with 
art element large in his nature, is wonderful- 
ly apt in ornamental work. A fourth and 
much smaller class will combine all the 
qualities named in fair degree. 

The JouRNAii is doing a grand work for 
the penmen of this country, and the import- 
ance of right methods of presenting the 
subject is of vital consequence. Fifteen 
years' experience in public schools has led 
me to the conclusions named in this article, 
and I believe they will be voiced by many 
others who have had similiar experience and , 
opportunity for observation. The merchant 
world and the business community at large 
need crystalized ideas on all matters relating 
to their interests. Keform in our ranks is 
needed, both as to methods of teaching as 
well as to matter taught. Just now the 
muscular movement craze is going the 
rounds and a very good craze it is, if not run 
into the ground, as it certainly can be— a la 
Michael. The danger in bicjiking a new 
path is losing ourselves in a maze of fine 
spun theory. 

Hair splitting is well enough in its place, 
but like mince pie and the dyspeptic, a little 
goes a long way. Let us have shorter les- 
sons, clear cut, free from teo many qualify- 
ing adjectives, and brought down to the 
level of beginners in simplicity of detail. 
More anon. A. P. Koot. 

When a good "right-hand man" is addict- 
ed to bad handwriting be f^bould be given a 
pen -shun. 

jm^ IiB^^^^d^s^ 

■ -•jUSM 

Lesson in Free-Hand Drawing. 
No. II. 

Lt/€ U *hori. and Arl It long. 

No ffreal gain* without grtat paint. - 

Without wisliing to frighten the aspimut 
for art knowledge with difficuilies too for- 
midable, it is believed best that he sliould 
be intiuenced to make up his miud to realize 
the truth of the maxims nbove, and be pre- 
pared to labor diligently in accordance with 
them. In preparing himself to enter the 
almost sacred portals of Ihe Temple of Art, 
he will find his capacity for the enjoyment 
of the beauties which surround him on 
every side to be in proportion to the culti- 
vation of hia eye to perceive forms, and the 
training of his hand to record them. 

If, in accordance with tlie inslnictifm 
given, he has thoroughly drilled his hand 
and eye on the right lined practice of the 
lirst lesson, he is prepared to take another 
step in the direction of the beautiful by 
entering, with the second lesson, upon iht 
field of curvilinear practice. A command 
of these two classes of lines, with proper eye 
training will prepare him to combine or 
modify them for the representation of ob- 
jects. For these two kinds of lines are all 
that are necessary to use in making a pic- 
torial representation of any object whatever. 

A curved line has been defined as one in 
which a point is supposed to travel of a 
circuitous or deviating course from its start- 

For the different directions of curved 
lines, the instrument used, and the hand and 
arm are to be placed and used the same as 
for right lines. 

The first curve is placed horizontally, thai 
is with its euds resting on a horizontal line 
Make points lightly for the beginning aud 
end of the line, and one for its greatest de- 
gree of deviation from the right line. "When 
the points are placed, try, by experiment, 
the position of hand which will carry the 
pen most easily and accurately from one 
point to the other. When the right position 
for the hand is found, by moving the pen 
carefully over the space for the line a good 
many limes, it will then be possible to make 
the curve desired. Pursue the same course 
for all the following curves, both above and 
below the lines. 

Curves are of two kinds — simple and 
compound. The curve called by artists the 
line of beauty, and by penmen the chiro- 
graphic curve, is a compound curve made 
by joining: two single curves in one. 
whatever the direction, Hogarth was of the 
opinion that this curve that so universally 
impresses the eyes of all mankind as a 
beautiful curve was derived from a side 
view of the female form, especially the bust, 
but it seems to me more reasonable to con- 
sider it as derived from a single feature — 
the mouth. This feature in its most beauti- 
ful form and expression, seems capable of 
influenciug the observer in a wonderful de- 
gree, and it is made up almost entirely of 

A right Hue is of great importance in 
assisting to draw all kinds of curved or ir- 
regular lines, or figures. The hand and eye 
are best enabled tr) draw a circle by means 
of right lines. Make a perfect square, and 
dividing each side in the middle. Then try 
to decide by the eye the distance from this 
middle point to the position of a point where 
Ihe curve of a (juartcr of Ihe circle will pass 
through to the other end of the straight line. 
Hy doing the same on each side of the sipiare. 
the circle may he drawn, by practice, with 
accuracy and ease. The practice of the 
circle with its modifications as thi> ellipse, 
oval. etc.. cannot he carried too far. AH 
penmen who have distinguished themselves 
by the mastery of Ihe pen in its use for 
writing, will be ready to appreciate this fact. 
In ancient Greece where art had it apotheo- 
sis, u command of rhe circle was deemed a 
good lest of anarlist's merit and power. 

It IB recorded" in history that Parrhasius. 
a Dfttiveof Kphesus.and the mosl renowned 
painter of his time in all of Greece, hearing 
that another artist, Xeuxis, a native of a 
place called Hercules, who was highly ex- 
tolled, was iDclined trf question his superi- 
ority aod ready to challenge him to a trial 
of •kill. Farrha«ius had a desire to sec this 





house, when Xeuxis was out. was asked by 
a servant to leave his name, which he de- 
clined to give, but instead, took from his 
pocket a tablet, upon which he drew a 
beautiful circle, telling the servant to give 
it to bis master, aud promising to call again. 
When Xeu.\is returned and saw the tab- 
let, " Why it was an artist that made that," 
and taking his pencil, drew inside of the 
circle aod parellel to it another circle very 
smoothly, telling bis servant if the artist 
called again to give him that. Parrhasius 
called again and Xeuxis, as before, being 
out. took the tablet and drew another circle 
much more delicate between the two circles. 
Xeuxis. on returning and seeing this last 
specimen of the artist's skill, exclaimed : 
" That must have been done by Parrhasius." 
The two afterwards met and became life- 
long friends. A similar account is given 
of the esteem in which the power to draw 
a circle was held in the 

Tom Twix on Penmanship. 
TwixviLLE, Dak., April 1, 1886. 
Miminr Edditur: 

I hav nues tu tell ew now 1 Ew rememm- 
bur I tohld ew tu cutl owt mi ahrtikkl and 
mail itt tu rae inn a lettur. Hwethur bi 
misstak awr othurwize I dohn't noe, butt 
ew sennt me 2 (tub) uvv mi ahrtlkkls, and 
fawr thiss ew Shalt be rememmburd hwenn 
I stahrt mi pennman's papur, and dohn't ew 
fawrgett itt 1 

Well, I gaiv wunn uvv the ahrtikkls tu 
Sanih, and lihk a goodwooman thattshe iz. 
fawr she thinuks the wurld uvv me, she 
lukaud putt itt inn tbelittl uppur leflFthand 
drawur uvv bur bewrob ^bwitch I gaiv hur 
befohr we wur marrid) and sedd she wawz 
gobiog tu keep itt thare a/ a preshuss keep- 
saikunntill I dih, and, sezz she, '-Tom, 
hwenn ew ahr dedd, hwenn ewr nobble 
vawis shall be hurrd noe mobr heurbeloh, 
hwenn cwrnimmbl penn hnzseezd tu moov. 

in the Uth century, of Giotto, pupil of 
Cimabue, a native of Florence, Italy. 

Pope Benedict IX, desiring to employ the 
highest artistic skill for decorating St. 
Peters Church at Rome, sent to Florencefor 
specimens from the artists there, and calling 
upon Giotto for a drawing or specimen of 
his power, he took his crayon and drawing 
with a single movement a circle, gave that 
to the astonished messenger, telling him to 
give that to his Holiness, who immediately 
engaged him. It was so perfect a circle 
that "Round as Giotto's 0,' became a say- 
ing throughout Italy. 

The student of art must underatand that 
no amount of what is called genius can com- 
pensate for lack of indvistry. 

Goethe, the great German savant and 
literateur, being asked to define genius, 
replied, " I know of no genius but that of 
labor." His motto was, •'Ohm Hast, Ohm 
Uttst" — Without haste, and without rest. 

Can You Make a Better Invest- 

than to pay $lfor the Joitknai. one year, and 
the -Guide to Self-Instruction in Phiiii and 
Artistic Penmanship" free a.s a premium t 

The Guide contains sixty -four large pages 
of instruction, and copies for plain writing, 
Qourishing, and lettering, and is alone sold 
for 76 cents (In paper covers), and $1, hand- 
somely bound. 


make this iul 
picked with i 
This ink is hn 
the dragon gli 

make ink makeit for ilu 
ing base coin and cheiii 
for a u.inie. Plenty <if . 

Ihenn will I slipp thiss, ewr furst ahrlikkl 
iuntu ewr cawffln, and hwenn ew gettupp 
thafc, ew musst shoh itt tu Gasskell the 
furst thiung ew doo." 

The othur ahrtikkl wennt rownd 
amunng the naybors unntill itt wawz awl 
most wohrn owt, thenn Sarah maid me 
summ paist and I paisted the ahrtikkl on 
the back uvv an ohld bandbox, inn bwitch 
Sarah's wedding bonnett had been keppt, 
and on rekwesst uvv sevural uvv the nay- 
bors I hurmg the box with the ahrtikkl on 
itt upp inn the pohst offiss in a konuspik- 
kewuss plais, hwitcb wawz on the wawl. 
Now, Misstur Edditur, iff ew koodd hav 
seen the peep! flock arownd thatt bandbox 
tu reed mi ahrtikkl, itt woodd have maid 
ew feel reeal good. Tom Twix wawz on 
the lipps uvv evvry boddi ; and in less than 
nob tihm tba chanjd the naim uvv the plais 
tu "Twixville." 

Butt tu return tu the subbjekkt uvv 
peunmansbipp. 1 bav givvu kon^iddurabl 
thawt tu pennmanshipp the last monntb ; 
and, bi the wae. I reseevd a coppa uvv the 
PmiuiKin ami Ahrtisst, inn hwil<-b wawz an 
;nlviirrtisiiiennt bi the edditur hwilch sezz 
thatt he woodd. fawr a amawl konsiddura- 
shun, ekksekewt with hiz penn. inn soo- 
perior stihl, awl kinds uvv annimals, fromm 
the smawlest burd tu the biggusl ellefant. 
Thatt struckk me ralbur favurabla. fawr I 
bad been angshuss fawr a lawng tihm tu see 
summ othur annimals besihds theawrdinara 
■burd. eegl. atagg, lihon and Jiawrs, ekks- 
ekewted with n penn. Soh, 1 salt downn 
and roht the edditur hwatt he woodd taik 
tu tiurrisb me a jenuine kihkajou suspend- 
ed bi the tail fromm the limm uvv a tree, 
lie rhut backk and tobld me tu stopp mi 
fooling, thatt hedidd nott thinnk tliar whw/ 
sutch un annimal inn the kirogratlick kinng- 
dom, att leest hr hadd nevviir seen enna inn 
or abowt the offiss uvv the Pennman ami 
Ahrlmt. Well, I roht bimm agcnn and 
lohld himm tu nevvermibnd theKiNKAJou, 
butt askt himm tu llurrisb me att wunns a 
libf-sihz " Pf.n-Tail," or PUIocctcvb LowH, 
fawr mi skrapp bookk, aud tu sennd bill. 
Inn a fue dalz I reseevd an clabboratla 
flurrisht penn, with a burd's tall attatched 
tu itt, and this remabrk rlttn Id pcnnsi att 

the bottom, "Hecristhe 'Pkn-Taii. ;' the 
PtilocfTctie Lowii ew speek uvv iz hidden 
behihnd the flurrishes." Az the bill wawz 
obnla 50 cenuts. I didd not maik a fuzz 
abowt itt ; butt I wwxid lihk tu hav svimm 
furst-klass penman among the reedurs uvv 
the JDitKNAi- to flurrish me a " Pen-Tail " 
inn tipptopp stihl, I wawz awlwayz fawnd 
uvv tbobs deer littl annimals, I suppose on 
akkownt uvv mi nattewral innstinnkt fjiwr 

Now I hav hurrd that owr furst-klass 
pennmenn ahrvcrrabizzapeepl: andthattlu 
bekumm a No. 1 pennman, wun haz noh 
tihm tu fool iiwa on nattewral hisstora and 
sutcb tbinngs. Soh, Misstur Edditur, ew 
will nott konnsiddur itt pretenshuRS inn rae 
tu prezcnt herewith a ruff drawinni; uvv the 
annimal I wahnt tlurrisht : 

I wahnt the abuvv dez'bn eunlarjd and 
flurrisht on kahrd-bohrd. 31 bib Sfl, and awl 
pcnnmen boo wahnt tbizz jobb mai sennd 
me spessimenns uvv tbair skill tugathur 
with turms. and I will promibs upon mi 
wurrd and awnur tu givv the jobb tu the 
besst and cheepest pennman thatt I hcer 

[Tu be konntmneird.] 
Address. Tom Twix, 

Twi.wille. Dak. 

Elephant Intelligence. 

The author of "Two Years in the Jun- 
gle," Mr. lloruaday, defends the elephant 
from the chorge that its sagacity is of a very 
mediocre description, aud its reasoning facul- 
ties are far below those of the dog and possi- 
bly other animals. He declares it to he Ihe 
mo.^t intelligent of all animals " A horse," 
be remarks, "which will promptly back at 
the word of conimaud.oradog that will back 
orstandonliis hind legs when told to do 
so, is considered quite accomplished ; but tu 
India any well-trained elephant, at a word 
or touch from his driver, who sits astride 
bis neck, will 'hand-up,' 'kneel,' 'speak' 
(trumpet), 'salaam' (salute with his trunk), 
stop, back, lie down, pull down an obstruct- 
ing branch, gather fodder and " band-up ' lo 
his attendant, turn or lift a log. or drag it 
by taking its drag-rope between his teeth. 
He will aI.^o protect his utteudants or at- 
tack a common enemy with fury. 

"Contrast with this the performances of 
our most intelligent breed of dogs, the 
pointer. Even when young atul trained 
under the most favorable circumstances, 
they are at best but capable of being taught 
a few UUogs, as to 'go oq,' to ' charge,' to 
go on In a given direction, and retrieve." 

Educational Notes. 

inloatlonB forthu Department r 


Brief eSamuoml Itemfl soilelied.j 

ffl.lKK). or nearly $30,000. is tlie saliiry of 
lie- liead master of Harrow, and also of Eton. 


:, of the inhabitants of 
u years of age can neither 

Dakota has 8.279 public schools, 4,145 
teachers, and 69,07.5 enrolled pupils ; school 
property, lfi.187,8.50; total receipts, 18&5. 
$J, 141. 7511. 79; expenditures, $1, 814,313. 40. 

The two cities in the United States that 

eiy the most per capita for education, arc 
oston and New York. 

A seventeen-year old school " ma'am " in 
Pike county, whipped an eighteen-year-old 
pupil, and the young man bad her arrested 
for assault and battery. As it ever should 
be, the doughty little wielder of the birchen 
rod was acquitted. 

It is said that there are 1.000,000 children 
in England who do not attend school by 
reason of the poverty of their parents. It 
may l)c added that in half of these cases 
drink is the cause of the poverty. 

room so slowly that she wabbled in her gait, 
and then asked, "How did I walk? A 
biK boy in the back part of the room para- 
lyzed her by blurting out. •• Bow legged, 

If it takes a boy twelve years of age twen- 
ty-two minutes to bring in six small sticks 
of wood, how long will it take him to walk 
a mile and a half to see a circus procession ! 

The way to test a foreigner's English- 
Get him to write the following sentence by 
dictation: "Tell Mr. Aycr, the landlords 
heir, from the river Aire, that if e cr I go 
to Ayr, for change of air, I will return ere 
the corn is in car, at the sitting of the court 
of Eyre." At all events he won't deny it's 
being an airy sentence. — Boston Post. 

Two men were disputing recently in re- 
gard to the correct pronunciation of the 
word " either." One said it was " ec-ther. 
The other was quite sure that It was i-tner. 
It was agreed to refer the matter to a man 
standing near. Thiswas bis decision; Be 
dad, it's naytber, for it's ayther ! 

There are several genteel ways of calling 
a person a donkey. I-»»' >'""''"J', ""S „°/ 
the pupils at the Sunday-school of the Aus- 
tin Blue Light Tabernacle, instead of look- 
ing at his took, gazed out of the window 

one suit of clothes, and I had to take care 
of it I was only allowed one pair of shoes 
a year in those days." There was a pause, 
and then the eldest boy spoke up ; "I say, 
dad, you have a much easier Ume of it now 
that you are living with us '. " 

A society lady who was describing a 
grand hall to a friend a few nights ago. was 
asked by a friend how she was dressed. 
" Low— and behold," was the response. 

At a negro wedding, when the minister 
read the words. "Love, honor and obey." 
the groom interrupted him and said : "Read 
that agin, sah : read it wunce mo', so's de 
lady kin ketch de full solemnity of de mean- 
ing. I'se been married befo'." 

Ames' Compendium of Practical 
and Artistic Penmanship. 

This work, as its title implies, is a com- 
plete exemplitication of the penman's art. 
in every department. It consists of seventy- 
two 11x14 inch plates, giving instruction 
and copies for plain writing, flourishing, 
lettering, and designing of every kind of 
artistic pen-work. It has forty-two different 
standard and ornate alphabets, and a large 


The oriffival letteT from, which the above cut i 
writing in the Public Scliooh of GlcuUind, Ohio, fi 
friends of Mr. Root w&t r^oice to read, i 

was wntten by Prof. A. P. Boot, for many years special teacher of 
which position 7i£ resigned some years since awing to impaired health. The many 
degant "hand," the annowneement of his improved health. 

The tot«l school attendiincc in New York 
State for the year 1885 was 1.024.845, with 
ai,3t)9 public school teachers, of whom 
l,'J08are normal school gnidimtes. Total 
uumberof children of school age. 1,731,1'36. 

At lIurviu(K'olU"i;e Iho iiuthorities deem 

soiiU'\vli;ir siiniiar scale u) i-\])(-iisfS ul-liiins 
at Yale, life at these institutions being about 
3(iuiilly costly. At Princeton, Columbia. 

Eddcational Fancies. 

into the field. ' ' What for is yer lookin' out 
dat winder at dat ^rass ? Haven't yer had 
yt-r breakfast yit V '^—Teicas Sif lings. 


y tnstuQce n 

36 of au7 tteiB 
e proper credit 


Teacher— " What does sea -water con taiu 
besides the sodium-chloride that we have 
mentioned Y " Pupil— "Pish." 

"Johnny, it would be well for you to re- 

. member iu life, that we never get anything 

4- if we don't ask for it." " Yes. we do, pa ! 

^ I sot a licking in school, and you bet I 

didn't ask for it." 

A Massachusetts man has patented an ad- 
ding machine for bookkeepers. No sub- 
tracting machine has been invented. Not 
necessary,— PAiia<W;)Ata Call. 
A. teacher when trying to define the word 
"V" ilowly" to ber pupils, walked across the 

Just for Fun. 

It is a wonder there is any truthfulness in 
the world when mankind begins life by 
lying in the cradle. 

One swallow doesn't make a summer; but 
if it's of the right stuff it will make a fall. 

The mosquito as a public singer draws 
well, but never gives satisfaction.— Bwitoft 

Whom the gods love, die young. The 
gods do not love spring chickens. 

Those who have tried it say they would 
rather be struck three times by lightning 
than once by a lightning rod peddler.— JVetr- 
uian Independent. 

If an ordinary man was muscled like a 
flea he could throw a book agent two miles. 
— Chicago Ledger. 

A clergyman who married four couples 
in one hour the other evening, remarked to 
a friend that it was "pretty fast work." 
"Not very," responded his friend, "only 
four knots an hour." 

Sister Annie— "Now, Ethel, be sure and 
pray God to make you a good girl." Ethel 
(praying) — "Dear Dod, pleath twy and 
make me dood little dirl, and if at first you 
don't succeed, why, twy, Iwy again." 

Father— " When I was a boy, I only had 

variety of engrossed memorials, resolutions, 
certificates, diplomas, headings, title pages, 
etc.. etc. We are confident that this work 
presents to the penman or artist a greater 
and more useful variety of pen-work than 
does any other work upon penmaushlp 
extant. Price by mail $5.00. It is the 
cheapest book of its size and character 

Any person who orders it from us, and 
docs not find it all that we claim, is at 
liberty to at once return it to us and have 
his money refunded 

Complimentary Mentions of the 
Journal during the past month. 
The Penman's Art jocrnal continues 
to be the representative penman's paper of 
the world, and is worth many times the 
subscription price. The last (Feb.) number 
contains a most excellent writing lesson by 
our co-laborer and fellow-townsman. Prof. 
D. U. Farley, of the State Normal School, 
containing new and novel iilustrations of 
methods of peuholding.— 7'A< J'Tactieat Edu- 

We have received the February copy of 
this excellent journal. It has a valuable 
lesson on teaching, written by Prof. Farley, 
of New Jersey Normal, and an illustrated 
article on drawing, which is very enterUiin- 
iDg,_rAc Herald of Education. 

The Penman's Art Joornal for March 
has found its way into our sanctum. This 
publication is really a work of art, and 
contains a vast amount of information for 
all wielders of the pen ; it is unquestionably 
the best of its kind in the world. The 
Grant Memorial, which is given as a pre- 
mium to subscribers, is now on exhibition 
iu this city and is regarded as a most beauti- 
ful specimen of the highest artistic penman- 
ship It is a fitting ornament to any Ameri- 
can home.— TAf Way BUI. 

The Penman's Aht Journal is the best 
penman's paper published. Every number 
is brim full of valuable matter.— Williams- 
port {Pa.) Bus. Col. Journal. 

TiiE Penman's Art Jodhnal is the 
ablest paper of the kind in the country, and 
the wonder is that it can be given to the 
public at the low price of one dollar a year. 
—iiacramento {Cal.) Col. Journal. 

Mr. Ames is an expert in penmanship 
whose artistic and beautiful work is highly 
appreciated by companies, societies, and all 
who wish testimonials, memorials or fine 
writing executed. A photo lithograph from 
an original pen and ink design of a Grant 
memorial, is given to each subscriber to his 
Penman's Art Journal, and as a copy of 
a work of pen art is well worth possessing. 
— Array and Navy Journal. 

U S. Treasury Department, Secret Service 
Division, Office of Chief. 
Washington, D. C, April 1st, 1886. 
Daniel T. Ames, Esq. 

My dear Sir :— I have the honor to 
acknowledge your gift of the Grant Memo- 
rial picture. It is beautiful. It is grand. 
The story is told in language simple, terse, 
truthful, expressive, eloquent. I shall at 
once set it in a frame in keeping with the 
lUbject and its magnificicnt illustration. 
* my hea 
/erv tru-^ ^ - ... . 

James J. Brooks. 

The Grant memorial, a picture offered as 
a free premium by the Penman's Art 
Journal, is eliciting many commendatory 
notices from the press and public. The 
picture is a unique and beautiful work of 
art, and worthy of a place on the walls of 
any parlor— TAc Monthly Union. 

Memphis, Tenn., April 10, 1880. 
D T Ames, Esqd., 205 Broadway, New 
Sir: — Your Compendium received, it is 
simply grand, worth $100 to me could I not 
procure another. Have shown it to my 
friends and many, no doubt, will buy. Your 
Journal is excellent, and rest assured, you 
have one stanch friend in your line of busi- 
ness. I intend placing your (.'ompendium 
on exhibition in oueofourprominentstores. 
I should be pleased to take orders if satis- 
factorily to you. Should be pleased to 
hear from you in reference to this. 
I am truly yours, 

Georoe K. Byrne, 

Agent for Canada. 

We have commissioned A. J. Small, 13 
Grand Opera House, Toronto, Canada (P.O. 
Box 634). to act as agent for the Journal 
in Canada. He will take subscriptions, ad- 
vertisements, and supply our publications at 
the regular rates. We trust that our Cana- 
dian friends will give him a liberal patron- 

The largest room in the world under one 
roof and unbroken by pillars is at St. Peters- 
burg. It is six hundred and twenty feet 
long by one hundred and fifty in breadth. 
By daylight it is used for military displays, 
and a battalion can completely manoeuvre 
in it. The roof of this structure Is a single 
arch of iron, and It exhibits remarkable en- 
gineoriDg Bkill In the architect. 

Any poor devil can draw a check for 
$2,000,000 and truthfully assert be has a 
couple of millions in his own write. 

" Do you think Johnny is contracting bad 
habits at school Y" asked Mrs. Caution of her 
husband. "No, dear, I don't. I think he 
is expanding them," was the reply. 

In less than one hundred years the wais 
of the civilized nations of the earth have 
cost the lives of 4,750,000 men. Balancing 
the profit and loss, where does the equiva- 
lent for all this bloodshed appear. 

Id a marriage register, in the Church of 
St. James, Bury St. Ednimids. llu- following 
curious notice a|i|M n- i^ .■ N'nv. 5th, 
Christopher New>;in ( i .: : -ril Said 
Charity Morrell i- - without 

arms. theringwjiM'i ""I "i"" lutourth 
toe of the left fool, aud >-iii' vm^i. Ium name 
in this register with her right lout " 

Mr. D. L. Moody says about long pray- 
ers : "If. when Peter found himself sink- 
ing in the waves of Galilee, he had insisted 
upon putting before his petition. ' Lord, 
save me,' the regular prayer- meeting round- 
about introduction, he would have been 
forty feet under watir before he could have 
asked of the Lord the help he needed." 


P.ibU«hed MontKly at »1 |.«r Y« 





BBd ArtlfUc Penmanafijp/'or.torSLSa.acop^ bound In cith. 

" FlourUbed EB«le, - ' • Ux31 

'I Bounding Stag, - • 34xSl 

;| Ftuully Hecord, ' - IBzSS 


Penmen's Papers. 

lu tlie February uunibcr of the Wegtrni 
Penman W. F. RolU. M.D., of Manlieim, 
Pa., in a wull written article on ■■ Cliiro. 
gTBphic Literature," says : 

"We Iiave two journals of wbicli every 
true lover of penman'ship has much reason 
to be proud— The Penman's Art Jodhnai, 
and the Wentern Penman. The former, the 
first successful venture of its kind, is a 
model of journalistic ability ; the latter, the 
champion of the west, vies in beauty, sin- 
cerity, ability, and information, with its 
older brother of the east. These two jour- 
nals occupy a position in journalism that 
merit the notice of every scholar. They 
should he found in every institution of 
learning in the land— in every home where 
education and art is admired. 

It is now nearly ten years since the first 
number of the Journal was issued, under 
auspices which could not be said to be Hat- 
tering, but it has been steady and unwavering 
in its growth until it has now won the pres- 
tige of success. It is perfectly safe to say 
that the combined circulation of all the other 
penmen's papers doubled, or even iriph-d, 
would not nearly reach that of the Jouhnal. 
while in the matter of excellence and popu- 
larity, the comparison will be ctjually un- 
favorable to its contemporaries. Its advan- 
tageous location in the Metropolis of Ameri- 
ca ; its practically experienced editors, both 
teachers of writing and pen artiste, and 
their extended and favorable acquaintance 
witli the writing fraternity, hns enabled the 
Journal to combine more i-lcmiuts for 
journalistic success than was possible to 
publishers less favorably circumstaueed. 

Another fact that has greatly enhanced 
the perrauneuce and growth of the Journal 
is, that it has been the free, independent, 
oulspoken and honest exponent of the pro 
fession of penmanship, of good writing and 
leaching; every promise made through its 
columns has been more tlian verified. It 
has hern constantly a happy surprise to its 

patrons, although some of them have lately 
expressed a doubt respecting the margin 
tli;it remains for further improvement, yet 
we can assure our readers that arrangements 
are now being made by which we shall 
lienaftcT devote a very much larger portion 
of our time to the editorial work and super- 
vision of the Journal, and that we at least 
see ample margin for improvement, which 
we propose, as tlie boys say, to work for all 
it is worth. The Journal is bound to lead 
by a distance that will be clearly discerned 
even by (he foremost of its contemporaries. 

The Convention. 

In another column is a report of the Ex 
ecutive Committee respecting its work and 
preparation thus far for the Convention to 
be held in this city in July. A programme 
of the proceedings is in course of prepara- 
tion and will be mailed to each member as 
soon as ready. In the regtilar programme 
a liberal space is given to penmanship, while 
every facility will be afforded to penmen for 
holding special morning or evening sessions. 
The rooms are convenient and ample at 
either Packard's or the Spencerian Business 
(!ollege which are in close proximity to each 
other and both of which will be placed at the 
service of the convention. The favorable 
responses from members to invitations to be 
present and take a part in the deliberations 
are sutlicienily numerous to warrant the 
assertion that there will be a larger assembl- 
age than has attended any of the previous 

We are specially desirous to see a liberal 
representation of penmen, and as Chairman 
of the Penmen's Committee we shall take 
pleasure in giving any information desired 
and in doing all in our power to render the 
convention as interesting and profitable as 
possible to all who attend. We shall also 
be pleased to have all who intend to be 
present inform us personally of their 
intention to do so, and of the particular 
department of penmanship in which they 
are most interested or experienced, and 
respecting which they would wish to take a 
part before the convention or special pen- 
manship sessions. General communications 
respecting the convention should be ad- 
dressed to S. S. Packard, chairman of Ex- 
ecutive Committee, 805 Broadway, New 

Why Many Teachers of Writing 

It is generally supposed that it follows 
that any one who can write an essentially 
good copy is qualified for teaching writing. 
This is, however, a great mistake. We have 
known many really excellent writers who 
had not the first qualification for successful 
instruction, while it often happens that 
persons who cannot write a really good 
copy are very good and successful teachers. 
Their success consists in the fact that they 
have a clear comprehension of what con- 
stitutes good writing, and the faculty of 
conveying that idea to others in such a 
manner as to beget enthusiastic and persist- 
ent effort on the part of the learner. They 
recognize the fact that brain work precedes 
finger work, and that the fingers can never 
portray skill beyond that which the mind 
conceives, hence every copy is accompanied 
with a skillful analysis upon the blackboard, 
and with frequent illustrations and criticism 
of the more general faults of the class. By 
such an analysis and criticism there will be 
conveyed to the mind of the learner a clear 
and correct conception of the form and con- 
struction of the copy, which should also be 
written or engraved in the most perfect 
manner possible, and placed before the 
pupil for study and imitation. By skillful 
blackboard illustrations the eye and mind 
will become familiarized with the correct 
tonus and construction of letters and writ- 
ing, and when thus in the mind there exists 
a clear and perfect conception of writing, 
the fingers, with proper instruction regard- 
ing position, movement, etc., will very soon 
acquire the requisite skill for transcribing 
it upon paper, nor will they soon lose that 
power, since a perfect copy for imitation 
will always be present in the mind, while 
the pupil, who by much practice, with little 
study, may become skillful at imitating a 
good copy 80 Jong as it is before him, will 
at once lose that power when the copy Is re- 

moved. Teachers who look for permanent 
success, must therefore make a free use of 
the blackboard. 

The Pen Mightier than the 

" Beneath the rule of men entirely iirreat, 
Tbe Pbn is mtghtiev than tlie sword," 
Whether or not the oft repeated saying. 
"The pen is mightier than the sword," is 
true, is dependent upon the circumstances 
under which they are wielded. In estimat- 
ing their relative power, we may properly 
treat the sword as the symbol and agent of 
organized physical force, while the pen 
symbolizes tbe great moral power of the 
world, that which civilizes and elevates the 
untutored savage to a man of letters, science 
and refinement. Thus viewed, there can be 
no doubt but that the pen now exercises 
upon the world a power balanced with 
which the sword weighs as nought— even 
in warfare, as conducted in modern times 
under the code observed by all civilized 
nations, the sword itself becomes little more 
than the agent of the pen. At its command 
the sword is sheathed or unsheathed, and 
its blows are directed, given or withheld, at 
the command of the pen. In olden times, 
when the rule of the world was that " might 
made right," the voice of the pen, if not al- 
together silent, was but feebly heard. The 
sword was the one recognized power ; under 
its sway kings and tyrants arrogated to 
themselves divine right to rule the masses, 
as the slaves having no rights which a 
king was bound to respect ; but gradually 
the pen has asserted its power and eman- 
cipated itself and the world from the 
thraldom of the sword. Its victories 
have been those of light over dark- 
ness ; truth over error ; civil and religious 
liberty over the tyranny of royal and priestly 
bigots and despots ; from their bauds it has 
wrested the sword and broken forever its 
power, and in place of empires, ruled as if 
aumed by tyrants, the pen has opened the 
way for nations founded and governed by 
the people, for the people, and. in later 
times, assisted by its handmaid, the press, 
it has at an accelerated speed led the van of 
progress in all departments of human 
thought and research. 
Verily, the pen is mightier than the sword. 

The Writer's Cramp and Its 

We give below an abstract from a very 
learned and interesting article lately pub- 
lished by Dr. De Watteville, an Englishman, 
respecting tbe cure of "writer's cramp." 
The Dr. may be sound respecting its treat- 
ment from a medical standpoint, but he has 
in a great measure lost sight of the effect 
of movement, style of writing, implements 
and the manner of holding them, in causing 
the cramp and as a hindeance to its cure. 
The causes arc — fYret, a cramped position 
of the fingers tig^htly gripiug a too small 
and ,'^rnn,,ili Imhh i Srmnd, Writing vrith 

Third, 'j'lir .'^li.nhh-i iif every downward 
stroke iLi.--ie.iiJ nf m.ikiDg a nearly continu- 
ous unshaded line, with a smooth-pointed 
pen of more than medium coarseness. 

We have yet to know of a writer using a 
free forearm movement, a good sized holder 
having a rough surface, and writing an un- 
shaded hand with such a pen as we have 
mentioned, having the cramp, nor do we 
believe that there is such a ease on record, 
except there were some abnormal or con- 
stitutional difficulty in the way of writing. 
The Doctor, in relating an account of a re- 
markable cure under his treatment, says : 

" The writer's cramp or scrivener's palsy 
has hitherto defied the most strenuous cnorts 
of therapeutics. The pharmacopoeia has 
been ransacked in the search for a suitahle 
drug wherewith to combat the symptoms, 
but in vain. Variously shaped pens mn\ 
supports for the hand and arm. clectrieal 
and hydropathic applications, and even pro- 
tracted rest have generally proved useless in 

of massage and gvmnastii 
into operation with very riinui k^iiiic -.un i --; 
by a Gorman. Herr Julius W n|iy Thi-. 
gentleman, having gained u tMiisidiial^le 
reputaiion in his own country, was in l^^Nl 
called to Paris by Prof. Charcot, and in two 
or three weeks had cured inveterate cases of 
writer's cramp. These cures, with otherB 
previously effected in Germany, made a 
considerable impremBion on the medical 

few months ago Ilerr 
Ml l.niidon. his arrival 
si by many of the 

tevilk' -1^1 
theea--L> ii 


without pain, iln 
lions mode by thr .,niniiii l'r..!\jv.n,s Bill- 
roth in Vienna. Nusslmum in Munich, and 
others. The massage consists of rubbing 
kneading, stretching and beating of the 
fingers and the sevciiil imisclcs of tlic luind 

and 1 


both active anil |m--1m" ,r..| m,. -■ ir'.i.r.ii 
ant of all, their ;m i Ii , , i , . i , , m 

by the crump. The writer concludes by 
mentioning the case of a gentleman sent by 
him to Herr Wolff. Here the disease was 
of seventeen years' duration, and in less than 
a fortnight the patient was able to write for 
several hours a day with almost nornuil 
rapidity and firmness." 


Nothing more fully attests the utility of 
shorthand writing than the rapidity with 
which it has grown into use during the past 
few years. Fifty years ago a skilled short- 
hand reporter was rare, and the art was 
looked upon as a sort of mystery and so 
formidable of attainment as to deter all but 
the most courageous from attempting to 
fathom its mystery. But at the present 
time it is successfully taught in a large pro- 
portion of our higher grade of schools, and 
especially in the business colleges ; that and 
typewriting have come to be almost neces- 
sary accomplishments for a clerk or amanu- 
ensis. Scarcely a court of record in the land 
is without its official reporter ; few promin- 
ent law firms in this city are without a 
stenographer and a typewriter, and we are 
happy to say that very many of these are 
ladies, to whom these accomplishments 
open a moat desirable and remunerative 
avenue to employment. In the business 
offices of a great proportion of our large 
corporations and mercantile bouses ore 
shorthand writers who act in the capacity 
of correspondents. Hmaniien.4f8, <'tc. The 
compensation is. of course, wide in its 
range, according to the duties to be per- 
formed and capability of the performer, 
but it is safe to say that the rate of com- 
pensation averages well when compared 
with that of other callings, and especially 
so with the geutle sex. to whom $l.'i to $20 
and even $25 per week is paid to those 
skilled both in shorthimd and typewriting, 
which is far above the average wages in any 
other field open to female labor. It is our 
impression that the coming men and women 
will be shorthanders. 

The King Club 

for this month numbers fifty-one, and was 
sent ny W. G. Christie of Christie's Business 
College, Lock Haven, Pa. A photo-engraved 
copy of Prof, Christie's letter which accom- 
panied the club appears on another page 
and is a model for plain, easy and excellent 
writing. The Professor has long enjoyed 
the reputation of being not only an excellent 
penman but a teacher well up in all the de- 
partments of business college work. His 
school only recently founded has already 
attaiued to an enviable success, ranking 
among the best of our business colleges. 

The (iueen Club numbers tiDenty-neven, 
and was sent by our Canadian agent A. J. 
Small, from Toronto, Canada, The third 
club in size comes from the Capital City 
Commercial College, Des Moines, Iowa, and 
was sent by Mr. Gicsseman, the penman of 
that institution and numbei-s fourteen. 
Smaller clubs have been too i 

The Price of Ames'Compendium 

restored to its regular 

price $5.00. 

It should lie observed thai the pri<e of 
Ames' large Compendium of Artistic Pen- 
manship has been restored to its regular 
price of $5.00, at which it will hereafter be 

Return if not Satisfactory. 

Remember, thai if you order cither our 
" New Compendium of Pnictical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship," or the "Guide to Self- 
Instruction," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will rulund 
the entire amount paid. 








'Af oAoiw cu( was phoh-Fngnixcd from copy prefared at the Office of the JounNAi.. and is given t 

Remit Cash with Orders. 

Piitrons will snvc themselves deliiy aud 
lis trouble if they will remit the cash with 
their orders, -for we miist for our own 
fiDiiDciai safety decline to fill any ordor not 
accompanied with cash. In many instances 
in the past we have sent merchandise on 
Ilie promise of a prompt remittance. The 
result has been tliat there is now charged 
upon our books many hundreds of dollars 
mostly in items too small for forcible col- 
lection : which is a total loss to us. Many 
items are owed by well-known proprietors 
of schools, to whom bill after bill has been 
mailed without eliciting even a response, 
and even drafts have been dmwn only to he 
returned dishonored. Orders for merchan- 
dise, engraving or work, unaccompanied 
with cash iriU not be filkd. 

Lessons in Practical Penman- 

The- lesson for May will be given by 
A, J Scarborough of the Cedar Rapids, 
lowH, Business College. 

The following named gentlemen have 
already given notice of their acceptance of 
our invitation, and will give lessons at such 
times as will be mutually acceptable : 

it. W. FlicUiuger, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Tbns .1. Stewart. Trenton, N. J.; W. R. 
(;icii, I'hila .Pa ; II. A. Spencer, New York; 
K.J. Mngee.New York; L.L. Tucker. New- 
ark, N.J.; C. IJayltss, Dubuque, Iowa; W. 
II. Patrick, Baltimore. Md.; E. Burnett, Bal- 
timore, Md,; IT T. Loomis. Spencerian 
llii i[i< -^ (mII, ., T)itroit, Mich ; Uriah 
M' I " M (Miio) College; A. W. 

I ■ I ■ H 1,: W. A. Moulder. 

^'\y\- *Mi,,. «, A, Hough, Port Scott, 
Kail., a lesson on (.ombiualiou capitals. F. 
P. Judd. Chicago. 111. 

We are very sure that the practical iufor- 
matiou that will be presented in the series of 
lessons to be given by such representa- 
livu l.'juliers us arc named above will be 
of ^olid advantage to all teachers and pupils 

Note.— All who have consented to give a 
lesson, are hereby requested to designate the 
time at which they prefer to do so. Also, 
to any teacher or author, who has not sig- 
nified his purpose to give a lesson, and 
who contemplates doing so, ao invitation is 
bere^jy ?xt«nde4. 

The Executive Committee of the Business 
Educators' Association have held two meet- 
ings, and have taken under careful considera- 
tion the questions pertaining to the coming 
Convention. At their first meeting, in Janu- 
ary, there were present such members as are 
within convenient distance, aud matters 
were freely and fully discussed. 

The occasion of the next Convention was 
thought to be an important one in our his- 
tory, and it was decided to make it, in the 
broadest sense, representative of the best 
things done and the best things hoped for 
in our work. While we would not lose 
sight of the practical features of former 
Conventions— those features which have 
been of such interest and such help to us 
all — we would, if possible, enlarge the scope 
of our deliberations, so as to place us in 
fuller harmony with the great educational 
impulse of the times. It was the expressed 
feeling of those present that it would be wise 
not only to avail ourselves of the best talent 
in the Association, but, if possible, to secure 
the counsel and co-operation of distinguished 
educationists, specialists, and men of affairs 
outside of our organization. And it was 
believed that the place of meeting was for- 
tunate in this respect. 

While it should not be the prime object 
of our conventions to attract public notice, 
the committee still feel that the just expec- 
tations of members would not be met if our 
proceedings should fail to get fairly before 
the public through the daily papers ; and to 
this end, as well as for our own edification 
and profit, we propose to enlist as speakers 
in certain parts of our convention work, men 
of known ability and advanced thought in 
educational affairs, 

It was decided to open the (Convention at 
one o'clock on the afternoon of Wednesday, 
July 7. at the rooms of the Packard College, 
devoting this session to the President's ad- 
dress, the reports of committees, aud pre. 
liminary matters generally. In the evening 
it is proposed to hold a public meeting at 
Chickering Ilall or other suitable place, 
where addresses of welcome will be deliv- 
ered, aud responded to by the President of 
the Convention and such other members as 
will best represent the body, the purpose 
being to place the work of the Convention 
and of the colleges clearly and favorably be- 
fore tbe public At tbe outset. It is proposed 

also to devote one day in (he early part of 
the session to an excursion for rest, recrea- 
tion, and better acquaintanceship, and Fri- 
day has been set apart for that purpose. 

Beginning with the regular work on 
Thursday morning, it is thought best, as 
nearly as may be, to devote the morning 
sessions, say from nine to one o'clock, to 
subjects most nearly allied to our work, 
leaving the afternoon, from three to five, 
for the more general topics, to which the 
public will be invited. 

The schedule, as suggested by the com- 
mittee, is informally submitted herewith. 
It must be understood, however, that this 
schedule is simply a suggestion, and is sub- 
ject to such changes as circumstances will 
render necessary. Although no names are 
here given as of those assigned to particular 
work, it must be understood that for the 
most part the committee have the proper 
persons in mind, and that in many instances 
the assignment is made. The committee de- 
sire to have each subject opened by a care- 
fully prepared paper, the same to be fol- 
lowed by a full and free discussion on part 
of the members ; and in order that no mem- 
ber shall feel himself debarred from par- 
ticipation in these discussions, it is expected 
that those who desire to speak on any of 
the topics will communicate to the commit- 
tee, in order that they may not be over- 
looked in the apportionment of time. 

The committee also desire suggestions as 
to topics not mentioned in the schedule, and 
as to any other matters that may seem im- 
portant to members. 

Meeting at 1 p. M. for organization, etc. — 
I. Report of Secretary and Treasurer; 2. 
Report of Executive (Committee ; 3. Presi- 
dent's Address ; 4. Miscellaneous business, 

Chickering Hall, 8 P. M. — 1. Addresses 
of welcome from eminent citizens ; 3. Re- 
sponses by the President and members of 
the Association ; 3. Statements from the 
Executive Committee and announcements 
of the meetings of the Convention. 

Morning Session— !) to 10. Meeting of com- 
mittees or sections for the consideration of 
special subjects ; 10 to 11:30, Bookkeeping: 
How to introduce the study of accounts ; 
1I;30 to 1, Penmanship ; The best methods 
of teacbing In commercial scboola. 

Afternoon Se.'-sion— 3 to 4. School man- 
agement, as applied to the Business College ; 
4 to 5, Relation of business colleges to pub- 
lic schools. 

Morning Session— 9 to 10, Meeting of 
committees ; 10 to 11:30, Bookkeeping : 
IIow far and in what direction shall we go 
in applying the science to business special- 
ties v 11:30 to 1, Arithmetic: How to 
teach it to secure the best practical results. 

Afternoon Session— 3 to 4, Industrial 
education : Its relations to business college 
work and to the educational interests of the 
country ; 4 to 5, Commercial correspond- 
ence : To what extent may it be taught as a 
special study t 

Morning Session— 9 to 10, Meeting of 
committees; 10 to 11:30, Bookkeeping as 
adapted to retail business ; 11:30 to 1, Busi- 
ness practice : At what stage of the course 
shall it be begun, and of what shall it con- 

Morning Session— 8 to 10, Meeting of 
committees; 10 to 11:80, Penmanship in 
class instruction ; 11:30 to 1, Shorthand: 
Methods of teaching, and practical results 
to be accomplished. 

Afternoon Session— 2 to 4, Social econ- 
omy : Its place in a business course, and 
how it may best be taught ; 4 to 5, Com- 
mercial law : Method and extent of instruc- 

Morning Session— 9 to 10, Meeting of 
committees; 10 to 11.30, Language: How 
it can best be taught in business schools, 
and to what extent; 11:30 to I, Election 
and general good of the Association. 

It will be evident that the above schedule 
is only an approximate, and in the nature of 
the case it could not be more. Neither is it 
particularly desirable that at this time a 
fixed programme should be submitted. The 
committee have at no time bad any doubt as 
to the ability of the Convention to fill up all 
the time that is here allotted in the most 
profitable way, and it would not be possible 
to appoint each day's work absolut«1y. The 
teodency in previous conventions to overrun 

tbe time given lo ibe different subjects lias 
induced the committee to extend tlie time 
from one liour, as heretofore, to nu hour 
and n half for each subject. It is expected 
that the presentment of the subject will 
occupy from twenty to thirty minutes, leav- 
ing a full hour for after discussion ; and 
experience teaches us that this is little time 
enough. No provisions have been made for 
evcnini^ sessions after the first day, leaving 
the disposition of this matter greatly in the 
hands of the Convention. We do not lose 
sight of the fact that a large number of the 
members will make this to New York 
in great part an excursion, liojiing to see as 
much of the city and its surroundings as 
possible. And neither do they forget that 
dujing the summer time there is no place 
presenting more attractions than New York. 
To be sure. New Yorkers themselves are 
apt to select this season for their mountain, 
seaside and European outings, but this only 
gives more space for those who desire to 
enjoy our well paved" streets, our shady 
parks and the numerous excursions which 
the vicinity of New York affords. The 
setting apart of the morning hour from nine 
to ten to committees and sections is with a 
view to giving all the particular interests of 
teachers a chance for free discussion. There 
will be ample facilities for these special de- 
partments to focus their efforts and work 
with less rcstniint than they could do in the 
gem nil sessions. This want has hitherto 
been felt, and complaints have been made 
that sufficient opportunity had not been 
afforded for the exchange of views and 
methods in matters of penmanship, short- 
hand, amanuensis woik, etc 

It will he a pletising part of the duty of 
the committee to see that members from a 
distance are properly cared for in the way 
of hotels and boarding-houses, and informa- 
tion as to all matters of sight-seeiug and 
enjoyment generally. The mutter of rail- 
road fares has not been lost sight of, but 
after mature deliberation it has been decided 
that very little can be accomplished in the 
way of reduced fares, simply for the reason 
that the routes are so various, and that very 
few persons will desire to come and return 
by the same route. It is believed that the 
efforts hitherto made in this direction, 
though well meant, have resulted in very 
little satisfaction to members, and on these 
accounts the project has been abandoned. 

The committee desire to say, in conclu- 
sion, that the personal responses which 
have come to them from those who express 
positive intention to be present, as well 
as the favorable respouses of those to 
whom duiies have been assigned, give 
indications of a numerously attended and 
unusually interesting Convention. They 
also hope to be able within a short time to 
present a schedule of exercises which will 
more definitely map out the work of the 
Convention, and which will be mailed to all 
members of the Association and all teachers 
of commercial studies within their knowl- 
edge. S. S. Packaiid, 
D. T. Ames. 
L. F. GAnDNEit, 

KTrfHtive VommitUr. 

Answers to 

II V ( Suu 111, I i1 - Can 

jou make a pholoiu_ra\ d < ut fu ui i 
photograph of a budding or of i pi rhon 

Ics but wt should first ha\c to make a 
pen and ink drawmi, of ihem Nothin^ 
can bt photo engraved that is not in black 

D. E. C, Buffalo, N. Y.— "I wish to 
prepare some pen designs for photo-engrav- 
iDg, can you give me auv advice that will 
aid me to get good cuts t 

Make your designs on good smooth paper 
or Bristol board just twice as long and wide 
as you wish your cuts, using a smooth clear 
pointed pen and jet black ink, India ink is 
best. For further directions see page 24. 
February number of the Jouiinal. 

H. M. E.. Northfield, Vt.— "Could you 
not publish io the JotniNAL more specimens 
of writing and ornamental work from 

I tor one would like to sec 
some of the many specimens mentioned 
under the title of ' Specimens Received." " 

It would be our pleasure to publish each 
month several such specimens had they the 
requisites positively necessary for a credit- 
able reproduction by photo engraving, Not 
one specimen in fifty is available as an illus- 
tration in the Jourxal. Nearly all are ex- 
ecuted with common writing ink which 
gives faint hairlines that will not re-produce; 
most are also on a scale too small to admit 
of the reduction necessary to give a good 
quality of line in the cut ; many others, 
while creditable, are not of sufficient merit 
to warrant the expense of engraving and 
the devotion of space in the Jodrnal for 

Wf ^-iKill bf pl.;i^i(l at any time to pub- 
lish i ntlii;ili|r :tiii;itriir work that has the 
Dtfi.'N^;i[> <|u:i!iiiL's for photO'Cngraving ; 
and lt» (hat end let it be remembered that no 
copy can be used where hair lines are not 
black, nor will the re production do the 
author credit unless it is reduced to half the 
size of the original. 

G. W. C, Grafton, Dakota.— "Is the so- 
called muscular or push movement the hesl. 
and why ? The Curliss Business College 
teaches "it with a marked degree of success, 
and as I have occasion to give instructions 
in penmanship, I would Ute to know: 1st 
Is it better than the combined movement for 
children ? Is it better for bookkeepers ? Is 
it better for recorders ? I have seen in your 
Journal some time an article stating that 
small muscles can be more easily trained to 
rapid work than can large ones, audit looks 
very plausible to me ; but Curtiss maintains 
that the muscles will become paralyzed 
sooner by (finger) combined than by muscu- 
lar movement." 

We believe that the combined 
all things considered, is the best 
employed for writing for any purpose. As 
to what proportion of the work should be 
performed, respectively by the fingers and 
forearm, teachers and writers may differ. 
It is undoubtedly a fact that many and per- 
haps most writers who use or pretend to use 
the combined movement do too much with 
the fingers, all that we would deem neces- 
-sary for the fingers would be to assist in 
making the extended letters, and if these 
are shortened somewhat, we are not certain 
that all movements may not be made with the 
forearm. As respects the training of the mus- 
cles for the finger or forearm or wholearm, 
doubtless the fingers can he trained to make 
well-formed letters and legible writing with 
less labor and time than those of the fore- 
arm, and the forearm easier than the whole- 
arm, as the shorter the leverage the better 
and easier is the control of the motion, but 
since the finger action lacks rapidity and 
endurance it is inferior for most purposes 
to the forearm motion. Were a person con 
tent to write slowly, and for short periods 
the finger movement is all he would require 
and probably would be the best. As respects 
the teaching of movement to children, right 
here is the difficult point, It is safe to say 
that no one can powers which they 
do not possess, small children rarely have 
a development of muscles in the forearm, 
or will and judgment sutBcieut to enable 
them lo successfully drill for writing. Hence 
much discretion should be exercised by the 
tt ithci I to whfn and where they would 
ndvisc iht forearm movement. In our 
judgment it should not be mentioned in 
what IS known as the primary grades of 
instruftion.but be taughtatasearlya period 
as the development of muscles and power 
of applualion will permit. 

And School Items. 

Mr. M. M. Burtholomew. ttio inventor i>f llie 
Steiiotrniph. has removed to New York City and 
can be found at No. 30 Bast 14th street, where he 
has opened an aeeituy of Iho United States Steuo- 
grapb Company, and also a school for Instruction 
on the Stenograph. 

A large and handsomely framed pen drawing. In 
the window of S. L. Brown's bool£ store, is at- 
tractlnn no end of attention from all pai»erBby. 
Tlie drawiuK Is from the pen of D. T. Ames, 205 
Broadway, New York. and Is u mariel of neatness 
It aanuuDceE the enrollmenl of the class of lUdS-Sfl 
of Fred. Schneider's night school In bookkeeplDg. 
The olasa ts a large one, and consUta of many well 
known young WIlkee-BarreanB.— T'Af Xfwt-DtaUr, 

Walter S. »crhall. of Alherloii 
lately written upon a postal card l 
seven hundred and twenty words, the same being 
the 5t)i, flth, 7th and 8th chapters of the Gospel ac- 
cording to St. John. 

The students of Cedar Rapids (Iowa) Bueinese 
College l«t«ly presented A. J. Scarborough, of tliat 
institution, with a handsome diamond ring and a 
lieiiut if ully drafted memorial of their regard signed 
by the full corps of students. The occasion was 
the retirement of Mr. S. from the position which 
he has for several years held as a popular and 
efficient instructor In that Institution. 

Prof. Skeels' wrltln : class finished the last term 
Monday evening. The Professor has a handsomely 
framed pen-and-ink design, executed by himself, 
which he will present this week to the student who 
has made the most progress. — Jiomeo {Mich.) 

Amos Abboaray, card writer at Asbury Park, N. 
J., lately called at our office, and presented ua 
with a unique card, bearing bis name and address 
inclosed in a wreath made of two quills and floral 
design, all made by so cutting the card that the 
incised and raised edgA of the paper from the 
cuts represented the lines that formed the design. 

H. W. Klbbe. pen artist, Utlca, N. Y., is publbh- 
ing a series of alphabets in form of slips, which are 
in superb style both as respects the artistic and 
meohanical work. Two packages have been re- 
ceived, and they are certainly models of neatness 
and good taste. See his announcement in our ad- 
vertising columns. 

The twenty-first annual commencement of the 
MeadvUle (Pa.) Business College occurred on 
March 31st. 

The thirty-sixth anniversary of the (B. & S.) 
Indianapolis Buslnes-t University Students Recep- 
tion and HeuJilon, was held at the Hall of tlie 
University, on Friday evening, April 3. 1S8(J. 

fPersons sending specimens for notice In this 
column should see that the packages contalnlue 
the same are postage paid in full at Ultfr rate*. A 
large proportion of these packages come short 
paid, for sums ranging from two cents upward, 
which, of course, we are obliged to pay. This is 
scarcely a deslraole consideration for a gratuituue 

Letters the style of which were worthy of note 
have been received from : 

L. A. French, teacher of penmanship, Boston 
(Mass.) Evening High School, and a club of sub- 

(harles 0. Winter, Hartford. Conn. He says, 
■• The Journal is about the only reliable penman's 
paper published. I have subscribed for seveml 
others, most of which were dlscoutinued before 
the year ended,'' 

W. N. Ferris, Big Rapids (Mich.) Industrial 

J. G. Harmison, Lexington, Ky., and a club of 

W. N. Christie, Christie's School of Business, 
Lock Haven, Pa. .and a club of fifty-one subscribers 

I. S. Preston, Providence, R. I. He says, " I 
have 'I(K) pupils here In the public schools." 

W. R. Glenn, B. ,fc S. Business College, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., and a club of subscribers. 

J. B. Oaylor, Stanton, Iowa, and a oluh of sub- 

C. E. Webber, East Portland, Oregon. 

C. R. Wells, superintendent of writing in the 
Public Schools, Syracuse, N. Y., and a club of sub- 

P. W. H. Wiesehahn, pen artist, St. Louis, Mo., 
in matcblvsB style. 

MlssM. L. Flelschmann, Philadelphia. Pa. Miss 
P. first subscribed for the Journal about one year 
since, and now renews, and luentloos with pride 
the somewhat remarkable Improvement made In 
her writing since her subscription, which she at- 
tributes niulnly to the Jouunal, and says, "I 
think It just what every person who desires to Im- 
prove their writing wants." 

W. A. Moulder, Clyde (Ohio) Business College. 
He says, "Your last number (February) was a 
grand one ; Farley's lesson ulone was worth more 
than the dollar." 

L. C. McCana, New Guilford, Ohio. 

J. C. Duyger. Washington, Ark. 

J. A. Wcsco, Lovllla. Iowa, 

A. B. Humphrey, Educational Inslllute, Patter- 
sonville, Iowa, and a club of subsoribors. 

I). H. Farley, State Normal School, Trenton, 
N. J. 

Henry Sykes, Manchester, Kngland. 
W. J. Kinsley, Shenandoah (Iowa) Commercial 

J. H. Crabb. Wilmington (Del.) Business College. 

Silas Edwards, Wyandotte, Mich., and a club of 
twelve subscribers. 

U. MoMlllaD, Cleveland, Ohio, and a club, 

J. H. Bryant, Spencerian Bublness College, 
Cleveland, Ohio, 

J- W. McKinley. Riisbvilie. Ohio. "What the 
'manna' was to the Israelites, the Joiirnai. la to 
live teachers of penmanship." 

F. B. Stem, Spring Hill. Eaneaa. "Here's 
another dollar for the Journal. No man who la 
interested In penmanship can alTord to be with- 

W, H. Cummlngs, Alvada, Ohio. 

A. D. Skceis, Romeo, Mich. 

C. P. Wellman, MUford. N. H. 

B. H. Stahmann. Rend's Landing, Minn. 

D. J. Taylor. Oakland. Cal. 
T. Nelson, Rlchford, Mian. 

P. C. McKnIght. McDowell. Arizona. 

J. Hinkle Elliott. Baltimore. Md. 

N. C. Brewster. Waverly. N. Y., and a bird. 

J. W. Wafler. Coudersport , Pa. 

E. C. Clayton. Evanston, Wyoming. 

Llbbie E, Abbee. Camden. Mich., and copy slips, 

C. T. Smith, Jacksonville (111.) Business College, 

F. P. Preult. Fort Worth (Texas) Business College 

G. W. Temple. Valparaiso, Ind. 

C. Mufit, penman. Three Rivers. Mloh. 

J. G. Kline. Oberlin. Ohio, and a club of twelve 

J. W. Swank. U S. Treasury. Washington, n.C. 

W, C. Harvey, Davenport (Inwa) Business Col- 
lege, and a club of twelve. 

P. T. Benton, Creston, Iowa. 

D. A. Griffiths, Austin, Texas. 
J. M. Wade, Emberton, Pa. 

W. S. MacPhaii, Alberton. P. E. I, 

Crist, Catomen, Stillwater, Minn 

W. F. Roth, M.D.. Mauheim. I'a. 

O. W. Slusser, MoGaheysvllle. Va. 

C. A. Robertson, Boston, Mass. 

C. H. Reynolds, Soule's Business College, New 
Orleans, La. 

Perkins & Herpel, St. Louis (Mo.) Mercantile 

I-. T- Barman. York, Pa. 

(1. K. Demary, Medina, N. Y.. and a club. 

O, S. Wiggtesworth, Mansfield (Pa.) Business 

Marcus U, Fox. New York. 

W. H, Cook. New Lyme, Ohio, 

S. C. Williams. Spalding's Business Coilego, 

Kansas City, Mo., and a club of eubscribers. 

J F. Bamhart. Norlh Hampdin. Ohio 

Norrajin L. Hlijkok. Boston, Ma."*., a letter, 

nourished bird and cards. He says. "The Jouunal 

is winning great and Just praise from all interested 

W. J. Elliott, Chatham (Onturln) Bnalness Col- 
lege, a letter, flouri(<hed bird and several well- 
written specimens of copy writing. 

U. W. Allen, IluulsvlUe, Texas, a letter, a fiour- 
i^hed bird und several muscular exercises. He says 
" Ever>' number of the Jodukai. is a gem." 

J. D. Briant, a litter and nourished bird. 

R. S. Collins. Knoxville.Tenn., letter and cards. 
He says, "The JounuAL Is full of good food for 
the mind of every penman and teacher." 

W, S. Hague, Lonsdale, R. I., a letter end 
flourished bird. He says, "I must say the Journal 
is the best paper on penmanship I have yet seen." 

L, W. Hammond, Batavia, N. Y., letter and cards. 
He says, " I am charmed with the ' Grant Memori- 
al,' would not take S>0 for mine If I could not get 

, D. S. Welnhelmer, Tonawanda. N. Y. 

W. P, Cooper. Kiugsvllle, Ohio. 

I, H. Llpshy, Boston, Mass. 

H, A. Howard, Rockland (Me.); Con 

J. L. Moser, New Castle, Pa. 

Williams, Rochester (N, Y.) Biisini 


•> Unl- 

E. L. Burnett, B. & S. Business College Provl- 
dcnoe. R. 1. 

H. L. Curtton. Paradise Texas. 

11. W. Wesco, Arknmias V alley Business College, 
Hutchinson, Kansas, a letter, flourished bird and 
copy (tips. 

C. H. Klausman, Minneapolis. Minn,, letter, 
cards and copy slips. He says, '•The February 
number of the .TornNAL was just grand." 

James J. P. Gavigan, of this city, a letter, flour- 
ished cards and bird designs, which evince a credit- 
able degree of taste In design and skill In execu- 

Uriah McKee, Commercial Department, Oborllu 
(Ohio) College. 

V. M. I.apham, Anoka, Minn. 

A N, Palmer, of the WetUm Penman. Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa. 

O. Perry Hoover, Dayton, Ohio. " The Journal 
Is doing a grout work," 

0. G. Dexter, Bust Shelly. N. Y. 

Mr. Newton, Mt. Palatine, III., a letter and sev- 
eral well written copy slips. 

E. K. Isaacs, a letl er and several Illustrations for 

G, W. Dawson, RIter's Commercial College, St. 
Joseph, Mo,, A letter and flourished bird. 

<I. M. Davla, Lincoln, Neb,, a letter und curds. 

(i::^f>z-eA tz^ C^Ut.^^'*tc^*~.^^^?^^<^yn^^C-'<J^^ 

Of the merits of the above writing, as a copy aud stnudard for learners, we feel Ibat we cannot speak too disparagingly. If it has 
single merit as o copy, heyond an apparent freedom of movement, we fnil to discover it. It is withont jHOpcr proportion, spacing and 
nity of form, while many of the forms are simply nn outrage on setif;iMf f^npif= Tn thf^ Iir«l line nntr tlic Hi'jprnportion between the 
iipiiiils aud loops, note the tonj projections of the last stroke of ibp //-^ I PI' I n- i - ' ^i |im :i!ii li-^m witli Die hr-^i imrt. the complicated 

iriii>; of iheciipiljils B and C ; note spacing in wortl " (.'onuciiut ; " umi. ■: , . ii n iii(in\- oi \i-\\\\ i.itwr m ilio four cops, to the 

iqiiials F and T, compare tlie two n's in word " Aniit'liiio " liiir. i ■..!..;■ n^ 1 1 ■ ■■ • .,^>\\:\\ '\\ -. aw^ l■■.|M■.■i;lli^■ xW D in "Dear;" note 

lis iicaiity as a standard, and then reflect that this is Iho itcrond .slip in lln^ ,-,,.'',nj;n.i!.l, ijimlr !,■<}-< 
of these eopics as a standard is further apparent in the fact that of ten cnpiliils used in tihe two lin( 
ilic model given in the alphabet. 

Photo-Ekq RAVED Fac-Simii.e OP Slip No. 4. Gaskell's C 




In the above cut is represented the small alphabet iii a scale ; as a standard, it is indeed wonderful ; note the beautifiilly varying 
space between the letters and the nicely varied form and length of the initial and terminal lines ; note how" uniform is the point of 
ntcrsection of the upward line with the staff of the b, f . h. k and 1. and perfect parallelism between the last strokes of the p and h with 
he first. In the tirst line, note again the proportion between height of capitals and loops and harmony of spacing, as between G nnd a, 
in •' Gaskell." and the H and o in " Holmes," and tine artistic proportion and harmony of form of the two capital Us. and especially 
the elegant flourish as a cross of the lirst II ; note again the nicety with which nine capitals on this slip conform to the standard given in 

s of the entire Compendium. We have chosen these because of their representing the large and 
ht to be a standard, at least for form, in the other copies ; but how far they have been used as a 
now leave our readers to judge. To us it would seem that each letter of the entire Compendium 

the alphabet in Slip No. 2. 

The above slips are f 
small alphabets, and thcrcfi 
standard even by the aullioi 
aspired to being a standard 

Its testimonials are almost exclusively from young lads induced by the promised publication of their portrait and wonderfully 
and often mysteriously improved autograph together with a sketch of their eventful lives in the Compendium Gazette and elsewhere 

We here challcnjie the G. A. Gaskell Co. to publish the name of a single reputable teacher of 

any public 
permitted tin 
speaking for 


[jcns of Ml-^] ■ I lin-iM 

signed as copn^;, i.,-., nnnlel 
1 thought of their publicaii( 

commends the compendium, yet among these are sevcnd who in thr hr.yi^h indisc 
tiefore the public as its endorsers, and' who now. no doubt, blush to see their yniinLTr fn.- ;ip]m: 
rgci- experience they now know, stands as the synonym for bad writing aud alisuni i- ,, hin:; 
Ic, uusystematir and trashy, nnd instead of being the best, as it is claimtil, \\ i- jmMtiM l\ ihc 
;is roni'c lo our noiii'f And rlic iiiiinnfr in wUich it is thrust before the public iu u stj iu uf Lulxurlisin, 
I I iiu M k iiMiniiii ) I III ( I - hi I h Ml liil either upon the teaching intelligence or tlie integrity of tliosi 

' ; I' . i|iindium writing with that iu letters given on other pages, fro 

;i"'i I'miIm.h ij. [- Mill ,v I ii, I ill i~ti ;ind experience, remembering that the compendium copies a 
tor !iUidT and emulaiion, while the letters rofovred to are simply every day writing, not as models, oi 


Mark Checkup and His Com- 

I have always been a little "cnicked " on 
line penmanship. Nice writing has been a 
sort of hobby with me. But it isn't near so 
much so now as it was six months ago. 
From the lime my little fingers first strad- 
dled a penstock in a country school-house 
up to my recent experience, my foremost 
ambition was to be a flne penman. I made 
only moderate headway in school, but when 
1 was taken as assistant bookkeeper into the 
oflice of Wiggleout & Squeezer, I could 
^vrite a fair business hand. There was no 
elegance about it, but almost any one could 
read it without much difficulty. 

Tliat common plain handwriting stuck by 
nie like a brother for years. It seemed as 
thimgli I never could make a change. I 
consulted several good penmen, regular pro- 
fessiouals. but they talked discouragingly — 
advised me not to try to change my style ; 
btit that did not make me satisfied with my 
writing. I suspected my advisers of a Utile 
selfishness. If I should make an effort, you 
see, I might make those professionals 
ashamed of themselves. 

But every dog has his day, and mine came 
>U last One morniog;, about six montbt 
^r.<^, a cbiro^raphic vender came along can- 

vassing with Gaskell's Compendium, and 
commenced canvassing the boys in the of- 
fice. They pointed over to mc and said : 
"There's the man for you to see." The 
boys had discovered my weakness, aud by 
turning the vender over to me they got rid 
of him themselves. The agent came up to 
my desk smiling. Half declining, half hesi- 
tating, I put the fellow off. but he hung to 
the thread of hesitation. lie opcuedalarge 
book and showed me the pictures of a score 
of boys who had learned to write from the 
compendium. Here was iheir uameasthey 
wrote it before buying the compendium, 
and there was an exquisite signature pro- 
duced after practicing from the great book. 

"Whoarethesefeflows?"! asked. "They 
arc not congressmen nor aldermen, are 
they If" 

" Ob. no." he said : 'the testimonials are 
genuine ; the publishers paid for nothing 
except photo engraving the photographs." 

" Pretty smart fellows?" I suggested, "to 
make such progress in writing from a com- 

"Not a bit of it," said the vender ; " they 
are just common country clodhoppers, 
most of 'em. That's where we claim so 
much for this book ; a fellow don't need to 
know much to uiakc a good penman if he 

uses the compendium. Peter Snooberry 
here ; I know him first-rate ; he's got no 
education, but be learned to write from this 
book. Timothy Toddlelop, there, is the 
most awkward gawkey I ever met but. 
crackadosha, if he can't ' swing a feather ;' 
you see, he just made a business of it for a 
year, and this shows what he chu do," 

Well, this was enough. If Snoolicrry aud 
Toddletop could learn to get the graceful 
twist to their capitals, aud end almost every 
word with a pig's tail flourish I would cer- 
tainly be able to make some improvement. 
I bought the book and thereon hangs this 

1 bought a ream of foolscap paper, a 
quart of good ink, and a gross of pens and 
went to work, Kvery evening found me in 
my little room seated before my student 
lamp industriously wrestling with a limber 
pen wasting foolscap. How I did work ! 
My evening stent was covering twenty four 
sheets of foolscap with quirl-a-jigs. It was 
pretty hard work, but I did it. You see I 
was getting the movement. To do that re- 
quires a large quantity of paper, a great 
many pens, considerable ink, a long time 
and a bundle of endurance. 

I succeeded admirably. It wasn't more 
tb&Q four weeks befoie I could get my name : 

upon paper with so many flourishes that not 
more than live persons in ten could make 
out what it was. When I had " practiced " 
six weeks I one evening clipped out of one 
of the sheets a signaturial production and 
took it to the office with me the following 
day. You can just imagine the height of 
my joy when I saw ray assistant nearly fif- 
teen minutes trying to decipher it. I was 
making better progress than I had expected. 
A glimmer of my future glory arose majest- 
ically before me. but I said nothing to tlie 
boys in theoflfice. 

I kept up my practicing evening after 
evening. Quire after quire of paper were 
pcnfooled into oblivion, and gallon after 
gallon of oil went into flame upon the shrine 
of my compendium. Oh, how tedious ! 
How my arm ached ! How I perspired and 
splattered ink ! I cut myself off from al) 
enjoyments ; went nowhere and saw nobody. 
Another four weeks and I had made still 
greater progress. Not one in ten I allowed 
to look at my signature, as I then wrote it, 
could begin to imagine what it was. The 
young ladies who saw it said, " Oh, isn't it 
beautiful ! What in the wm'ld is it ? ' And 
I would have to give them a starter before 
they could trace the lines around so as to 
make it out as my signature. 

More plainly than ever shone the visions 
of my future greatness. If I could only 
succeed in getting up my name written so 
elegantly that no one save the blind address 
reader of the New York post-oflice could 
decipher it I should be fixed. Nothing be- 
low a bank president or a cashier possibly 
would allure me, and my handsome portrait 
would adorn the pages of the Penman's 

By this lime I began to feel a degree of 
assurance. I might now introduce some of 
my new style of writing upon the firm's 
books. My hand had gradually changed of 
course, but I had not venlured to use any 
tine flourishes. It was a little ticklish at 
first, but I soon got so that I could put the 
grand scrolls upon cash-book, journal and 
ledger. I was soon able to drop the old 
style and use the new altogether and just 
getting along swimmingly before Mr, 
Wiggleout had observed any change in the 
chirographic art upon his accounts. As 
.soon as it should be observed by the firm I 
would certainly have an increase of salary. 
The ijrospects were encouraging and I be- 
gan to feel a little anxiety to have some one 
notice the Gaskellian style to which my 
hand had changed. 

I did not have long to wait. One Monday 
morning when I had been at work about 
two hours Wiggleout came into the front 
office and said he wauied to look at my 
cash-book a moment. This was the golden 
time for which I had been longing. I took 
the book from the safe and politely handed 
it over. He opened it to my Saturday's 
work and a peculiar e.\prcssion passed over 

" Are you using this book just now. Mr. 
Checkup ? " said Wiggleout. 

"No, sir," I replied. 

" I will take it into my office a few min- 
utes then," and he passed back to his private 
apartment carrying my cash-book. 

I somehow felt a peculiar anxiety. That 
expression on Wiggleoul's face did not 
please me, but I couldn't tell what to moke 
of it. I tried to continue my posting of 
Saturday's sales but did not make much 
progress. In about -fifteen minutes Mr. 
Squeezer stuck his head out of Wiggleout'a 
apartment and called me to come iu. I 

"Checkup," said Wiggleout, "who has 


utemipted witb 
ID, Mr. Squeezer? 

! got this i 

liecn working ou tLese books during the 
post two weeks?" 

" And who else ? " 

"No one that I know of. Mr. Wig-jleout." 

" Is that your writing V " pointing clown 
to the page of the cash-book conliiiuiti;: 
some of the finest Goskellian nourishes. 

" It is. sir -.'■ and thinking this a favorable 
chance for further eKpIanation I said, "J 
have been changing my hand lately. 3Ir- 
Wiggleoui. Al! this change has come from 
practicing out of a compendium and I have 
worked pretty hard to get the new move- 

" It's u new inotcntent, is it ? " said 
Squeezer sarcastically, who had been a 
quiet listener. " I think, Mr. Checkup, that 
we shall have to introduce another ' new 
movement." We have always had great 
confidence in you and your work, have 
prized your services and have wanted to see 
you reach the top place in our establishment, 
but this thing has upset us completely. It 
looks to us like a studied preparation for 
embezzlement — " 

" Embezzlement I " I 
surprise, ' 'what do you me 
I can't understand you." 

" You see, Checkup, y 
fernal compendium style of writing which 
it is almost impossible for any of us to read. 
Your books are perfect Greek to us written 
in this manner. Why, look at that letter," 
pointing lo a brilliant Gaskellian G, "nobody 
in Christendom would know what it was. 
Nobody would he able to go over these 
books if you should be missing some fine 
morning. We cun't afford to take the 
chances. Checkup. If you are to ' change 
your hand 'to such outlaudish scrawls as 
these we must 'change' bookkeepers. Some- 
body must keep our books so that ordinary 
people can read them." 

I was dumbfounded, and stammered out 
something but hardly know what it was — 
some sort of an explanation, and an assur- 
ance that I could get right back to my old 
hand within a week and drop the Gaskellian 
style altogether. 

*■ Well, that's all right, Mark," said Wig- 
gleout, " we'll let you try it, but don't, for 
haven's sake, make another scratch on one 
of these books until you have obliterated 
that ' new style ' and burned up that com- 

" Sec here. John." said Squeezer to the 
porter, " if you sec any one coming into this 
ofilce with anything that looks like Gaskell's 
compendium knock him down stairs with 
the first thing you can get your hands on. 
It ought to be this cash-book." 

I'm not using my Gaskellian flourishes' on 
the books any more nor any where else that 
I know of. t have worked hard lately try- 
ing to forget something. 

Mahk CiiECKrp. 

Prof. Dana on Evolution. 


In his seventh lecture on evolution at 
Yale, Prof. Dana illustrated his remarks by 
charts and drawings, lie said the different 
continents have their unity of type which 
points to tt unity of descent. Geologv here 
aids the theorist and supplies the proof. 
Certain animals which exist in South 
America today, the sloth and armadillo, are 
pre-eminently the type of aninmls of the 
past, which were much larger than those of 
the present. Trees are so closely like the 
fossils which exist in the same continents 
that some fossils are called by the same 
names as the living species. Some of the 
fossils exactly resemble the living trees. In 
others there arc all degrees of difference, 
and the subsequent changes must be re- 
garded as due to the change of circum- 
stances. The geologieul record is very in- 
complete, but it bos been able to demolish 
the distance between the living species and 
their ancestors of former years. President 
Marsh has foimd fossil birds with reptile- 
Uke teeth, and we have reptiles that walk 
on their hind legs like birds. The nearest 
bird and the nearest reptile arc very far 
apart, but there are lines of rcjiemblance 
which point to the fact that they were of 
one species, which gives hope to the evolu- 
These arguments have great weight, and 


... Vj J ,> 

^■'/cscea^it'/y^fy//-^/i'ii't J ^/t- 



The above cut is photo-engraved from pen-and-ink copy, executed at the office of the Journal, imd is ;i i-i: n ■ i- . I n, ihiid in 

hize, from the department of Engrossing in "Ames's New Compendium of Practical aud Artistic Penmanshii', ,i i hi 1 1 -ully ae- 

knowlcdged to be the most comprehensive and practical guide, in the entire ningc of the prnniaii'sart, ever i-M)i . , , .iiipicir 

course of instruction in Plain Writing; a full course of Off-hand Flourishing ; upward of forty standard ami urn i[.. ii['ij li .j. . aiuiovi-r 
twenty 11 x 1-1 plates of commercial designs, engrossed resolutions, memorinls, certificates, tiile-pages, etc., etc., , in all mii,venty 1 1 x 14 
inch plates. It contains numerous examples of every species of work in tlie line of a professional pen-artiet. Price, by mail, $H ; mailed 
free, as a premium, to the sender of a club of twelve subscribers and !J12 to the Jouhnal. We hereby agree that, should any one, on 
receipt of the book, be dissatisfied with it, they shall he at liberty to return it. and we will refund to them the full amount paid. 

its parent, 

are somelimcs almost persuaded to be- 
ne believers in evolution ourselves. It is 
argument in favor of the theory of tlie 
origin of the species through na- 
ses that no offspring is exactly Hke 
; least an open question 
if given time, will not 
:w species. All botanists are 
the origin of species from spe- 
cies. Change of habits through use or dis- 
use, is a prominent way in which change 
and new species occur. If the mere ceasing 
to move will causeobjects to grow together, 
may this not have been a feature in the 
originating of variations and species ? 

Several species of ants have slaves. Ooe 
species is dependent on its slaves for its 
food, the making of its nest and the fceiUng 
of its own young. When they have to 
emigrate the slaves carry them in their 
jaws. This race is evidently a new species, 
for by disuse of members they have become 
entirely dependent on others, thus forming 

No recent bird has been found having 
teeth, but capsules have been found in the 
embryonic eblck. tt is known that birds 

long ago had teeth, and these have been lost 
through the intervening ages. The fact that 
the rudiments of a tail exist in man may 
point to the fact that some of his ancestors 
had a tail. One of the splint bones on the 
side of a horse's leggrew to a large size with 
a hoof on it large enough to be shod. This 
is simply a development of a toe which ex- 
ists in all horses in tbe undeveloped state. 




of the horse in its developed stale. 

Varieties have often been produced in 
some unknown way by a change of region, 
and also species may be produced in the 
same way. Buttertlies of some countries 
are good examples of this. On opposite 
coasts of the Isthmus of Panama one-third 
of the shells show that they arc of the same 
species, and that they must have migrated 
when the isthmus was submerged, while 
two-thirds show parallel species not identi- 
cally the same. The widest differences of 
island from continental species are due to 
migration, and sometimes entirely different 
species are from the same cause. 

Darwin observes that there are rudlmeO' 
tary muscles In men which are strongly 

developed in the man ape. which, be says, 
is an indication that they exist in this slate 
in some of man's ancestors. 

Permanent Subscriptions. 

It should be remembered that while it Is 
a rule that the Joiiiinal will be discontin- 
ued at the expiration of the term for which 
the subscription is paid, any one who shall 
so request may have their names entered 
upon our permanent list. In which case, a 
bill for their subscription will be sent at the 
beginning of each new term of subscription. 

Ames's Guide. 
If you deaire to have the very best aid 
self-improvement in practical and 
penmanship, send seventy-five ct 
Ames's "Guide to Self-Instruction : 
tical and Artistic Penmanship" (i 
covers), or fl for same nicely bound 
covers. It tells you all about writing, flour-l 
ishing and lettering, and how to learn. It 
you are not pleased with It ynu may return ItJ 
and wp will refund the cash by reluTD mail. 




The Seller Sold. 

(Jut in tlic country a unlc is u big tliiog. 
Country merchants take notes from farmers 
for supplies of groceries, and implement 
dealers acquire big boxes full of I O L"s. 
Id some sections of the West everything is 
done by note, to be paid " after harvest." 
"Out in Western Iowa the other day," 
writes a correspondent, "I came across a 
country storekeeper, a Gcrmnn. I sold him 
a small bill of goods and took his note for 
the amount. That note is as good as wheat. 
It will be paid on the very day it falls due. 
While I was there a man cumc in and said : 

•' ' .lake, did you sell your bay horse U) 
thai chap who pretended to be a lightning- 
rod dealer ? " 

■' ■ Yah,' replied the storekeeper. 

" ' Did you gel cash for bim Y ' 

" ' Not von cent.' 

" * Just as I thought. Thai ligh'ning- 
rud peddler is a swindler. He has sold 
your bay horse for $80 cash and bos skip- 
ped the country. You'll lose every cent of 

" BulJake didn't seem to be alarmed. 
He laughed and chuckled, saying : 

•■ • !)(i8 vas a good choke. He sell dat 
horj.c fill- eighty tollar, veu he pay me a 
huntcrt and vorty.' 

* ' ' But you have been cheated out of your 
horse. The man is a swindler.' 

■• ' Sheated ! Svindler ? I guess not, 
Ain'd I got his note for a huntert and vorty 

Surety by Mall. 

Parties ordering books or merchandise, 
from this office, to be sent by mail, would 
do well to add the small sum of 10 cents, to 
the designated price of articles desired, for 
registering sumCj thereby insuring their safe 

Remember that now is Ihc time to sub- 
scribe for the JouRNAl,, while you can get 
all the back numbers and begin with the 
year and the volume. Two subscriptions 
will be received for $1.75 with a copy of the 
Guide to each subscriber. Also remember 
that the Oun>B alone is worth all the money. 


s I have ace 1 1 mil la ted 
be verified by any 


Something Entirely New 




J. C. BRYANT, M. D., 

Pcesldent of the B 

1 Buffalo Business 


Elementary, I04 pages, Price, $ .80 
Commercial, 160 I.50 

Countlng-House,3l2 2.50 

An trUirtiy nrw work, ju^t from iircss, embratiog 
bU the rruKtern imjtrovtfnenU. and />w( hu«inese fomu 
now in use. Containing 

A Complete Key for Teachers Now Reidy. 


The Bnsi 

I Man's Commeroial Lav and 
a Forms Oombined, )2. 

)ook for Cotloges and Schools ever 

Trpr 8rtUnKi«i 






With Two Supplementary Books. 



systematize iitul teach writing in accordance with tlie usages of the best 
writers in the business world. 

guishing features of ** Spencers' New Standard Writing." It effects a saving 
of from 15 to 25 per cent, in the labor of writing and a corresponding 
saving of time in learning to write. 

A Sample Set, containing all numbers, sent for examination on receipt, 
of $1.00. 

Full Descriptive Circular sent, on request, to any address. 

Ivison, Blakeman, Tavlor, & Co., 

753 and 755 Broadway. New York. ms 



It is upon a thwoughly systematic and 

educational basis. 

/( IS adapted to the actual and practical 

needs of schools. 
It is in accordance with tlie most rational 
and approved methods of teach- 
It Jias stood the test of school -room 

use where ail others haee failed. 

No other srrirs ,f ((j-t-h,H>ks is m com- 
prehensive in its scope <i/nt w 
practical in its results u« KRU- 

Drmcing is now regarded as one of t/ie 
essential and organic dements of pub- 
lic-school education. 

No system of Drawing should be adapted with- 
ovt an ej:amination of KRUSI'S. 

D. APPLETON & CO., PublisherQ. 

procured all pupUt when competent 

1 opens the best 

illy for educated 

lonoKrapbythorouRhlr learned. 


For Penmen and Bookkeepers. 

A 32-coliiimi monthly, with Lessons In C 
Penmanship, by ITof, E. K. ISAACS, 
Penmanabip. by S. D. FOHBES. Br 


-- J. uiisiTiess LAW anicies oy i^adlDf; 

Lawyers, etc. 50c. per Year, with a choice 

-' ig Premlums-TM-pace Dictionary. 

of best Pens and Patent Oblique 

:'ated. fin sin 
.era, etc. 50__ ^_ 
the following Premlun 
iir a H gross of b" " "- 
Uolder. Subscribe u 


ALL FOR $1.00. 


WANTED.— By an experienced Teach 
manship, a position to teach the a 

also. S a tw factory reference given. 


nof 3 

. .. 1 the 1 
r friends who 1 

I and addresse: 

) Our QuarUrtij Magaziuf. full ( 

tiful pictures, cha'rming 

wit and humor, etc.. one year f^ee. Don't m 
this rare chance, as thlB Is the best and oheapi 
magazine published. Subscription price afl 
January let. 1886, $1 a year. Christmas Numr 
of Our Quarterly Magazine. 10 cents. Address 


'ALIi ABOrT snoBTifAwn- 


Aye. The Best 


27, 28, 29 and 30, 

are well adapted for bold business wrilius. 
Samples for trial on application. 


753 and 755 Bvoodway, N. Y. 

The Automatic Shadine Pen 

Makes a Shaded Mark of Two Colors at a 
Single Stroke. Sample Set of three sizes, 
by mall, $1 Circular and sample writing 


Send for a Sample Copy of our Jonma), and 
learn of our plan of " Instructimj any p^rton in any 
Sludi/- by CORKESPONDENCK and Reading 
Circles, Over 60 College Professors engaged, con- 
ferring Deorees. Sample Copy mailed (or postage. 



) teach fumlsbed to 
IT Bubecribers free.l~\2 



Geoprapliy. lirii 

uoks, comprlshiK U. S. History, 

branch to be of 

re complete 
ny help to 

only (|uestion books 


s with Answers on AKITHME- 
neHilv 300 t«st examples with an- 



)f Arithmetic, this book contalnn 

iiijject. the solutions being placed 
In Ibis book there are over 1,100 

with t 



^ ,,n GRAMMAR." 

n-itiL' and analysis. 

'lii'e'boo?''^'^'"' ""^ 

The "1001 Questions with A 
TORY." including the Kede 

■al Constitution and 



3 with Ans 

wers na GEOGRA- 

Bound in cloth and mailed to any address 
aents each. All four for $1.50. 

Penman's Aut JotmNAi. 
J-tf 205 Broadway, New \ 

The following courses of study can be pursued 


apt of, 

Broadway. New York. 

F*rinter and Stationer, 

Opp. Tribune BulldlDc M*'vr York, 

""^ *'^ '^ j^ffl^TF^ 




Adapted forusc willi or without Text-Book, 

aod the only set recommended to 



Bryant & Stratton 




Favorable arrangements mnde with Business 
Colleges and Public and l>rivate Sdioota for intro- 
duction and use. Descriptive List now read}'. 
Correspondence invited. 

The best Pen In tlie U-S., and best penmen use them, 


('ontalnlnc :«. i ■ - ..| .1 i. . ,ii,t uf 

'"""'daniel SLOTE & CO., 

M21- 1 19 & 121 William St., N. Y. 

Penmen's and Artists' Supplies. 

On receipt of the prices annexed, we will for 
ward by return of mall, or by express us stated- 
any article named in the following list. 

By ordering from us. patrons can rely not only 
upon receiving a superior article, but upon doing 
so promptly. 

Ames' New Compendium of Om'l Penmanship $5 00 
Ames' Guide to Self-lnstruelion in Practical 

and Artistic Penmanship 1 00 

Ames' Book of Alphabets 1 &0 

Bryant's Bookkeeping, Oonntlng-House Ed . . 2 50 
Ames' Copy-slips, for instruction and practice 
In n'rltlng,perBneet,containlng4(lexercl8es 10 

Fifty sheets (60 full sets of copies) 3 00 

One hundred sheetsdOO full seta of oonles). 5 00 

Bristol Board, 3-Bheet thick, 22x28, per sheet. 60 

22x28. per sheet, by express ... SO 

French B, B,. 24x34. " " ... 75 

" 88x40, ■' " ... 1 as 

Black Card-board, 2vx28, for white Ink 60 

Black Cards, per 100 25 

Black Cards, per 1000, by express 2 00 

per sheet, quire 

Whatman's by mail, by ex. 

Drawing paper, hot-preas, 15x30..$ .16 S 1 20 

II 1; 19x24!! !2o 2 ao 

26x40!! !65 7 00 

'■ 31x53.. 1.75 30 00 

Blank Bristol Board Cards, per 100 25 

lOOO.byex... 2 00 

" 10,000 " ... 1 BO 

WInsor &, Newton's Sup'r Sup.Tndia Ink Stick 1 00 
Ornamental Cards, 12 designs, per pack of 25 

cards, bymail 20 

Four packs, 100 cards 60 

fiOOoards 2 50 

1000 " 4 50 

1000 •• byexpress 4 00 

Prepared India Ink, per bottle, by express. . . 65 

GlllotfB 803 Steel Pens, per eroaa 1 25 

Amea' Penmen's Favorite No. 1, pergross.. . 1 00 

" " " " >^^rossbxs. 30 

^WDcerlan No. 1, extra for fiounsmns 1 25 

The New Spencerlan Compendium, Part 1, 2, 

Engrossing Pens for lettering, per doz 2.'i 

Crow-qniilPen, very line, for drawing, doz. . 75 

rnv^'iii, IHiiilori ,'i Scribner'a Manual 1 S5 

sin.ii>;r L'nMx \ , ■j>j in.. Very su per lor BO 

Stone Cloth, one yard wide, any length, per 

yard, slated oQ one side 126 

40 inches wide, per yard, slated both sides. 2 25 

Liquid Slating, the best in use, for walls or 

wooden bodrds, pur ^alkm 6 00 

^"Nop I- -111 !■■. Ill ri' until cash hasbeen 

beacoomp^h. . iif ..fltsestfrnated 

cost. No i 11.1. I - !■■■ M . i. ■ ,.■ .ii-e or work, upon 
postal card- w i!' .. ■ ■ .i'-. ■ . ■i.n 


i A thousand years as a day. No aritlioietic 
teaobes It. A short, simple, practical method by 
E. C, ATKINSON. Principal of Sacramento Busi- 
ness College, Sacramento, Cal. By mail, &0 cents. 
Address as above. 2- 1 3 


In Every Town in America, 

to solicit subscriptions to the I'enuan's Anr Joni 
HAL, and to sell popular publications upon praotlci 
and artistic penmanship. 

The foUowlnif is a list of the works which w 
offer for sale, with the publishers' prices : 
Ames' Compendium of Practical and Oma- 

mentul Penmanship 15 r 

New Spencerlau Compeodlum, complete in 8 

inial r 

Ornamental and Flourished Cards. 12 designs. 
new, original and artlatlo, per pack of SO. 80 

100, by mail 5n 

5(W. •' 250 

1000. " 94 50 ; by express . 4 00 

Live KKents can, and do, make money, by taking 
Bubscrlbers for the Jouuxal, and selling the abo^e 
works. Send tor our Special Rates to Agents 
D. T. AMES. 

rtf ace Broadway, New York. 

The "Guide" is a book of sixty-four large pages, elegantly printed 011 the finest quality of fine plate-paper, and is devoted 
tJdumvely to instruction and copies for Plain Writing, Off-Hand Flourishing, and Lettering, We are sure that no other work, of 
nearly equal cost, is now before the public that will render as eflicient aid to either teacher or learner, in all the depurimeuts of 
the penman's art, as will this. Thirty-two pages are devoted to instruction and copies for plain writing. Fourteen pages to the 
principles and examples for flourishing. Sixteen pages to alphabets, package-marking, and monograms. Price, by mail, in paper 
covers, 75 cents; handsomely bound in stiff covers, fl. Gi^cn free {in paper), as a premium with the Journal, one year, for fl ; 
full bound (in stiff covers) for $1.25. Live agents wanted in every town in America, to whom liberal discounts will be given. 
Both the- Jul itNAi. iiiiil book are things ihiit take rveryuhcro. With them agents can make more money with less effort than with 

ii;kiy and well 

A large 'photo-engraving of work, executed ' 
particulars sent fret 
cular Capitals you e ._._.__._ _ . 



has a world-wide reputation for original, artistic deslffiiing, and excellence of executior 

■- ' -' '--' — ■*- "---ideome jobs as low as •8.60 

We have enough voluntary 

inonials fr 

" Engrossing 

and full 

9 required. "We do some very handsome jobs a 
or any amount customers can pay. We have en 
i to fill a gfod-sized paper. We give two from c 
ved. For a neat piece of work have never seen auy 
it. I am sure it will be highly appreciated. '-C. A. BUSH, Philadelphia. Pa. 
"Drawing received and gives perfect 

n'ithout an equal In this c 

aend yon a rich specimen of Writlug 


^ "York. N. Y. 

. artist J 

ring or 

or PIoui 

be prominent, and 
ecuted styles of Lettering. 

'" vain. Plates will ._ ^_ 

1 slip form, and printed 

in vain. Plates will be published as fast as ready, 

best heavy plate . 

be preserved dieai 



Main and Ormai 

and Rapidly 

best heavy plate paper. The first twelve platea will 

_ __ ^ binding. Subsroriptioi 

for tvvelve plates.' Single plates. 10 cents. 


We keep a choice stock and sell them at bottom prices. We will send you one gross 
of the best Pens in the world for Card Writing and Flouiishmg for 75o. six sheets of 
Bristol Board, 23x28 Inches, for 75o. One pint of the best Japan Ink for Card Writing aud 
Flourlshmgjor OOCj^^by ^j^^*^''^^^,; ,g^ ^^^ ^f ^jj^ CHIROGRAPHIC QUARTERLY, which is 
acknowledged to be the most handsomely Illustrated and valuable penman's paper yet pub- 
Ushed, and will send the nine numbers for 40o. 


We prepare designs for Letter and Paper Heads, Diplomas, Ac, and furnish Engravings 
at moderate prices. The outs in this advertisement are Photo-Engravlugs made from our pen 
copy. The tinting is free hand work. We take 2 cent stamps for fractional parts of a 
dollar. We respectfully solicit your orders, and guarantee you as good work as you can 
procure, A dress, ^ ^^ KI BBE, 


Shorthand Writing 


in the best system ; terms 
low ; satisfaction guaranteed. 

Young men have only to master Shorthand to 
make it a sure source of profit. Stenographers 
receive better salaries than are paid in any other 
clerical position. 
Send stump for specimen of writing and circulars 
W. H, HUI.TON, Stenographer, 



Gives the best Instruction In all the Business 
Branches, and the finest course of 


Also. Ornamental Penmanship, Telegraphy. Short- 

->A Sfhfiol TlioroQghly Kquipppd for OiTirft Training. -^ 

8ook-Keeping by Actual Business Practice. 





W. L. HOWE, 

J. A. 


p Telegrapliy 
.Jress, w'" 

I, salary t 

Address, with 


li ..roughly 

I Rock, Ark. 


Send me your name written In full, and 
and I will send you one doZ: 
writing it, with instructions ; 1 

hand, 'price list descriptive of Lessons by Mail, 
Extended Movements, Tracing Exercises, Capitals, 
Cards, Flourishing, etc. Address, 


,t Ton Cents apiece, postage ] 

205 Broadway, New ^ 



in? a_ thumbscrew, from zero to 
' , and made borizonl^Hr 

r Canaclii. 

Riving prices and dest'ription, 

t secnrely packeci by expre 

Nkw Youk. July 27, le 

D. T. Ames— TJenr Sir: In the ereat scope 

perfection of our designs 1 have had occasion ti 

your Tiatent ruling and tiniinffT square toe 

D. T. Am 
T squares I 
time past, j 
the various 
applied it 

ranches of < 

it extremely useful i 
» ithD Ai.p!eton >. C 



nlj Instru 
ment that will 

Copy of a picture 
either Smaller or 
Larger than the 


sendlns m*c*8l foMhfs papc^ fc 

Subscriptions received for al 

f 100 valuable I 

' * M"^ FAVORITE" PEN Bent at »].35 per 

' . '^2'" '"tfoducijon, 35c. per M gro. At 

t tiRCE h Bdsiness Collboe, Keokuk, Iowa. 

-^te^^ --^gwa— '•'is:?^- 


Department of Penmanship. 

This Is exclusively a School <{f PmmaTuhlp. It was made a Department of Oberlin College In 
ISTfi, and has, therefore, a atanding of 10 years. It ba3 constantly prown In patronage and public 
favor, and Is now extensively recogniEed as the LEADING SCDOOL OF PENMANSHIP IN AMERICA 

The Graduates 

Of this School are among the best and leading Penmen of this country, and occupy the best pos^ 
tions. as teachers of penmanship. In our leading institutions of learning. It la largely the mission 
of this school to enpply the educational Institutions of this country with superior peiuoen and 
teachers ; also to train young men and women sa superior buaiuess writers. 

Advanced Pen Art. 

It is the determination of the Principals of this t 
use of compendlums, cheap school short courses, t 
ut you can afford no longer to dally with 
that will eminently fit you for the best and most desirable positions. 
Send for our COMMERCIAL WORLD, giving fuU Informatlo 
and general information regarding our School. Address, 

McKEB & HENDERSON, Oberlin, Ohio. 

> maintain it as the FIRST SCHOOL 

> have acquired some skill, through 
would say that your efforts are com 
try Imperfect helps, but come directly 

a course of training 

) Teachers' Course 


Unlike the Penmanship Department, this Is strictly an independent training school, and has 
o connection whatever with Oberlin College. It is in charge of Prof. J. T. Henderson, formerly 
f Berea College. Mr. Henderson is a gentleman of most thorough scholarship and ripe experience 
s an accountant and teacher. He is also a practical and experienced book-keeper, which cannot 
e said of nine-tenths of the teachers In our business colleges. 

To whom it may c 

First National Bane. Bebba, 0,, September 2 

B who understands h 

It for some time, i 

^ood moral character, trustworthy, 
tice book-keeping. He had charge 
i thoroughly done and to our entire 

, H, POMEROY, Cashier. First National Bank, Berea. 0. 

The Course 

Is based upon the actual business plan and Is divided into six departments, ae follows: Initiatory 
Intermediate. Advanced. Business Practice. Office, and Banking. The Excelsior Literary Society 
gives ample practice to every student who desires to become a member. 

Branches Taught. 

Business Arithmetic. Business Penmanship, Spelling, Letter Writing. Commercial Law. The 
most approved methods of Book-keeping by Single and Double Entry. Banking. Practical Grammar 
and Business Forms, including Promissory Notes, Receipts, all kinds of Bills, Mortgages, Deeds, 
Bonds, Contracts. Drafts, Oiecks. Certificates, and many others. We are confident that the ad- 
vantages here afforded are superior, and that in no other similar school, does every student receive 
the kindly interest and personal help of the Principals and Assistants Ihat he here receives. Send 
for the COMMERCIAL WORLD, giving full information. Address. 

F^-i2t McKEE & HENDERSON, Oberlin, O. 






ti ul 









J^o 111 ExCElSlOR Ij 
>8 lADIES 

nun rh 1 an 





For Sale by all Stationers and Bookselkrs. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


26 John Street, New York. 

Writing and Measuring Ruler, 

J figures; tlina keeping 

1 invaluable to all who are seeking to improve 
writing. Address, 


206 Broadway, New York. 

isL practical bonk of the 
address on receipt of 82 

THOS. a" rice. , 






2 1 St Annual Session begins 
September I . 


New Masonic Building. 

of Study, 


other schools. 

Send for Catalogue with full particulars to 

A. J. RIDER, Principal, 

8-12 Masonic Temple, Trenton, N. J. 



_^PwWi8hed monthly, by II. _C. CLjVRK, Principal 

lurnal, well filled with everythine perUllnlne lo 
le snbject of Penmanship. Subscribe mu>. 

e^" SO -®a 

Lessons by Mail 

Contiuned inquiry with leRard to iNHTRCcrmua 
BY Mail has induced the undersigned to arrauRe 
for self and home learners, and for amateurs or 

(1) A Course of 50 Lessons in Writing. 

(All copies fre.sli from the pen.) 

(2) A Course of 50 Lessons in 

(All copies fresh from the pen.) 
The 50-Ie88on Course in Writing cousiats of a mul- 
titude of elegantly wrilten copies. embraclDK all 
kinds of ExBHciaEs, the standard amaU and capital 
Alphabet?, Word copies. Sentence Copies, Business 
Forms. Page Writing Letter Writing, variety of 
Business Capitals, variety of Fancy Capitals, series 
Muscular Combination Exercises, series of 

e Less.ii 



t" uuu II u ue let 

■ one pen n g^r-^ ^^w 

>( qr»9 

Palme D T Ames A I 
i each of Flou 


P an A / 'Sormal 




id, luiproved. Perfected. 

The tenth edition i 


President Pcirce's Business College. 



The Double Penl 

recently patented , admits 
e mu pen. uuu((uu Of stralgiit. as the writer 
vfer. It i.s better and cheaper than the or- 
obliciuc penholder. The Journal will send 




The flnect fiourlalilng ever wnt out I))- ucy pen- 

wntl yon, 3 forCOfenU. Executed hy W. B. Deii- 
>il«. who In thin tine baa no equal. To be hnd only 
bjr addroaslnff L. Madarasz, Box 2116, Now York 

To the Readers of the Penman's Art Journal : 

card writing for th4 past tevm\ ytart. and hat ytl to 
Uarn qf Itujiril iMtana tch^'in hU uwi h-u faiUd 
toffitt eniirt tath/actkm. talu* pleasure In calling 
your atterUtan to tht eomj)l^U tine of writlfn vUitlng 
canU, whUh art f^rrul at rattJi conMMmt with tfie 
ipjiiUyo/cardt and jifnfnantlitp. Ord«r« promptly 
flIUd. All pott paid. 

fW With every 4 packiu;<>B onlered at one time 
ail extra package of Gilt Bevel Edge Cards will be 
Mut free, with any name wrltt«n on. With n little 
effort you can ea.'dly Induce several of your friends 
to order with you- 

Number of Oarda in each package : 1 8 36 

Style A.— /Vain trau^, good quality Jo.38 f0.7S 

" B,— Wedding Brittol, very, best 40 .77 

" C.~01U Sdge, aaaoTted 44 .m 

" D.—Bevei Oilt Edge, the flneat. ... .50 .fle 
" 'R.—BeveU qf Crtam and WMle ... .52 1.00 

" Q.—SOk and Satin SeveU 65 1.05 

" B.— Eight ply BetMli, aa»onei 57 MO 

" I.— JBto, the latest styles 00 l. is 

AJdreM Z.1m«— extra Ifi .30 

If you order oarda you should have a card case 
to keep tlK-nt eleau and neat. 


No. l^Ruuta Leather, 4 pockets $0.28 

The Western Peiiiiiaii 

No. 4— J/orofto, beat quality. . 

No. a— Coy, extra good 

No. S-Alllgator Skin, very fin 


Aasork'd designs- birds, scrolls, quills, etc., ex- 
ecuted with taal« and Hkill. To students who wish 
good models of Fluurl»hinK to practice from, these 
will be found to ho "the thing." Price. 85 cents 
per package of 13. 


An uusurpa^aed specimen of bold bu 
Inn In the shape of a letter, and ai 
iin»wercd, ■ n (he ftncat (lualltv nf inn 


lomhlnatlons, send 51 cents, 
t cards I can possibly ^v^lte i 


Eleeant specimens of off-hiind flourish m.,' such 
as birds, eagles, swans, etc.. on unruled paper, 
wfiieh are ounceied bj/aU to be t/ir nvut gptrited work 
ever lerU out tig any penman. Price, 35 cenla each 


Executed in the highest style of the ar(, and 
wiiuiing the honor of being superior to the work of 
( penman in the world. Each 25 cents; 2 
sets (different). 45 oent« ; 3 sets (different). 02 cents. 
Menthin if jou desire plain or ornamental styles 
f ' 

brillIant black ink. 

In resjiunse to numerous calls for very brilHiiut 
black Ink, arrangements have been completed for 
sending, securely packed, quart hollies to any part 
of the country. Price perquart,»l.30. Bydllutlng 
with some good writing fluid (Arnold's is the best) 
more than three quarts of good ink may be had 
from a single quart of this quality. I use this Ink 
in all my work. See samples. Recipe for Its 

CARD writing PENS. 

u that 

will make a very fine air lloe combined «ith great 
elasticity without belngsoratohy, I can send you 
Juat what you want. 

The Favorits per box. 40 cts,, per gross, $1.10 

CardWrfting, No.l.. " 50 " " 150 

Remember to write your full name and address 
in every letter ynu send. Make your remittances 
by PoBt«l Notes or !teelat«r«l Letter, and aee 

: alio. 
New York City. 



The most complete and comprehensive work 
on the subject ever published. 
Author of Nelson's Mercantile 

e nf the finest penmen in the 

The Cedai' Rapids Business Collegi 

In one of the most pratlcal and tliorouirh schools c 
the day. and is complete in every department. Tli 
Normal Penmanship Department is under the d 
wet snpervlsioa of the editor "f the Westen 

All necessary Information given upon appticatio 
For sample copy of Western PeomaD or fo 
circulars of Business College, address. 

4-1 Cbdar Rapids. Iowa. 




elegantly addressed 

ifipai Penmatuhip Dejmrt- 

Valparaiso, 1 

If yni enclose 15c. when you write, you wl 

e a beautiful spcolmen fresh from my pen. 

IW PATTON, present Teacher of Penman- 
. ship In Alfred Univei-sltf, Alfred Centre, N, 
Y.. wishes to engage the coming year with some 
live Business to teach Penmanship, Book- 
keeping and Phonography. Penmanship a special- 
ty. Correspondence solicited. 4-1 



i:inshlp, Bookkeeping, 
l''iL;-t-clasB reference as 
' Despondence solicited 
itiess. Address, W. E, 

Nelson's Bookkeeping: and President of .„. 
Nelson Business College Company of Cin- 
cinnati and Sprlngfletd. Ohio. 
Tliree hundred and fifty closely printed pages, 
with an amount of solid matter requiring 

making sixteen colurnns and over one thousand 



isy by the propi 

Penmanship can t„ .......... ^,.„, „, i, 

tniinluK of the arm and Angers, Nitnu>,w^t, z^,- 
d5f/i/V..«^i/TOHj (At yim with each book. "It Is un- 
doubtedly the best and moat sensible work on 
pcnmanslilt" I have ever read, worth tea times the 
muncy. -II C. Evaw. Penrtum, Pienfi O. " It 
contrthi-H a great deal of good common sense "— ff 
W M.,-hael. V'trware. 0. '■ The copies are of a high 
order nf excellence, and the arrangement most 
splendid."— J/. B. Mooiv, Morgan, Ky. " It shows 
by inesistible argument that pupils should write 
'■'.'Pl'^l?' ^^V"} *•"• atart."-7^w/TOrip«roirfA, Itogers- 
viUi, 0. Price, postpaid. •1.00. 

Pitoft G.* BIXLER. Pl'il 


Box 2. Knoxvlllo. T 

^. Palmer. Address H. S. COLLINs'. 


Send for Price I 


o^".^u,.ca, •juiuuicruitu Correspondence 
,.._ -^^--keeplng, are entirely new matter pre- 
lented in a style superier to any hitherto pub 
ished. It Is called " New Practical," and Is sent 
)7 mail on receipt of $1. bv 

Spenoertan Business CoUege, 36 Eut nih St., K. I^ 



Etc., Etc.. besides 
1q Wholesale and Retail Businese, Coal. Flour. 
Grocery. Milling. Books and stationery. Furniture, 
Commlsalon, Manufacturing, Importing, Export- 
ing, Steumboatlng. Banking. Individual Partner- 
ship, and Company Business. 

llien there is Book-keeping for Building Associa- 
tions, Professional Men, and an entireiy new 
method for lawyers, requiring only a minimum 
amount of work. 

Ne-w Features. 
The book contains numerous 
Labor- Saving Metliods qf ktrping accounts, the sohi- 

tlon of complex entries. 
DUpeneimj with tht Trial Balance— Beveree Potting— 

the latest on the subject. 
Opening Partnership Books with Complex EMritt. 
Organization of Corporate Companies. 
Opening the Books <if Ckirporate Companies. 
Causes of, and Bemedg/or. Confusion in Orrporate 

Exporting from a We«tem City, with particulars 

relatmg to Agents, Foreign Account Sales, etc. 

Skipoitig Goods C- 0. D.. Exjiresi, and BiUs of 

Economies in Book-Kfe2)in^. 

Directions for taking charge qf a Jffrc Set of Books. 

Usefiil ffinls to Aecountantt. 

Bank Book-keeping— a complete set. 

Bank Book-ketping in oneqfthe largest Banks q/" the 

The PnvaU Ledger, Directions for Lis Use. 
AccounU of Assignees, Exeeuiori and Adminittratori. 
Business and Banking Calculations. 
The Author^ Metliod qf Comimling Discount. pub- 

Calculations in ifarkhia Goods— Foreign Exchange- 
Average— Partnership 
The book is pimled m two colors, on the best 
huok inipor bound In the hiti'st stvle.and sold by 
siiii-i,iiption ormailid u> iu> addresa for •» 00 




nlumi- diMgned c 

Given in plain Penmanship 

', by r 

wllh c 

home and yet 
: .11 ...o 111..-. r.niiii.ii iiciiuiuu In tUo world 
toil, h.r 'lilt" cniir-^e haa been prepared 
B. Thy styl.- Ill ii'n.hing Is on an entirely 

Over lOO Pupils 

Are now taking this course, and all expressing 
their satiafaotlon. It Is fust becontbig known that 
this Is the best and cheapest way to learn to write 
an elegant band. 


Pay SIOO to attend a Business CoUege or an Initf- 
tute of PonmnnMhip. when yon oan receive Just as 
lod instruction and m.ikc juBt :!■< rapid improve- 

In a heautlfiilly v>iiii.« 

taken twelve lessons of VOL „^ , „ „« ,,.^^ 

gress I have made has been remarkable. Had I 
l)een told previously that I could gain this knowl- 
edge of penmanship so rapidly, I should certainly 
have said it was impossible : and do. moat hsarUiv 
thank Tou for the (■»—■«■• "*• — »» »--- > 

ill. and the 

t attention' you have I 

ciin fiiil to greatly improve their wi-iting. The 
Miiin t-lous skill displayed In your copies is wou- 

McClellen Kent. Mt. Victory. Ohio, says: "I 
have received the second lesson and am well 
pK-iiscd with it. 1 prize your lessunH very highly 
and would not exchangp what I have got now for 

J, W- Tcdritk, \V illiamsiin, Pa., says; "I am 

in the 

i course will require anuut. six weeks for its 
iletlon, when tukeu in connection wllh other 

iotable feature is the largo number of Busi- 

Ueceipts,' etc.. that ocoi.r 

full, with ( 


A variety of Trj;il Ualiinces are given from 
which to miike Statt-nients of Resources and Li- 
abilities, and Losses and Gains. Examples lu In- 
terest and Partial Paj-nienta for testing the stu- 
dent's ability to perform the computations occur 

finable examples for ascertaining Averages and 
Percentages on Merchandise and other Trade Ac- 
counts. A new and Systematic Soale for putting 
on Trade Profits, or taking off Trade Discounts. 

Negotiable Paper presented In a manner not 
heretofore given. Payment Endorsements and 
Transfer Endorsements alternating on the back of 

IV exposition of the Theory of Closing/ 

greatly smipUrylng the process. 

jrk will interest teacher as well as studen 

By the hundred 35.00 

Remit by Draft on Chicago or New York, by 
Postal or bxpreas Order, or Currency by Express 
or Registered Letter. 



Afi..,- v^.. h.„e investigated the SUPERIOR 

of other InBlitutions, it will prove 

11 investment to inclose three letter 

letter— containing all necessary facta— 

•' -' 20 iiages, a circular of 8. and an 

Q of PENMANSHIP. Address 





lions and answers. Wgether with ' '' 

Articles, Lectures, Criticisms, and 
Discussions , 

AU pertaining to Penmanship, and covering 112 

pages of superior pajier. Stamps Taksm. Address. 


Keokuk. Iowa. 

President I'eirce's Basinets CoUege. 10-12 


For 35 ( 
" " n on 1 

i,uit:a obtainable. Many could wrine meir 1 
betlerif they hud good copies to practice frt 


For 25cts.aset of capitals will be s'nl i-xt 

with double curves and imiII.-.j 1,1 tii, 

man In this country ri . ; , ,. ■ r 1- 

capitalswill be found iv ■,,-. 

with the pen. AsetnMi 

You will receive my very I'i..-l w^^lL. 

Steel Pens. 

Send 40cts. for a box of Dakln's favorite 
Theyliave a very fine point and do not soi 
Conceded by all penmen the best In use. 

Good Black Ink. 

Many penmen have u great deal of troul 
getting good black ink It Is impossible to do 
pen work with poor ink Dakin's Card Ink 0. 
be excelled for any kind of penmanship Se 
express for $1 Ap per quart, .)r one pint for S 
Recipe for making it sent for ») cts. 

Written Letter. 

\ I" .uitifiiiis VM II f.'ii letter, executed on the best 

ii'iiii'i^ "I iiri. ., [.■ii.iTiihd guaranteed lobe equal 

•■■■' I ' ; iMi.n for your Scrap Book. 

>'<"■ ■ > I" Nttimen of off-hand flourish- 

An Unparalleled Offer. 

In order to place my work in the linmls of every 
rcaderof this paper, twill send on receipt of $I,OC 

bill. in - 1 ir-l Iril, [.■.■.■t|,i pfl,^ 500 

i--.- - i .11; , unViont) 40o 

A WmM. n Irl!. , 26t 

Mil.. ■, .: I . . -. 260 

ihirr, ,.,, -;_-,, ,iu,, , Kiiiy name) 35c 

.\ .H.y"'"^'" yt li i»hlug 25c 

Total worth .... $,j JO 

The above will .ill be ue i.lednith core and if 

Tiilly,IN. Y. 

Writing' Lesson.— A Little^Hash 

Move on, gentle knights, and allow me 
In blow the organ a while. Hello ! Well ? 
Give nif 2l!"> Hroadway. please. Now let 
inc hruathe ti minute and contemplate the 
long procession of sages as they file through 
the columns of the Journal. On ahead I 
see Burnett, Toland, Goldsmith, Mother 
Isaacs in hor Mary Walker garb, and others 
who have just swept the harp string and are 
now half pausing to catch a faint echo from 
the tbrohhing hearts of the chirographic 
world. I look back and see an eager army 
of knights, with mental domes chockful of 
restless ideas and drawn pens loaded to the 
breech with the sable dew. Well. boys, 
just keep a low mercury for a spell while I 
air my half suffocating ideas and change the 
combination so that they may appear new 
and original. Here in the recesses of my 
mental attic I find a number of threadbare 
thoughts which were perhaps drifted tliert- 
l.y the bii;h tulca of rcptlilioii or luimnu'rcd 
in by necessity. liy a littlu clothing and 
burAifiluQir they may be mnde to appear 
youthful. lu ransacking the lot I often 
come across some which are healthyloobiDg 
and well proportioned, and I stop under the 
lash of conscience to recall the man I stole 
them from. Thus it is with the world, we 
are constantly embe/.zling and masking 
with synonymous language the thoughts of 
other men, and hurling them to the world 
as the creation of our own mental machin- 
ery. But now we are all talking on the 
same subject, and naturally enough we will 
often clash together in the same cbauiiel of 
thought. Two reporters witnessing a fire 
would each write a correct and detailed 
account of it. and convey the facts to the 
reader's mind exactly alike, yet the subject 
would he clothed in an entirely different 
style of expression. In explaining the letter 
O and its formation I may say, allow the 
weight of the arm to rest on the muscle of 
the forearm (also on the desk) and move 
around in a circle without bending the 
fingers, shading first or second down stroke, 
etc. Another penman steps in front of the 
board with inspiration beaming througli 
Ins eyes and says : "Will the chirognipLic 
aspirants please compass the t^ubstnntial 
portion of my illustrations with their vision- 
ary organs for a brief period. The capital 
O resembles the longitudinal section of an 
egg, hence it is oblong and curvilinear and 
leans toward Keokuk at an angle of H^}.^ 
degrees It is formed by allowing the pen 
to circumnavigate an imaginary spheroidal 
body." Result, pupils hustled home on 

Kvery i>erson who has ever given any at- 
tention to writing knows that a free and 
clcflr style of penmanship is only learned 
thnmgh free movement. Of couree move- 
ment without an idea of form would pro- 
duce no more accurate results than the ran- 
dom kicks of a bay mule. A penman may 
possess unbounded movement and yet never 
reach any high degree in penmanship be- 
cause the eye is not trained to correct forms. 
Tliert- must be accuracy of eye before there 
can be accuracy of execution. Taste may 
lie cultivated and is as necessary in writing, 
as in any art. The successful penman 
stores his mind and scnip-book with fault- 
less models, and in producing a piece of 
work he culls from these stores an idea of 
curve here, one of shade there, and another 

of harmony here until he has material for 
the work. Now, he has used taste in select- 
ing his material, he will display t«8te in 
combining the whole into one grand concep- 
tion. We may say movement in writing is 
the cause, and form the effect. Then if the 
movement is good and the effect poor the 
idea of form is necessarily poor. If the 
idea is correct and the letter poor the fault 
lies in an uncontrollable movement. We 
wmnot separate movement from form. 
There can never be a correct movement un- 
less preceded or directed by correct ideas 
of form. For those who arc familiar with 
the formation of all the letters and have an 
undecided or tedious movement there can be 
no better exercise for practice than oval 
exercises, combined capitals and small 
letters For instance, take up capital C and 
practice it by combining a half dozen or 
more without lifting the pen or turning the 
hand to right or left. Don't stop after mak- 
ing two or three, but make up your mind to 

you must move about so far without ^stop- 
ping or lifting- the pen before the work is 
complete. In combining three or four let- 
ters you are constantly shifting the course 
without much pausing or lifting the pen. 
thus getting better control over the hand. 
It is one of the best methods of giving force 
and at the same time perfect control of the 
muscular movement. 

Self-Fortned Penmanship. 

There are a host of advocates for what is 
termed "self-formed penmanship." And it 
is a somewhat significant fact that, as a 
rule, those who favor this naturally devel 
oped style of handwriting are themselves 
most villainous penmen— to put it mildly. 
The man who never took a writing lesson in 
his life, and who has always scribbled off 
his correspondence in a sort of confirmed 
schoolboy scrawl, cannot imagine why any 

make six or eight every time before you lift 
the pen. By taking up letters that will 
combine ejisily in this way, you will soon 
use a vigor of movement which gives letters 
a fresh and graceful appearance. With this 
article I present a few exorcise copies not as 
specimens of what I can do, but ixs a few 
gymnastics for some of those narrow-gauged 
movements. Try them, mild eyed scribes. 
But stop ! " What's that," some one says: 

Nothing gives so much skill and frdcdom 
in movement as the pnteticc of combination 
capitals. Like flourishing it becomes so 
fascinating that you put forth great elTort 
without realizing it. and skill of any kind is 
always most graceful when unconscious of 
its movements. You get a sweep and vari- 
ety of stroke in a combination which can- 
not be bad in any other practice, because 

body should put himself under bonds to a 
wriling master to be taught to write, any 
more than to a dancing master to be taught 
to walk. He will say that they are both 
natural, and stick to his inconsistent logic 
with an obstinacy which forbids conviction. 
The lawyer, as a rule, the literary man, the 
scholar, the editor arc all of the class who 
believe in ielf-formed penmanship. And 
their manuscript shows it. It is a strangely 
inconsistent theory— and as inconsistent in 

What is "self- formed penmanship?" To 
use a slang phrase, it is writing "go-as you- 
please." A pupil learns to write in the pub- 
lic schools : he learns to spell at the same 
time. By and by he discovers that, after 
all, he did not learn to spell — he only learned 
at it, as the little girl said. There are a 
number of words in regard to which he and 
Webster seem, somehow, to disagree. He 
consults Worcester, and finds that Webster 

is right. Thereupon he amends his spelling. 
— by instruction and otherwise. 

But how about his writing? He Icurni'd 
this as he did his spelling, in « very <iii(le 
and rudimentary way. He may not realize 
it, but his penmanship is just us full of 
faults as his orthography. Here, however, 
he is a law unto himself, he imagines. Ho 
has the same obstinate pride in i^elf-formcA 
chirography as Josh Billings in self- 
formed orthography. And he makes just 
about as presentable a thing of it. There 
)irc spelling reformers who would like to 
make the thorny path of orthography a by- 
way strewn with roses, by letting every man 
spell according to the sound. This is prac- 
linilly ilic ilisjiMviiiou of the "self-formed" 
eliirMLT:i|.lii-i ll<- would like to have auy- 

Nuw it i., ividintlbut nomercf-'ucss-work 
like this can make a man a respectable pen- 
man. What we want is a disposition to 
write, not as letters look, but as they are. 
This we must find out by study and pmctice. 
Every letter is composed of elements. What 
are these elements — how formed — how pro- 
portioned — how joined ? The " go-as-you- 
please" penman, who believes in the self- 
formed theory, takes no account of this 
fundamental fact. If there arc elements, he 
sees them only in combination. The 
simplest form, to him. is the completed 

Wha' is the result V Ask the compositoi-s 
who used to struggle with Honice Greeley's 
manuscript, Ask the poor type-writer girl 
who hns lo puzzle out a famous lawyer's 
brief. The result, forsooth, is a scrawl. It 
is the natural criterion of a careless method 
of penmanship. Here, as anywhere else, a 
man must begin at the bottom, and work 
up ; he must take the first things l)efore the 
last things. A "self-formed" style of 
handwriting is nothing more nor less than 
unsystematic and unscientific pcunninship. 
It involves methods which no conscientious 
man would think of using in any other kind 
of attainment. 

It is argument enough against "self- 
formed " penmanship, to note its results. 
Who ever saw a page of manuscript written 
in a self-formed hand that was at the iamc 
time legible and beautiful i And yet this is 
what the true art of penmanship aims at 
and accomplishes. The result can be 
reached in no other way. There are no 
royal roads to fortune in any department 
of human achievement. What we attain 
must be attained by the good old methods, 
industry and fidelity. The penman is no 
exception to this rule. 

Back Numbers. 

Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others : All numbers for 187U, ex- 
cept January. May and Htfixmber ; all 
numbers for 1880. except July, Sep- 
temhtr and Nvtember; all numbers for 
1881, except December; all for 1882. except 
June; all for 1883. but January; all for 
1884; all for 188S All the 75 numbers, I ack 
of 1886, will be mailed for $Q. or any of the 
numbers at 10 cents each. 

Remember, you can get the Journal one 
year, and a 75-cent book free, for $1 ; or a 
$1 book and the Journal for $1.25. Do 
your friendB a favor by telling them. 

The Varieties and Processes of 


The compositor holds in his left hand a 
small piece of appnrntus culled n "compos- 
ing stick." This is a melal frame with one 
side movahle. so Ilint it may be adjusted 
to the required width of the cohuno or page 
about to be printed. It will contain about 
ten or twelve lines of average type. 

The manuscript from wbicli the prinliiif; 
is to he copied being placed o[icd before the 
compositor: he reads a line or two of it, 
and, retaining the words in liis memory, 
proceeds to pick up the letters one by one 
which will form the words, adjusting them 
in their proper order in thecomposiDg-stick, 
and placing the spaces which are to divide 
the words one from another. The rapidity 
and accuracy with which this is done are 
quit* remarkable, and evince the tact which 
is obtainable by long praclice. He places 
letter after letter, and word after word, un- 
til he has reached the end of his composing- 
stick ; he (hen begins a new line, and pro 
ceeds in the same way until the stick is filled. 
He then grasps the whole of the letters in 
his fingers so dextrously as to not allow oue 
lo fall, and transfers (hem to a flat plale 
called ft ••galley." 

The work of the compositor proceeds un- 
til he has as many lines set up as will fill a 
sheet, and he arrange.'? his lines in the proper 
way one beneath another. 

Sometimes the pages of the book are 
made up as far as the type will go, before 
the " proof ' is sent to the author for his re- 
vision ; while on other occasions the type is 
put together in long slips or columns, to be 
afterwards adjusted inio pages when the re- 
vision has been affected. 

Before being sent to the author, however, 
the proof is " read " carefully at the print- 
ing office ; that i&. one person reads the 
author's manuscript while another reads the 
printed sheet, lo see that the two agree, and 
to make the necessary corrections when 
they do not. 

Where so many thousand letters, stops, 
lines, spaces, and marks have to be arranged 
separately, it is next to impossible for the 
compositors to avoid making some blunders, 
and the correction of these blunders is very 
tedious work, for each wrong letter has to 
be picked out separately, and a proper one 
put in its place; the omission of a word will 
often derange several lines, and the omission 
of a sentence wii) render necessary the en- 
tire re-consl ruction of a page. As the com- 
positor is paid nothing for these corrections 
(his labors being remunerated nccoiding to 
the quantity of "correct type " which he 
has set up), he has every reason for trying 
to be as accurate as possible in ihc first in- 

In making the corrections on the sheet of 
paper the "reader" uses certain marks or 
symbols at the sides, which', instruct the 
compositor as to the corrections which he 
has to make. 

When the reader litis performed bis task, 
tli.'r,<nii".M't.r.-nnT.'(^ In. wmi!; , ;mothcr 
'"'''^ '- 1""^'"' -""1 iiii- ' -i'^ . 'i' -ii;]iatcd 

"" I" ■ '• ■'■'" I" 'i" ■"'II"" uliMadds 

nr.urhuh Ml ;,||,.c. IU-.I :,. |„ ,ii.,_v lliiiikthc 

uccTssily of the case rctiuiies, S>ume proof 
sheets are sent back by the author scarcely 
altered at all, while others are so completely 
cut up that the compositor has to do neariy 
all his work over again. As these cor- 
rtrtions are not due to any fault on the part 
of the compositor, he is p.iid extra for them. 
1 '' - in ntc by the author 
'' ' "inpositor falls 
■ ' "ini stage of his 

Very ofic 




{To U . 


Remember that now is the time to sub- 
scnbe for the Journal, while you can eet 
all the back numbers and begin with the 
year and the volume. Two subacrlntiona 
wUI be received for $1.75 with a ropvof the 
OumK to eju-h sul^cribcr. Also ri.^rnih..r 
that theOuujK ulonc is worth all the Uiuui-y 

Normal Writing. 
Wr clip thcfuUowiiigvery sensible article 
upnn ■■ ^'ornl!ll i>r Standard Writing," from 
the Teacher's ln»(iiiiie. What is there said 
respecting the necessity for fixed and per- 
fect standards of form, and the ridicidous 
notion that the practice from such forms 
will tend to destroy individuality in hand- 
writing we heartily endorse, aa it fully ac- 
cords with what has been earnestly contend- 
ed for by the Journal — but respecting 
movement, the writer has twice mentioned 
shoulder movement where we would have 
used arm or combined movement : 

" The question of a normal handwriting 
has been discussed in the preceding chap- 
ter. A normal band, it wns i-xplaiiii'd, is 

the hand that has IIji- iiii\ m .l< _ iic of 

legibility and the iiiiiiii' > j . i i. uk of 
force in production. \ tn i h i. -^liou 

of the highest degri 

individuality in their own penmanship, so 
wonderful that it often takes an expert to 
decipher the thought hidden behind the 
cabalistic scrawls. 

" Individuality or differentiation of ment- 
al and moral power has no place in training 
a child to write, except perhaps innate 
energy aids effort. All conventional forms 
of expression can be learned only in one 
way, and that way is by imitation. The 
idcA that a child would or can invent con- 
ventional forms, is ridiculous. The learn- 
ing pupil has no other j;uide but the pattern 
before him ; his deviations from the pattern 
do not arise from individuality, but from 
weakness — mainly, mental weakness in con- 
ceiving the form by observing the pattern, 
and physical weakness in reproducing that 
which is in his mind. The line of progress 
is a growing concept that approximates the 
external reality, the form, and enhanced 
skill that becomes adequate to the perfect 
reproduction of the concept. If the grow- 
ing concept gained by observation, or the 
skill enhanced by pructicc, stops short of 
adequacy (providing the pattern be a perfect 
one), then there is a great mistake some- 
where. To assign clogged or stopped 

Mr. Scarborough, whose portrait and au- 
tograph appears above, and whose lesson in 
writing appears on the first page, was born in 
Noxubee County, Mississippi, about twenty- 
five years ago. His boj'hood days were 
spent on the farm \vith the usual privilege 
of (he district school. He had a decided 
laste and talent for peninan.ship, and pater- 
nal vigilance often found "him at the desk 
scribbling, when he should have been prac- 
ticing a very different movement in the corn- 

He received his first ideas of writing from 
Gaskell's Compendium, and becoming inter- 
ested in writing he determined to increase 
his improvement. He carried the United 
Slates mail two hundred and twenty-five 
miles weekly, on horse back, at a salary of 
three dollars, lo procure means to attend a 
bu.siness college. He was thus enabled to 
complete the course at Chambers' Business 
College. Harperville, Miss., where he re- 
mained as teacher about two years. 'He 
also taught with Ciiambers in Meridian and 
Vicksburg. Miss, He was then employed 
as teacher of the commercial branches in 

and mental energy saved, to be used for 
higher purposes, by using the shoulder 
movement, gives Ihc verdict to the slanting 
orSpencerian,! *= 

'■If there is: li iiM u riling, should 

all children !,..■ num. I i., u.ih- ii ? 

"Tlicqut-^llni, Ml ~.,>,i|,.l individualily 
HI writing has Wrn ai>cu=.-„ <1 a great deal. 
The advocates of tliis indiviihnility, gener- 
ally at great expense of eyesight to readers 
stoutly aflirm that children should follow 
their own sweet will in the formation of 
letters and wnnK, f.,r, -:m iIk-v. ' to force 
a child to writ. Mr., ..,„ i,.ikiii is to rob 
bim of his i!i.lJMilN,lir\ Aiivbody who 

is anybody bus imnki .1 p- , niii.iii'ies in writ^ 
inii that indicaktbuiiu Iff. This is a fair 
slalenient of the individuality theorizers : 
by the way, most of them have wonderful 

Greenwood Institute for a few months. 
From here be went lo Knoxville, Teuu., to 
accept a proffered position in the business 
college there. 

As a teacher Mr. Scarborough excels. A 
love for the work, a genial disposition and 
warm enthusiasm win the esteem of bis pu- 
pils and call out their best efforts. With 
the pen be can flourish well, but his forte is 
business writing. He uses pure muscular 
movement, of which he has perfect com- 
mand, and his success in imparting it to 
students is remarkable. Hfe is none the less 
qualified in the other departments of busi- 
ness college work. Having voluntarily 
chosen his profession he has spared no pains 
to prepare for it. 

His careful attention to business wins for 
him the confidence of his associates, and in 
all bis relations he is uniformly the courte- 
ous gentleman. He is now teaching in the 
Cedar Kapids (Iowa) Business College. 

Mr Scarborough is also an able writer for 
the press. Several of bis articles have ap- 
peared in the Journal, and he is a regular 
contributor to several other periodicals. 

growth, weakness and lack of capacity, or 
worse, imperfect training, to individuality 
is ridiculous. The less we have of such 
indlvidualty the better. 

"The forms of letters in writing corre- 
spond to articulate sounds in speech. Ar- 
ticulate sounds are made by following a 
pattern The jnonimcialiou of a child, un- 
less 111*-!" is si.r.i. ],|iysir,i| defect, is an e.xaci 
imitiiii'-ii ut Mti- iiiitcriiN Ht't by his parents 
and f;iiiiil\ ilii -li-liti -I devialioii from the 
norni;il fmin \\ill .rrhiiiily lead to the form- 
ing of au incorrect habit in the little hearer's 
speech. No one will deny that there ore 
standard or normal forms of articulation, 
and that the more thoroughly they are ac- 
quired, the better one can express his 
thoughts orally. Now is it not just as rea- 
sonable to suppose that confining a child to 


voice fiuui all other voices an indication of 
individuality. So no two handwritings are 
alike; bow can this be explained, ('ertaiuly. 
individuality does not consist in devioiions 
from fundauufiital forms, cither in speech 
or writing, and this fact is sufiicicnt for this 


models of tui 
trained to use 
thought : dev 

pupils, lu (.nicr Ki lind niu \vh;il 1 umsl do 
next iu teaching. It is a mutter of great 
imporlancc to inc. that with the least 
if cfTorl ! c;m take in thoii^hf by 

ing for the tljun ■,. i I 111 - |,,i|„ I ..-. 

written by the ■"! m.i ! ,. ,i ^ ■ n,..'. mih ni. 
every line wvn • ■ .> m ■! ■! i in. i, lum^ 

much better I muiii (u.i-r itmu.jiii- 

power of my pupils, iimv iimcii pririoiis 
time it would .save me. Almuhl all 
this bad writing is a direct result of 
the individual plan; indeed I Imvp seen, 
in a long experience, very Htili' -.'.m.! mit- 
ing. By good writing 1 im mi ].-■ ii..iriv 
As a result of allowuig t :i. I it, 

as he pleases, one out ol" I vm i i ; l , - 

innate power of seeing li ni,<\ l<:ini in 

write well— the other niuctr.n jitv f.-isird 
upon the world as miserable scrawlers. 

" Every child who has uo physical defect 
in the writing musrits can be trained to 
write distinctly in llinc or lour years, and 
it is the I'hiin jinl imperative duty of all 
primary MiiiHiis (u ii|iiip all children with ii^^ p..\\--r 

spring tYi'iii il K in;i_v Lol U- \,h, iun, h i.> 
say that the main cause of this unscientific 
training is a laziness and bad writing on the 
part of teachers. 

"If pupils are traim-d fT -th t5i, fii r i.» 

write by the shoulder ninM^i i' ;, ■ 

will have a strong fumljiiu. ; i ;, ^, 

the similiarily of slant. \\ :, li, ;_;,! i, 
developed, each child's in.liv nln ilii \ uill 
show itself in slight moditiriili(;ii& ol' the 
fundamental forms. 

" I have presented in these four chapters 
an outline of the rlicniy of Meriting; in Ihc 

SUCCCrdill^ , ll,,|.lr,- I ,M..]M,., |,,-:,|,|,1, ,|„. 

Modesty is an iittribute of Irucgrealnents, 
and men of real learning arc never pomp- 
ous. Any freckled and saturnine school- 
boy can ask questions that it would pu/zle 
a ten %'olume ciu\clo|-adia to auhwer; and 
confusion is npi lu ovcriake the prctcnlious 
individiuil who tries to impress his hearers 
with the false idea that he "knows every- 
thing iu all the books." 

A story is told of a certain bishop who 
addressed a large assembly of Sunday-school 
children and wound up by asking, in a very 
paternal and condescending way. ■•j\i:d 
now, is there a-a-n y little boy or a a n y 
little girl who would like to ask me a 
question V " 

After a pause he repeated the (jueslion, 
"Isthereaa-n-y liltlc buy or a any litile 
girl who would like Ui ask uic a (picstiony " 

A little shrill vnicc called out. "Heasc, 
sir. why did ilu- angels walk up and down 
Jacob's ladder when they bad wingsV" 

•■Ob, ah. yes. I see." -said the bishop. 
"And now, is there a-an-y liltle boy or 
a-a-n-y little girl that would like to answer 
lilllc Mary's question?"— Youths Cumpaniou. 

Return If not Satisfactory. 

Ilemember, that if you order cither our 
"New Compendium of Practical and Arils. 
tic Penmanship." or the "Guide to Self- 
Instruction," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 
the entire amount paid. 

Across the Andes. 

BY .1. M. \1NCENT. 

By way of prcfiice, I beg that the readers 
of the JouiiNAL aiKl my brolhcrs of the 
(Ii]{||, will not look upon the following iis a 
lilernry effort, but simiily cousider it ns a 
friendly letter. 

My sole motive for wHting is griititude, 
for I feel that I owe much to Mr. Ames and 
the Journal ; and I promised him that 
when Islartcdon my journey from Santiago, 
Chili, to New York, I would try and keep 
my eyes open. So here you have the results. 

We left Santiago on the morning of Jan- 
uary 10th, which is the midsummer month 
in that latitude, aud after a ride of several 
hours through striking mountain scenery, 
we passed through a very fertile section of 
country, until at four o'clock we arrived at 
Santa Rosa de Los Andes, commonly called 
simply Los Andes. 

Uere wc found Mr. W , a gentleman 

that I had met at Valparaiso, and as he was 
going home to Boston I arranged that he 
should accompany us over the mountains. 

Driving to the hotel we found Don An- 
tonio Rivero, our arrkro, or guide, await- 

Antonio had nine animals, eight ni 
and the yegtia madrirut or " godmother." 
the bell-mare is called. To assist him 

loading and unloading and caring for tin 
animals he had a lad of seventeen or cigh 
teen years of age named Francisco. Tw< 
of the mules were used to carry the baggage 
and two extra ones took their turn every 
other day. The other four were used as 
saddle animals, and all were just as fat and 
sleek as one could wish, and we looked for- 
ward to jolly times on their backs. Early 
next morning we turned over our lujrgage 
to Antonio and Francisco, and after blind- 
folding two of the mules with their pon- 
chos, they soon loaded them and were off. 
W . who was nearly dead with dyspep- 
sia, had hired a coach to ride as far as 
" Los Loros," or The Parrots, a distance of 
about twenty miles, in order to save liim 
self, and he kindly invited us to ride with 
him. After breakfast we were off, and 
arrived at Los Loros about noon. In front 
of a little low mud hut was a shady arbor, 
which wc found cool and pleasant. 

Close to the hut a river went roaring by, 
and on either side Ihc grand old raouniain.^ 
towered above us. 

At about two o'clock we mounted our 
mules and then began climbing in earnest, 
up and up we went, leaving the river far be- 
low, aud after winding along the mountain 
side the trail inclined again towards the 
river. We were now well started on our 
journey across the Andes by the Uspallaia 
Pass, and although the scenery around us 
was very striking, we knew there was some 
thin-i grander in store for us. when wc 
shoidd get into the heart of the mountains. 
About four o'clock we came around a point 
from which we bad a splendid view of the 
" Salio del Soldndo," or " Soldier's Leap." 
The earth had split and formed a deep, dark 
chasm, the-- shodows making it seem black 
and awful. About three hundred feet be- 
low, the river shot out with a rush and roar 
as if in a rage ut its close confinement. I 
asked Don Antonio why it was called 
" Salto del Soldado," and he replied that in 
olden times a soldier, probably a deserter, 
was being pursued, and to save his life 
leaped across at some narrow place. 

Wc wound our way up and down follow- 
ing the River Juncal until at last we came 
to it* juiielion with the " Rio Ilhuico" or 

White River. 1 soon divined the source of 
its name, for as it came tearing down the 
mountain, it was just one mass of white 
spray and foam. 

How those two rivers did dash together, 
as if contending with each other to be first 
to the sea I The air was full of moisture 
and the leaves on trees and bushes sparkled 
s if decked with jewels 

The valley lurned iiii.l \m . hh- -ui 
a grand amphitheatre where was uur stop- 
ping place for the night, at the Guardia 
Vieja. This was where some fifteen years 
or more ago the Custom House was located. 
The station house was a long, low mud 
buildmg, not very attractive, but still a 
welcome sight to weary riders 

We carried plenty of provisions and every 

.\II nroumius the mountains towered high 
p towards the clouds and combined to 
nvm such a picture of grandeur as fairly 
iiiidc us shoul from admiration. 

I could but admire the good seu«e of our 
iiit,„aj,e mules At each <l2^ ascent they 
loiikl stop and rest for an instant then 
nocctd carefully picking their way for a 
i_'rt \ luls rest and then on up to the top 

thing necessary to prepare tUem, also fur 
robes aud blankets, as it was not wise to de 
pend upon the resources of the stopping 
places. At this place theji asked us one dol- 
lar and fifty cents each for soup That night 
TV e camped down on some boxes and before 
morning we had a realizing sense of their 
We weie off again at half past b\\ — aud 

Ai the c\ ening came down upon us it was 
(.harming to %s atcb the lengthening shadows 
of bold crags 

Looking back we could see the path over 
which we had wound our way fast becom- 
ing hazy and blue in the distance and twi- 
light, but away up, the mountain tops were 
glorious with the rays of the sun. Nothing 
to break the silence but the twittering of 
the birds and the tinkle of the bell on the 

such scenery ! We could set thousands of 
feet above us great white snow banks, and, 
starting from tbem, wc saw a stream come 
slipping down the mountain side falling a 
hundred feet or more, then disappearing 
and again coming out and over some bluff, 
looking like a silver ribbon. Many of these 
miniature " Bridal Veil " falls could be seen 
on all sides of us. 

Those cascades looked indeed beautiful 
as the sun suddenly peered over the moun- 

tain lops and shone down upon their spark- 
ling dancing waters, chasing away ihe great 
black shadows that filled valley and ravine. 
In about three hours wc reached a place 
called " Ojos de Agua." or "Eyes of the 
Waters." Here two large streams rise out 
the mountain slope and are supposed to be 
outlets from the " Laguua del Inca" or 
■ ■ Lake of the Inca " which lies higher up. 

In this neighborhood at midnight the 
guides see the igni» fading which gives 
them considerable trouble as they are some- 
what superstitious. 

We arrived at Juncal at ten o'clock where 
we stopped for the balance of the day as we 
dared not try to cross the crest of the moun- 
tains at that hour, for a furious wind is un- 
chained and blows all day. fierce and cold, 
and dangerously too. for it is said to blow 
strong enough to dash a mule off of bis 

Antonio and Francisco carefully inspected 
the shoes of tbc animals that they might be 
prepared for the struggle of the next day. 

We will not soon forget the night we 
spent at Juncal, there was something so 
weird about it. As soon as the sun disap- 
peared behind the lofty peaks, the shadows 
fell thick and fast, but did not stay long, 
for soon the rising moon tipped the moun- 
tains with silver. 

We sat and talked in bushed voices, for 
it seemed no place for merry laugh or jest. 
We were up to the anow line now, and the 
snow banks gleamed out white and cold, 
and on both sides of the two little atone huts 
mountain torrents went roaring past. In 
fact during all our long journey we rarely 
lacked this rough music. 

On an eminence near by. with one end 
built up against a huge boulder, stood the 
first of a series of casuchaa or stone houses 
of refuge, put up by the Government to pro- 
tect the daring mountaineers who cross on 
foot, carrying the mail in winter months. 
This one was about eight by ten feet, arched 
roof, very thick walls, covered with cement, 
no windows, and only a narrow aperture 
to admit the postman. It stood out grim 
and defiant as if it could withstand any 
tempest. They are always placed on some 
height as the wind then whirls the snow 
awa) and prevents them from being entirely 

Reluctantly we left the scene that I find 
I am utterly unable to describe, as we Siiw 
It, and retired to our little room with its 
mud plastered walls and bard packed floor, 
where we were soon lost in sleep until 
aroused by our guide crying out, " Vatiu/a 
ainba patron," Let us go up, master. 

This was long before daylight, and by the 
light of a small lantern we were soon busy 
putting on heavy clothing, for we knew 
that we were to encounter piercing cold 
winds Don Antonio had a blazing camp 
fire stalled and I soon had the fragrant cof- 
fee ready, and as soon as this was disposed 
of we started to make the grand effort of 
the journey. 

Soon we were passing by and over the 
snow banks that bad gleamed out so while 
tbt night before. On one side of the trail 
was a torrent torn into such white foamy 
ma'tee" that in the distance I bad thought 
; It was a crevasse tilled with snow. Up we 
begin Id toil; the sturdy little mules never 
makm;; a false step, aud I soon saw that 
one s safety lay in leaving the faithful little 
ftllows pretty much to themselves and not 
tr\ ing to guide tbem. In fact a timid person 
bliould leave the bridle entirely alone, as a 
fnghti ned pull might hurl animal and rider 
hundreds of feet down the mountain side, 
and tbeir fate would be easily known, for 
we could see ominous looking skeletons of 
animals sticking out of the snow and ice. 

These hrid probably been, crowded over 
by their companions, or some fierce, surly 
steer had made a wicked lunge with his 
long sharp horns, and in trying to avoid the 
thrust over they went. We were always 
vtr> fortunate in meeting bands of cattle in 
places where there was room to pass. I 
never ceased admiring the sagacity of our 
baggage mules, when I saw how they 
twisted and squirmed to avoid knocking the 
trunks against the boulders that hemmed in 
the trail at times to such an extent that it 
seemed as if we would never find our way 
out. We toiled up two long steep ascents, 
and at the top of the secoiul we hatted for a 

momcQl to fiurvfy and atlmirt Ibe scene, 
On our Icfl lay tlie Lake of llie Inca. 

It was literally as nmooth as a mirror, and 
w»- «jw reflected on its glassy surface the 
surrounding snow-capped mountains. It 
must have been very deep, for tbe nioun- 
lain« rose sheer up from its waters. And 
bow cold and black it looked in tbose awful 
HiiUtudes, witb tbe snow banks as it were 
slipping down into its dark depths 1 Up 
iinotber ascent, and into a valley, where the 
torrent was spanned by ice bridges, and we 
were up in thai part of tbe world where 
rivers were made. ■ ' Ojos de Agua " were 
pleotiful. I remember seeing a stream al 
leu«l eix feet wide bursting out of Ibe moun- 
tain side, without any surrounding indica- 
tion of its presence, sucb as soft wet soil ; it 
simply shot out of the bnrd rocky e;irth, fell 
over in a pretty gniceful cascade, and was 
olT on its mission of helping to make a 

On wc went through this dark valley. 
Fnincisco, tjuictly bumming snatches of 
Spanish songs, rode tbe leader, and behind 
inr in single file came the other mules. Our 

friend W looked gloomy and doubtful, 

for lie was afraid be would not prove eipial 
to till- stiiigiiic of getting over the "eumbre" 
(ir '■ divide," so be saw little of the grandeur 
iiud l)L;niiy of the scenery. As for my 
■ ■ better inilf " and me, one moment we were 
awed into silence by the frightful solitude?, 
surrounded as wc were by huge black rocks 
that told of the convulsions of nature in l)y- 
gonc ages, at another, on looking up, we 
would be charmed into tbcmost extravagant 
expressions of delight at sight of the moun- 
liiin tops glowing so ebeerfully, touched 
by Ibe sun which we knew was shining 
liriglitly on the easlern side of Ihe Andes. 
Out of this golden light would come tbe 
dancing waters, and falling over some cliff 
would be swayed to and fro by the wind in 
such a charming way that we were loath to 
leave them. 

And whose hand bad spread out before 
us such glorious pictures ? 

>, like H 

[ thu 


.Mill ill their periluus fait slmll tlniiider. Gud ! " 
A I lust we were at tbe end of the valley 
and ready for the ascent that was to carry 
us u,i to nearly thirteen thousand feet. Up 
oa t'.ic steep mountain side we saw a party 
coming down on foul, driving or leading 
their mules. We trembled as we saw one 
man stumble and fall, but be quickly recov 
ereJ himself. Soon we all met at a place 
where it was wide enough to pass, and afttr 
a chat they saluted us with a hearty " (i?'(f 
niyn hien ! " (A safe journey to you !) which 
wiis^i.-* bciirtily responded to. On. up. and 
Ibere on a little level we saw the ruins of a 
caaurlui slicking out of the snow. An aval- 
anche had knocked it to pieces aud tbe de 
hris were strewed all along and over the 
sides down into the gulch near which it 

There were plenty of bones to be seen, and 
I thought one of our strongest baggage 
I'liilcs was going to leave his also, for he 
iiiok 11 siile iiaih, iuid before Antonio could 
slii|) him he was going around a dangerous 
point, I wiitched the hl;ick rascal gingerly 
pick bis way along a path where he had not 
over six or eight inches of good trail to walk 

Near the top we met anotiier party, one 
of whose mules wjvs btuck fast between the 
hiird snow \vulls that rose high above his 
head and all elTorts to break the snow (m 
earh side of him proved of no avail. We 
left them unloading tbe poor beast and con- 
tinued our way across the snow fields. 

Finally tbe crest of tbe Andes was reached, 
mill we emerged from tbe dark cold sha- 
dows out iuto the briglit sunlight, and stood 
oil top of tbe world looking out over a vast 
expanse of snow-capped mounlarn peaks. 
Winter indeed at midsummer. On tbe west 
lay Chili while on tbe east Argentine invited 
us to a trip down into tbe sunlit valley in 
which, thousands of feet below us, we could 
see the " Rio de las Cucvas," River of tiie 
Caves, looking like a narrow footpath 
through a meadow. On the summit we 
noticed where repairs bad been made to the 
Transandino Telegraphic Cable, which is 
carried over the mountains buried in iron 
lubes. A remnant of ruble was eagerly 

i-d upL 

of c 

then we were off on foot down tbe Argentine 
side, leaving the mules to tbe gviide. The 
sides of the uinimtiiiii were covered with a 
thick, 111' I lii |M'-ii nf iliii ;iud pebbles, and 
us tlic 111 ■ : i .wii we took short 

cuts mil. I ■ [inn to another, and 

the riMib .\.i utun -Lub a dis])Iay of tbe 
slidifig invh\iifiit us would have rejoiced 
the heart of a chirographer. When the 
puce became too fast we sat down suddenly 
and applied the breaks by digging our heels 
into tbe earth, or by fetching up against a 
rock. IJy the lime wc reached the bottom 
we were well covered with a green dust 
intermingled with red, caustd by mineral 

At the bottom of this first descent we 
mounted our animals and lodc along 
through the valley, soon arriving at "The 
Caves." This is a place where a vast por- 
tion of the mountain seems to have been 
shattered and literally spewed out, the tre- 
mendous boulders lying around in strange 
heaps, filling up tbe gulch, down in which 
the Rio de las Cucvas worms its way under 
the huge boulders. Up in the gap of tbe 
mountain were great snow and ice eaves. 

Passing on, we were shortly in sight of 

the Children of tbe 8un, Indians on foot 
passed over the bridge on their way to pay 
tribute to the Inca. 

Here there were also four hot springs. 
Tbe first of the series, " Mercurio," is situ- 
ated upon the bank of the river and pos- 
sesses no special mineral qualities; but 
passing on down towards the river and 
under the bridge there, each in its own 
bejiutiful grotto, are the other three "Nep 
tuno," "Champana," and Venus." The 
grotto of Neptune is large enough to hold 
quite a number of persons, and the pool 

1 accommodate some seven or eight Iiath- 
The waters enter with a rush and roar 
that give evidence of a terrible force down 
below. The grotto of Champagne is about 

same size as that of Neptune, but the 
pool is a trifle smaller. Here the water 
shoots into the bath through a natural tube 
with such force as to eolnpletely cover 
surface with a mass of foam, hence its 

Passing down to Venus I found that the 
grotto was small and not more tlian two 
persons would be comfortable in its basin. 
Tbe water in all was as clear as crystal, 
and such quantities run in and out that 
tbey arc always clean and pure. Bathers 

comes more solid and compact than Roman 
cement. To udd to the effect of the sinuige 
surroundiugs, the abnipl river banks in the 
immediate neighborhood of the bridge were 
stained from the top down to the water's 
edge witb odd mixtures of colors. 

During six months of the year the station 
bouse and surroundings are buried deep 
under the snow, and, of course, unoccupied 

That afternoon we were off for Punta 
de las VacoB, our next stopping iilacc, 

In I 

■ pass 

party with their fai i ■ mi k.ii imwiii;: 
only tbe eyes, for llir -ml wimi \\ wv 
had at our backs met Hum lull in tin- face. 
Our faces, liberally daubed witli cold cream 
and other greasy compounds, and protected 
by broad-brimmed hats, needed n<i masks. 
Without these precautious tbe unwary trav- 
eler would come out at the end of the 
journey witb peeled and swollen face, pain- 
ful to behold. 

On we rode, and after entering a narrow 
defile, looking buck we saw in the distance, 
framed in by the walls nn cither .side, the 
grand old Volcano nf liipiiiiL.'ain, nnc ni 
the highest in the Audi ji ihi |, , i Ik 
hoary head wns uplificil so lii-ii iini^ii u;i.s 
bathed in tlie golden iu^d vi ibe departing 

y, /rr^. 

The tiboBe cut wa« photo-engraDed from a letter written by J. M. Vinf^nt, aud h given an a specimen nfpracUml irritiuff. 

the cmucha and station house of "Puente 
del Inca." Bridge of tbe Inca. Just be- 
fore arriving at the station we had to cross 
the river on tbe "Puente de Piedra."The 
Stone Bridge, formed by a large rock that 
had fallen into the stream from the cliffs 
above. The stream had worn n passage 
around each end, and these being bridged 
over, the whole affair presented a wonder- 
fully picturesque appearance. 

We soon rode up to the long, low station 
building where I secured a room and bed 
— and such a bed ! Somehow or other tbey 
had managed to get a billiard table up to 
this spot high in Ibe Andes, and on top of 
this an inviting looking couch was made 
up with the aid of our fur robes and blan- 
kets. After we were all snugly fixed I was 
off to see the bridge. A few hundred yards 
from the house I found this wonderful 
natural bridge, which is about sixty feel 
long, forty-five to tifiy wide and varying 
from fifteen to twenty-four in thickness 
From the lop down to tbe river, which 
goes foaming and swirling beneath, the 
distance is said to be one hundred and fifty 
feet. Tradition says that in the time of 

arc sometimes seen flying in a terrible fright 
from Ibese grottoes on account of feeling 
the earth shake and tremble under their 
feet. In Venus the water reached to my 
arm pits, and through this depth the stream 
arose with such force as to raise the water 
several inches at the surface. As I stood in 
tbe water I beard the ominous grumblings 
and mumblings down helow and felt the 
bottom quiver and jerk, but as this bad 
probably gone on for ages I did not propose 
to be scared out of a most delicious bath 
which only a weary and dusty rider knows 
how to fully appreciate. 

As 1 stepped out of the spring I saw that 
Dame Nature was very lavish with her gifts 
in this wonderful spot, for within three 
feet of me there trickled down from the 
roof a stream of clear cold water, foriuing 
as nice a shower bath as one could wish. 

These waters possess the property of 
petrifying objects; a sheet of tbiu paper 
becoming as stltY as card-board in eight 
days, and in a year's time a bird will be- 
come thoroughly petrified. The rocks and 
bluffs arc covered by the drippings witb a 
deposit, which in the course of time be- 

sun. and its humbler com|)anions were H-en 
only in the twilight. We sliortly iirrivcd 
at tbe station wht re we reslid i)ver night. 

The next morning we were aroused by 
the usual cry of " Vmnus, jmtrvn / " and 
again were oil befon- dayliglit. 

We had a journey of about forty two 
miles ahead of us, and knowing Ihal it 
would keep its in the saddle at least twelve 
hours, we had to start early as the mules 
only iravel at a fust walk. 

I notice<l (hat on tlie Argentine shle the 
Government had made some effort to keep 
the trail in good condition. Passing on we 
came to one of tbose spots that foruied u 
nevcr-lo- be- forgotten jilctvire. 

On the right the cliff that overhung the 
river bad been worn into columns and on 
<me of these a boulder weighing many tons 
was perfectly balanced, seeming to need but 
a slight push to topple it over into (be river 
far helow. 

Soon a train of mules came around a 
point just ahead, and our animals needed 
no urging to make them hug up close to 
the face of Ihc rock. I noti<-ed that some 
of them IrembUd as the otlnrs cautiously 


liurricd l»y; cviilontly Ihcy knew it was an 
"gly place to be crowded. 

Thv guide afterwards told urn that sonie- 
wliero fn flittt vicinity a poor fellow was 
tnivc'Hng, liaving all of liitt worldly posaes- 
sioHH loaded ou tlic bnrk of a mule ; the poor 
aoiinal by some niisfortiiiie slipped and fell 
over into the river, and the pince was ever 
after called " Poor Joiin's Slide. " 

All tlint aftcrnooD we followed the course 
of the Mendo/a Kivcr uutil suudown, when 
wo were in sight of Uspallata. which is 
situated where the pass spreads out into n 
wide, fertile valley, having nn elevation of 
over G.OOO feet. The Custom House and 
two or three other buildings make up the 
station, and as we rode up I asked two 
rough, dirly-Iooking fellows in uniform if 
they would favor us by examining our bag- 
baf;e where it w!is. unloaded from the ani- 
mals. They gave me very gruff and un- 
satisfactory rei>lics, and I feared that the 
coiitunts of oui- trunks and valises would 
sullcrat their hands. When I hunted up 
llie head otilcial, however, he proved very 
kin<l and courteous and soon passed our 

Next morning we started at six o'clock 
for Vilhiviccncio, u disliiuce of forty-five 
miles; llir- Inuf; trail leading up over the 
".lixiilc" nf I III- I'animillo, over I I, {)()() fcct 

ill ,,, ,1 1.,:,; .■. ,:.. I,. .. .ihil there their 
M,|[ I. .1.1- ■■ ■ ■■■'■■• . ln■^•iing the up- 

liiti I Im i.i- ■ i.i :i' ■, Andes. Away 

oil nn .MH M.'Mi .1 urrcd up in hold 

nliil 111*.- 'L-sti" l\ci^K.r All around us 
I'verylliiug wiw quiet and peaceful, for the 
ever present tinkle of the leader's bell 
seemed to-ehime in with perfect harmony, 
and did not disturb our fancies. Beoring 

nil 1 1 ri-lii \M- left the bright valley and 

Ik L^iiii riinii.iiiL ;i U.I ill. passing several bands 
(itritii., (luiii- ,111(1 horses, driven by the 
i|uiri lihikiii- .■',,/./ii->^, who politely gave us 

curled u,. oil I 
'I'lu- Ih-si I Ml\^ 
liiid drop)ied ii 

ire noticed 
little dis- 
[i Hnck of 

uucoml'ortable uiauner. 

Passing ou we were soon on the summit 
of the Paramello. While we had been al- 
most baked down in the Ovens, hen" we 
were nearly Ir.izi-ii by the <-nId wind tliiil 
lilew ii|> troiii ihe /"(H(^y(/s which were hid- 
den Inaii view by Ibe cl.aids that lioated 
bel«erii wv ;ni,| tliV lu«er World, 

Alt iliii. Ill way down for a time 

^^' I 1 li'Uds. and then had a 

rand pampas, or prai- 

lil led down through 

"^r :,::;■:;' 


those, an 

lis tiK 

the dark i; 
■■ l,a AnL 

a 111 1,' 

iliiii uUiLiii.i.ii ii- ili.wii, down we rode, 
tilaisuusei WL- arrived at ViUavicencio, at 
till- lout of the mountains, and only forty- 
live nules from Mendoza, the end of our 

We prepared supper at a camp-fire, and 
then lay down on our furs and rugs to try 
to snatch a little sleep, for we were to 
start before midnight. The reason for this 
was that if we stiiricd during the day-time, 
after getting cmt ou the plains, we would 
have to eiieouniLT the niys of a blazing, 
scor<-liiiii,' sun, ;>iid plod our way through .iii^i will, „o water for mau or 

long ears acted as good in- 
whcn they slanted sharply 

.• How ea.iierly we 
<lawn I At iiist away 
liing pamp(is we saw 
gilt, and then the rose 
iig golden shafts that 
■. and then the craiid 

old sun rose suddenly. One hj 
level prairie to see such grand s 

We had passed the worst part of the road 
now, and as it was daylight and there was 
no danger of missing the road I allowed the 
party to proceed while I spread a fur by the 
way side that my wife might close her 
eyes " just for a few minutes." As usual I 
had to blindfold the mules to keep them 
from pulling uway, and then after a fifteen 
minute doze we were scampering on to join 
onr cavalcade. 

It proved to be nn unusually hot day, and 
it seemed as if we would never reach the 
city we saw in the distance surrounded by 
trees whose grateful shade we longed to en- 
joy. On the outskirts my poor httle wife 
gave up, ninety miles and no sleep was too 
much ; so leaving her in care of a kind 
8pani.4h woman I hurried ahead for a coach. 
For myself the trip was all right, for I had 
served my apprenticeship ou the barks of 
• I Ci.lif-^rMir, \l t.i'^t i-^nr. 


" Fair Play." 

Editor Pbnman's Art Journal : 

I have read with much care what has 
been said from time to time in the columns 
of your valuable journal concerning Gas- 
kell a Compendium. Very few, if any, of 
I lie many words have been said in its favor. 
On the contrary the Compendium has been 
mercilessly criticized and denounced as be- 
ing the product of quackery. 1 have read 
so many of these criticisms and denuncia- 
tions that I have recently asked some of my 
professional friends if it is really true that 

1 am quite willing to acknowledge that 
the Compendium, as a work of art, has de- 
fects. It is not exact in the Speueerian 
sense, but considered as a whole it is a work 
which eneoiirages and teaches the essentials 
of good writing. 

I have made these remarks not because I 
have any pecuniary interest in any work on 
penmanship, but simply because I have 
found very few works meeting with large 
sales that are wholly without merit. The 
Compendium is not an exception to the 

For twelve years I have given considerable 
attention to the subject of teaching writing, 
and strange as it may seem I should he de- 
lighted to see the majority of my students 

movement have been a whit the less had it 
been supplemented by a good orderly, 
sensible style of copies as is done iu several 
other compendiums. Is it necessary or well 
for the learner, as Mr. Ferris says, "to 
exercise considerable freedom in the practice 
of the copies as given in the Compen- 
dium," which really means that he will llnd 
no two capital letters nearly alike in the 
whole series of copies. Throughout his 
practice the learner will in one copy he 
called upon to forget or avoid some thing 
that he struggled to learu from the preced- 
ing one. Ourreaders will remember the nine 
styles of H'.s, len styles of M's, and five J's, 
published in the March Jouiinai,, and we 
here give the nine styles of P's presented iu 

going out from my school able to execute 
readily the grade of work presented iu Gas- 
kell's Compendium, 

W. N. Fbiiris. 
Bio Raimdr. Mich.. Aiiril 30. 188(S. 

If there is anything we love it is/air play. 
It is therefore with pleasure that we give 
Mr. Ferris' letter a place in the JouHNAt,. 

We have written no line respecting the 
Gaskell Compendium that we did not believe 

the different copies of the Compendium. 
Will Mr. Ferris please tell the readers nf the 
JouRNAi. wherein is the advantage of having 
such a variety of forms (saying nothing of 
their artistic merit), rather than using one 
or two of the most desirable ones. Finally, 
Mr. Ferris says, "be would be delighted to 
have the majority of his pupils write like 
the Compendium." But we are persuaded 
that in saying so he does himself an in- 
justice, for certainly in his own orderly and 
excellent hand there lingers scarcely a ghoat 


Tlu abtyoe eui was photo-engraved from a Utter written by W. N. Ferris. Principal of Iwluatriat School, Big liapids, Mich,, and t 
written with no thought of its being publisiied. 

the Compendium is an absolutely worthless 
work. Is it u fact that no one of its many 
purchasers has learned to write by follow- 
ing its instructions and copies t As the 
result of my limited inquiries I do not find 
its purchasers generally dissatisfied ; I do 
not find them failing to derive great benefit 
after earnestly trying to follow its sugges- 
tion. I do not find all of my professional 
brethren willing or anxious to say that the 
Compendium is worthless. In other words, 
the Compendium has friends. These friends 
are quite as conscientious as its enemies. 
Many of them wrote with a slow finger 
movement when they purchased the Com- 
pendium. At that time they knew of no 
other movement. In the public schools 
they had sacrificed everything to form — to 
exact writing. They were totally unpre- 
pared to meet the demands of the business 
world. The Compendium offered something 
infinitely better. Daily practice upon slip 1 
according to its instructions would go a 
long way toward giving the student the de- 
aired power. The remaining 17 slips might 
induce the learner to exercise considerable 
freedom iu his style of writing, not more 
than thousands of good actual business 
writers exercise. The Mark Checkup style 
would arise in any case where the student 
used very little judgment and allowed his 
love of display to predominate. In Gaskell's 
Instructions the es.<<entials of good writing 
are declared to \)q " legUtility, rapiditff aad 
beauty." What more does the Jol-rnal 
<lemand V 

to be true and from a sense of duty to the 
readers of the Jouunal, and Mr. Fenis is 
the first to write us a dissenting word, while 
those written endorsing our sentiments and 
thanking us for their expression would 
scarcely he contained iu the entire Journal. 
But Mr. Perris treats the matter courteously 
and evidently conscientiously, and we are 
none the less willing to give him a hearing 
that he takes the adverse side. There is 
said to be two sides to cveyy tiuestion, and 
however weak one may he, it is entitled to 
be heard. Mr. Ferris errs when he quotes 
us as saying that the compendium is "an 
abstilutely leorifUess work." ^Ve have spoken 
of its merits as relative rather than as ab- 
solute. We could not say that a stone or 
copper knife was itbsolutely worthless, but if 
such were made and sold, by mail, iu this age 
of steel as being " without an equal or a 
second," we should denounce the business 
as a fraud. -That many purchasers have de- 
rived a benefit fnnu the Ccniipendium by 
being induced to think and to practice writ- 
ing, and that many young men have been 
inspired with a lovo for writing that has 
led them to pursue a course resulting tu 
their becoming tine penmen, we do not 
doubt or deny, but iu all such instances the 
best part of their good writing has been 
what wjis not learned from the Compen- 
dium. Think of Madarasz, Dennis, Dakin, 
Ferris and others writing now like the Com- 
pcndium. But Mr. Ferris says we got an 
idea of freedom in movement from Itwhicli 
was ir.iod. Yes; but would the result in 

of the (lompendium style, of which fact we 
leave our readers to judge, as we herewith 
present a facsimile of his letter accompany- 
ing the foregoing article, which readers cau 
compare with the Compendium writing as 
given in the last Journal. Possibly some 
reader may trace an ancestral resemblance 
iu Mr. Ferris' preseut admirable style to 
that of the Compendium, but if they should, 
we imagine that the "missing links" out, 
little of the chain would remain. 

Permanent Subscriptions. 

It should be remembered that while it is 
a rule that the Journal will be discontin- 
ued at the expiration of the term for which 
the subscription is paid, any one who shall 
so request may have their names entered 
upon our permanent list. In which case, a 
hill for their subscription will be sent at the 
beginning of each new term of subscription. 

The Price of Anies* Compendium 

restored to its regular 

price $5.00. 

It should he cihs,i\<J ihiii III, [price oj 

Ames" large Coiii|)'titliinii i>i \iiisiie Pen- 
manship has be<ii ii-hiMJ I- 11^ regular 
priceof $5.00, at wiii. ii ii udl i.iMalier be 

Agent for Canada. 

We have commissioned A. J. Small, \'i 
Grand Opera House, Toronto, Canada (P.O. 
Box 634), to act as agent for the Jouunal 
in Canada. He will take subscriptions, ad- 
vertisements, and supply our publications at 
the regular rates. We trust that our Cana- 
dian friends will give him a liberal patron- 

^ uup, y^i^ 

Lesson in Free-Hand Drawing. 
No. III. 

It seems necessary liefore going further 
iliat tbc studcul should have some knowl- 
('(!;:c' of tlie priucipnl geometric teriDB, de- 
finitions nnd forms. Two right lines that 
meet without forming a coDtinuous right 
lini', form at their jnnrtlon an angle ; 

ijUiMlers will then form a right angle con- 
taining ninety degrees. 

An acgle contoining more than ninety 
degrees is called an obtuse angle, when it 
contains less than ninety it is called an 
acute angle. 

Not less than three right lines can emlose 
a space, and a space so enclosed is called n 

There are four kinds of triangles. A 

triangles arc called scalene or irregular 

A right line is of great use in assisting to 
draw an irregular or curved line, so right- 
liued or regular figures are used in drawing 
curved or irregular figures : 
And regular geometrical solids are almost 
indispensable in enabling us to secure the 
correct form and proportion of irregular 
solids, which might be illustrated by almost 

Angles may be formed of right or curved 
lines and arc named accordingly right-lined, 
curved, or mixtilinear ; 
An angle is estimated by the number of de- 
grees contained in the space between the 
lines : 

A circle is said to contain :iCO degrees. If 
a circle is divided by two diameters into 
four equal parts or (luarters, each of the 

Educational Notes. 

s for ttilB Department may be ad- 


■oudwuy. New York. 

Brief educational items solicited.] 

Out of the 303 colleges in this country. 
ir>5 use Ijju lloman, 114 the English, and 
34 the continental pronunciation of Latin. 

The riampton Institute, at Hampton, Va., 
has a total attendance this year of 9Q7. Of 
this number 140 are Indians, averaging 17 
years of age, of whom a little less than one- 
half are girls. 

John Mussev of Portland, Me., who grad- 
uated at Bowdoin College in 1809 — seventy- 
seven yenr.-f ago— is the oldest survivin/j 
graduate, lie is now 96 years of age and 
in e.veelleut health. 

Miss liiu Kals. a gi-aduate of the Normal 
Sclionl of Tokin. Imx been chosen by the 
.Ia]i:itn-s((;nviriinn-ni In n-ci-ivc three years' 

lUv ^..■■n M , ■,. ,,,,,1 ,^rl,noI. She 

Will II ■ . I ,■ . .' ■ In "■■ ual Schools 

of -I.iM,, ^\u- ^^:l; ]„. II,, lust .Ittpanesc 
WDiniin to lie vdiiciitL'fl at the Government's 
expense in America. 

According to the report of the Commis 
siouer of Education the business colleges 
reporting number 2'il, having 1,015 instmc- 
lors and 44,074 students. Improvement is 
ed in these schools in respect to appli- 




funds. $023,139 ; income from 

$-.M.179; rcceipU from tuition fees for IS84, 

Eddcational Fang 

[la eveiT liiHtaticu where ttie ooui 
used fu this department la known. 1) 
Is given. A like courtesy from ottiei 

triangle formed by three lines of 
equal length is called an equilateral. 
If a right line passes from one angle 
of a -square through the centre to 
the opposite angle it is called a di- 
agonal, and divides the square into 
two equal parts. The half on each 
side of the diagonal is called an 
Isoceles triangle, and has its two 
sides of equal length, and its prin- 
cipal angle is a right angle. 

A figure with lis four right angles, but 
with one of its diameters longer than the 
other, is called a parallelogram. If this 
figure is divided by ii diagonal similar to the 
square, the triangles on each side will each 
have one right angle, but their sides will be 
of unequal length. Such a triangle is called 
a rectangled scalene triangle. All other 

A grammarian would, no doubt, define 
Adam's original position as " first person 
singular. " — Independent. 

A writer asserts, "No man can master 
the whole range of human knowledge." 
Let him wait until commencement season 
at the colleges, and he will be undeceived. 
— BuHton Ti-anscript. 

Four peaks, specified by a Civil Service 
candidate, aswitliiu the United States were, 
"Pikes Peak. Fremont's Peak, Smith's 
Peak, and Chesapeake." 

According to the Tribune, "Astronomy 
ties are the latest fad in the East." They 
are usually organized by stepping on a seg- 
ment of banana cuticle. 

If a Mr. Brown marries a Miss White, 
and a son of this couple marries a Miss 
Uray, and a daughter of theirs again mar- 
ries a Mr. BlacK, what color is their off- 
spring ? 

A lloston gentleman overheard his two 
little girls playing school. The elder said 
to the other, "Spell cat," "I can't; I 
don't know how," said the little one. 
" Well, then," returned the small teacher, 
"if you can't spell cat. spell kitten!" — 

One little girl was beard to aay to a play 
mate, " When I grow up I'm going to be a 
school teacher." " Well, I'm going to be a 
mamma and have six children." "When 
they come to school to me I'm going to 
whip 'em, whip *em." " You mean thing I 
What have they ever done to you ? " 

" Mary, do you know what a miracle is," 
said a lady Sunday-school teacher to one of 
her class. " Yes'm. ma says if you don't 
marry our new parson it will be a' miracle." 
— Kpiinaworffi Argus. 

Sunday School Teacher — "Why was 
Joseph put in the pit ? " 

Smart Boy—;" Because there was no room 
for him in the family circle." 
Soon tlie blushlnc, bloomlnu givlB, 
WItli ihetr frlKzes, bancs anifouris. 
In tlieir Kraduatlne drosses mndenf tulle, tii He. 

And the Johnnies. Jimx and JessIeH 
Will oome out and lisp their essiiys. 
And forever Iild farowt-ll tu work of Bchool, sclionl. 

They'll drop tlielr vcrlw uml lilfltnry. 

And ■■iiiiMi.-r''niii iMi".rr^' they Will; 

A little boy was trudging along the street 
with a slate under his arm, when an old 
lady stopped him and said kindly : " That's 
right, my little boy. I love to see little 
boys who are anxious to learn and are fond 
of going to school. Here's a nickel for you." 

an infinity of examples with subjects or ob- 
jects from nature and art. Of plane figures 
the triangle, the square and the circle are 
the most important. 

Of solid geometrical bodies the principal 
are the cube, the cylinder and the sphere; 
in fact the last three may be considered as 
the drmeiiiary gmeratora of all forms that 
we can see or of which we can conceive ; 
either with modifications or combinations. 

They should be drawn on paper ruled 
with lines intersecting each other at about 
half an inch apart, the objects sometimes 
enlarged and sometimes diminished pro- 
portionally. The pupil should not only 
practice to discipline his hand and eye, but 
to exercise his memory by drawing from 
recollection and his inventive power, by 
making changes and even new designs. 

' Thank you, mum," said the little boy. 

' Been buying a new slate, I see." 

' Yes, mum, it's for me fadder." 

' For your father ? " 

* Yes, mum, he keeps a saloon on Secont 

mcr."— iVew Tor/c San. 

Just for Fun. 

William K. Vanderi)ilt's middle name is 
iissam ; but the girls say he doesn't. 
' Figures wont lie.'.' Think so V Just ask 
1 a confidential 

We've just counted up that we have saved 
several hundred dollars by smoking the pipe 
instead of cigars ; but where is it ?— Ken- 
tucky SUite Journal. 

Young wife— "John, mother says she 
wants to be cremated." Youn^ husband — 
" Tell her if she'll get on her tbmgs I'll take 
her down this morning " — Ti'd-Bits. , 

The Christian Uiu.u, w\U <.f n man 
who in three month.s -:iv,- lii,. s,:!! in a car 
to fifty-nine women ikkI .jirK. ini.l rv,Tyone 
thanked him. Weaieswn^ tu -..■(^' timteven 
religious journals arc liegiuuing to publish 
fiction. — New Haven J\'tw8. 

More than four thousand devices for 
coupling have been patented, and yet 
thousands of bachelors and maidens go it 
alone in this coimtry. 

The word salary comes from the Latin 
salarium, literally salt money, from sal. salt, 
which wjis ]i:iii i.f ilir p;iv of Kdiinmsol- 

A very precise person, remarking upon 
Shakespeare's lines, ' ' The good men do is 
oft interred with their bones," carefully ob- 
serves that this interment can generally tjikc 
place without crowding the bones. 

The evil consequences of smoking are 
illustrated by Mt. Vesuvius, which constant- 
ly suffers from eruptions. 

<V brother editor says a newspaper is not 
noisy, yet it frequently creates a bustle. — 
(lermantoien Independent. 

Did you ever feel that deep, inner, subtle 
sensation of the whole being, as though the 
whole world had flopped up and hit you on 
the head, which creeps over a man when he 
steps on a place that isn't there "i—Chiaigo 

The Irish patriots should not he dis- 
couraged. Married men have stniggled for 
home rule for twenty centxiries. and have 
not yet succeeded in getting it. 

A mistress who had just hired a new cook, 
made a tour of inspection after she had kept 
her a week, and found a policeman locked 
up in the paniry. " IIow did this man get 
' " asked the lady severely. 

Only writ, bright pei 

ViJ Ilii.UKht. 

Fine Specimen of Penmanship. 

There are a few copies of tlie Blaine iind 
Logan campaign pieces left, which we will 
now mail at 20e. each, or by the dozen $1.25. 
These pieces are not, nor have they been, 
offered for any other purpose than as speci- 
mens of artistic penmanship, and, as such, 
are richly worth the price named. The copies 
are handsomely printed on plate paper, 

Grace in Penmanship. 

Herbert Spencer, than wlinm no other has 
written more philosophically upon gruceful- 
ness, came to this conclusion: that, given a 
certain change of attitude to be gone 
through, a certain action to be achieved, 
then it is most gracefully achieved when 
achieved with the least expenditure of force, 
So it is with all movements. We never at- 
tribute gracefulness to those movements 
which appear to be executed with great , ef- 
fort* r The waddle of a duck, ttle move- 
ment of an extremely fat man iu walking, 
suggest nothing graceful. Our first efforts 
at skating or dancing produce any thing but 
graceful movements, because of the lalor, 
fear and hesistancy with which we enter 
into the exercise. Without entering at 
ength into the philosophy of movement in 
^penmanship, we wish to apply the above 
illustration to this most useful and pleasing 
art. Carrying this idea of grace further, 
however, and applying it to objects, forms, 
and figures, we must admit that the object 
which appears to support itself with great 
difficulty, or needs to be propped to keep 
from falling over, would not give us that 
pleasurable experience of peace of mind by 
which we would attribute to it graceful- 
ness. So iu the different forms of writing . 
those appear graceful which seem to sup- 
port themselves with the least effort. Hav- 
ing this idea of grace, with the understand- 
ing of the hiirmnuy of lines and beauty nf 
curves clearly in mind, we have an ideal 
toward which to work. Easy and graceful 
movements only will produce graccfid and 
harmonious forms. Ease and grace are al- 
most iuseparablc. All movements must be 
made easy by continued practice and a 
natural adaptation of all the parts brought 
into play — position of pen, arm and paper. 
The child only learns to walk and hit its 
nmuili with the spoon after it has had suf- 
ficient practice to give it confidence, so that 
it no longer hesitates, but strikes out boldly 
and without fear. In a little while it can 
feed itself just as well with its eyes shut as 
open, because of the constant repetiiion of 
the act. In writing, then, and in all depart- 
ments of pen art, that freedom, ease and 
grace of stroke can only come after repeated 
efTort at striving with rapid strokes to pro- 
duce standard, graceful iwm^.— Selected. 

Ames's Guide. 
If you desire to have tbc very best aid to 
self-improvement in practical and artistic 
penmanship, send seventy -five cents for 
Ames's "Quidc to Self-Iuslnictiou in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship" (in paper 
covers), or $1 for simie nicely bound in thick 
covers. It tells you all about writing, flour- 
ishing and lettering, and how to learn. If 
you are not pleased with it you may return It, 
and we will refund the cash by return mail. 

^ 1^ ^vl - ^/ 

< I' 

'4j1 "^ If ,Pfc?(,*^; jtcviuty &aA!c met to ^lATC^xjpzejMOn to 'tt:icj3 ojronwd 
^ ^ ^ jotyz^w w&iC&A/iV't&e-aLC <iuypcjin^j} CAiibit^icc-o^Sod tfiC'ij 
wUh/pllcui vuxkwa-cOi'iyiviiiAi <XA\i> i^i ^t-ti-zJnta toton-goon^ t6« wcnco a-zc ■calico fo 
("car vw tHic <i<:at&of 't^i.AHO t iiA^vnc^'W^Aicb (Mii botiaz^/ii^TXie^itah^e-^^<.j}umic 


"-*?-* *>, 




^Ijat as tijt ■^icf((£«BTO4nS«' in tl)i ^rcut^st ml snfdrt in t(if anqals of our 
mri tri» unaurfasseJ milifanijinius luas oiMcJ fortlj bofirnce of Ijttotan. 
^ ^ J- liLfrh/ cnJ tftf pr siipaiioii ofi''' fnff^<** Wfisings to our oirn an^suf 
- ^^ '^ fffimj gonorafioii^ ^!t pS(F5W€"fllF l.ia mumiammitj fou>ar6 a ronqucroif 
uCj 1 oHy g^niou* miJtis wiSf «ciitiv ciur r urit \ tli ■=• irrfj nrafrirs of oui ("Scrul boSij arJ ri 
0-t.iir i tl-o pfrprfuit]) of ur nuhoj ( ir*( ,nt^ ?{ a ^ITott ttf lj:ii.ii.<) t >?irtttt-^ of 6|-- ^\i»u^j ani'Tublif 
-iLipruti oodi fijKolo* hi tfa -Su fr I'll -Jjrilitunitiuiu uii'> tin ^?m)ir-fcirn-in llfi imi of I is 
^ ^iat»-n I Ijif. J ^ ^ ^ 

<illf{ iirf iVfplii -^iiirmtlpi u itl^l fi 1 ci J fuinilii n Ihi'^ tl cir IjourjJ; irfflifiuii ani iKVolcr forifumiOi 

fort of >l 

U. >Hi(l»i« UtJ 

„,; i;''ilS.nt«Ttifliawl'6wi It^- "^Uon hi sb.H'' 4« \««r J^'^SwrntWiL 

^^^ ?l>|.i.r ^ 

/ro;n nn engrossed mcinori<il, /// ./ 1/^ )'///<■, n(, Za^ Professm- of Penmanship in the Sa t yo Co 
age /le has fawi-edthe rtail' is nj th. .Tiuknai. tnith a deioripiion of his journey over tJie Andes and 
across Soutli Avuni-'" ou ///* pugKHf/c home from VhUi. 


Soiiic pcopk' (>-itini;itc thr ability of 
ppriodical mi. I tin iil, ni ,,r ils i-tlitor by the 
qviality of ii . r i Jn ,1 i!,:,ii, r-, It is c 
pi\mtiv<Iy :ii) II-, III. I ii :i frolby writer 
to string fiiM I iiliiiiiii iif wtirds upon any 
auil all subjects. His ideas may flow in oi 
weak, washy, everlustiug flood, and the cor 
m:ind of his langiiaffe may enable him 
string iheiii togelbc 1- like bunches of onion 

and yet bis paper may be but a meagre and 
poor concern. Indeed, the mere writing 
part of editing a paper is but a small portion 
of the work. The care, the time employed 
in selecting, is far more important, and the 
fact of a good editor is better shown by bis 
selections than anything elae : and that, we 
know, is half the battle. But we have said, 
an editor ovight to be estimated, his labor 
understood and appreciated, by the geni 

conduct of bis paper- 
consistent course, ain 
and its propriety 

manl nest 1 gnity 
■t'er-Jou al 

Surety by Mail 

Parties ordering books or n r 
from this office, to be sent liy 
do well to add the small sum of 
the designated price of articles I 
registering same, thereby insi nn^ 

There is observable, throughout Ibe vari- 
ous departments of study or knowledge, a 
close and intimate relation between theory 
and practice; between meditation and action, 
between the discovery of a law in nature 
and the application of that law lo practical 
purposes ; in other words, between Science 
and Art. 

It is not always that this relation is duly 
considered, for the adh(fients to one of 
ihese two departments sometimes depreciate 
those of the other. 

The theorist occasionally looks down 
upon the man who only possesses "common 
sense," as a very mechanical and inferior 
sort of person ; while the practical man not 
unfrequently regards philosophers as beings 
who live in the clouds— almost useless to 
society, and unfitted to rub their way 
through the bustle of everyday life. 

Both parties are wrong ; and the error 
arises from a sort of near-sight edness of the 
mind, which limits the conception within a 
very narrow circle. 

The best way to prove this is to take up 
any one distinct subject, and see how the 
thinkers would get on without the doers, or 
vice versa. Take Navigation, for instance. 
The philosopher finds out the relation which 
the earth bears to the heavenly bodies — the 
mutual bearings which the Equator, the 
Ecliptic, and the Meridians have lo each 
other : the mathematical laws of Spherical 
Geometry, and the application of these to 
the measurement of distances on the earth's 
surface ; the tendency of a magnetized 
piece of metal to point pretty nearly in one 
constant direction, and others of a similar 
kind. But bis thinkings and demonstra- 
tions would do little towards conveying him 
to the Old World without the services of the 
practical man or the instrument maker. The 
latter attends to the qualities of various 
kinds of wood, metal and glass ; the work- 
ing up of these into tubes, axes, pivots, 
graduated scales, lenses, reflectors, magnets, 
and numberless other pieces of apparatus ; 
and the establishment of such a complete- 
ness, both in principle and details, as will 
furnish the means of detenniuing from the 
data supplied by the philosopher, the e.xact 
position of a ship on the broad ocean when 
nothing but water and sky are visible. 

It would be nonsense to say that either 
party could do without the services of the 
other, and useless to attempt any determina- 
tion of the relative value of the two, when 
both are indispensable, a contest for chief- 
tainship may well be dispensed with. 

In all the various subjecis of study and 
investigation, a similar interchange of ser- 
vices is observable. In some cases the 
establishment of scientific principles has far 
outrun application in practice ; while in 
others the practical man has to do much be- 
fore he obtains aid from science. In most 
instances, however, the exchange of ser- 
vices is renewed over and over again. 

Science discovers that glass and similar 
transparent bodies are capable of focalizing 
light, when they are properly shaped. Art, 
thereupon, fashions the lenses for ihis pur- 
pose, »and thereby enables Science to discov- 
er new truths in Aslronomy or in Optics ; 
these new truths, again, suggest to Art the 
means of making instruments powerful 
fiioiigh lo explore the depths of space, or 
dtliciite enough to show myriads of animal- 
luljc within a small speck in space. 

Thus the two go on ; each gaining extent 
and value by giving extent and value to the 

■--^ k^^-^^^^^ 


nbli-hod Monthly at 81 per Y 




nearlj m pi 


The Labor Question. 

The conflict between labor and capital 
during tbe past few years baa grown and 
inlcnsifipd until at present, tbe battle seems 
to rage all along tbe line, and presents an 
issue of paramount interest to all classes of 
society, since all are more or less affected 
by tbe struggle. Witb tbe honest laborer 
wv arc in fill! fellowship and sympathy, we 
lulicvf in the dignity of labor, and that skill 
juh! iiiiilligcnre should be the badge of all 
in.l.iliiy. What does a man know? and 
whiii ciiu be do? should be the question 
riilhcr- ihim bow much money baa he, or 
who \v:is his father and grand fai her ? We 
!iUt) liiliivein the association of labor for 
ihe pKini ition of iLi interests and tbe asser- 
iKiii iind prolerlion of its rights by every 
le-iliinule means, and it has been with 
siilisfacliou ibat we have observed from loyi-ar the growing organization and 
power of labor, not only in this country but 
Ihrouybout tbe civilized world, and because 
of our interest in and desire for tbe greatest 
good possible to the laborer from such 
organ izntion, we have been pained when- 
ever we have seen its power misdirected or 
used as an instrument of oppression and 
wrong. Great power curries wirh it grejit 
responsibility, and rarely in the annals of 
tlie |iiisi has it been so exercised as to al- 
ways (k-fciid the right and do no wrong. 
And it is scarcely lo be expected that in the 
fleree contentions between capital aud or- 
ganized labor the strict bounds of equity 
should not sometimes be transcended. But 
since labor is organized lo secure its own 
rights, it should be most zealous In respect- 
ing the rights of others. Once it comes to 
be tbe instrument of tyrnnuy aud wrong, it 
lines itst'lf what it assumes lo resist, and 
will dcfial its own mission. Tbe right of 
hhon-rs to coiuse to work under any unsatis- 
lunot be <iuostioned, 

but when they seek by force and violence 
to deter others from doing that which tbey 
decline to do, they do a greater wrong than 
is that which tbey are organized lo oppose. 
The interestsof labor and capital are mutual, 
and lioth thrive best when operating in har- 
mony, neither can annoy orcripple the other 
without sharing tbe injury that results. A 
strike or lockout means the loss of wages on 
the one band, and of production on the other, 
aud in nearly every instance the loss in dol- 
lars and cents is greater than the gain to 
eitberside, while theantagonisms engendered 
arc often lifelong and work irreparable in- 
jury to the business and social relations of 
the employer and employed. That differ- 
ences should arise between the employer and 
employee is but in accordance with human 
nature and tbe circumstances, but when 
they do so arise tbey should be settled by 
disinterested arbitrators, and it is our hope 
and belief that the present agitation of the 
labor question will ultimately result in some 
defined method by which all future differ- 
ences will be amicably adjusted by arbitra- 
tion, and that strikes and boycotts will soon 
be things of the jiast. 

.ludd sent a single club nvmibering l.-tO, 
which, added to the present club, makes a 
total of 17G names sent by him within 
three months past. W. A. Ilarshburger. 
Franklin, Neb,, sends a club numberinL' 

The Lesson for June, 

by Prof. Lyman P. Spencer, on Pen Draw- 
ing, will certainly be one of more real value 
to all who arc interc8te<l in that department 
of a penman's profession than any Ibat has 
hitherto appeared in tlie Journai-, aud any 
penman or lover of the art who misses it 
will lose many times the cost of a year's 

Prof. Little*s Lesson 

came to hand too late for its appearance in 
this number, but in syjlendid season for the 
next, which will be mailed the first week of 

The Convention. 

On auothcr page is given a copy of tbe 
programme and circular just issued by tbe 
Executive Committee, setting forth the plan 
for the coming convention. So replete is it, 
witb all the necessary and desired informa- 
tion that little here need he said. To one or 
two points, however, we wish to invite 
special attention : first, to that portion of 
the programme under tbe heading of 
"Papers aud Discussions." and urge the 
great importance that every member should 
at once report to the committee the part be 
will desire to take in the convention ; sec- 
ond, who may become members ; all teach- 
ers in good standing who have taught or are 
now teaching commercial branches, aud 
authors and pulUisbera of books treating on 
these branches. The indications are that 
there will be a larger number of teachers in 
attendance than at any previous convention"; 
tbe facilities are ample and no pains will be 
spared on the part of tbe managers to ren- 
der the convention all that the most san- 
guine attendant may reasonably hope. To 
our Canadian friends especially is extended 
earnest invitation to attend tbe convention. 
Already several have signified their inten- 
tion to come. We hope the attendance may 
be general. Tbe comparison of ideas and 
the acquaintance that grows out of such as- 
semblies of commercial teachers, can 
scarcely be over estimated in its favorable 
influence upon the business college work of 
the land. Come one. come all. 

Write Plainly. 

In the ordinary affairs of life we dress to 
suit the employment or occasion. Were 
one to attire himself in bis " swallow-taii " 
suit and kids to go into tbe field or work- 
shop, he would soon retire under tbe jokes 
aud ridicule of his more sensible associates, 
upon the other hand were one to present 
himself at church or ball or other fosbion- 
able gathering in tbe customary and proper 
garb of the workshop or farm, he would he 
equally open to disparaging comment. 

So in writing ; we should learn to adapt 
its style to the purpose for which it is to be 
used, for all the ordinary purposes of life it 
should be as simple and plain as possible, it 
should be like the gogd old quaker yea and lineor shade unnecessary to legibility 
should be tolerated, but when we come to 
displayed or professional penmanship it 
may be done up in the true "swallow tall " 
style, and yet even here legibility is not 
to be lost sight of. 

The King Club 
for the past umnth numberson.- /iiintlretlarul 
tieenty.Jive, and was sent by K. K, Isaacs, of 
tbe commercial department of the North- 
ern Indiana Nonnal College. Valparaiso. 
lud. The queenclub numbers tmnty-gue 
and was sent by E. L. Burnett, of the 
Bryant and Stratlon Business Coilce, 
Providence. R. I. Clubs numbering ea'ch 
twenty names came from W. V. Chambers, 
penman at Cornell College, Jit. Vernon 
Iowa. Ellis S. Walker, Ypsilanti. Mich.] 
and F. P, .ludd, Souder's Business College! 
Chicago. About two months since Mr 

Personality ir 

" It has been dccliii 

words may 
utterance of 
in friendly 
■'that the 


id that next lo seeing 
tiiri we desire to see his 
( iliii, his autograph. In 
;iMi himdwriting of a per- 
V l>n>Qgbt as it were into 
.vith him." In alluding to 
tborne says, " that the 
to us as with the living 
ipcaking to us face to face. 
Strange," he says, 
identity of paper and ink 
should be so powerful. The same thoughts 
might look cold and ineffectual if in a 
printed book. In truth tbe original manu- 
script has always something which print 
must inevitably lose. Au erasure, even a 
blot, a casual irregularity of hand, and all 
such little imperfections of mechanical ex- 
ecution, bring us close to tbe writer, and 
perhaps convey some of those subtile intima- 
tions for which language has no shape." 
That handwriting conveys more of its au- 
thor than any other product of the mind or 
hand is above question. Every quality of 
mind and body-fis well as the very enviro- 
nients of the wriler. enter inlo. anil help lu 
give shape and character to his wriiing. 

Not only is this true as regards individn- 
als, but of races and nations. Tbe extensive 
and close observer distinguishes between 
nationalities by their writing as readily as 
he does by speech, physiognomy or i^ny other 
race peculiarity. Even where one has 
learned to write another than his native 
language, the race distinction, to a percep- 
tible degree, remains. The writing of a 
German, Frenchman or other foreigner who 
has learned to speak and write tbe English 
language, will retain an idiocratie style as 
perceptible to the expert as will be the brogue 
ipeech ; and tbe one can no more be 
or avoided than the other. 
Again : Writing, to u marked degree, is 
I index to race peculiarities. The impul- 
sive and gesticulating Frenchman repro- 
duces hijuself in bis florid and fantastic 
writing, as does the cool phlegmatic Briton 
in his more deliberate and less ornate style. 
There is, too, sometimes, as strong a re- 
semblance in tbe writing as there is in the 
person and characteristics of different mem- 
bers of the same family, which resemblance 
very naturally results from coincident in- 
struclion. example and family traits. These 
family resemblances are occasionally ap great 
as to render liable a mistake in the identity, 
of both person and writing, by those of 
limited acquaintance ; but not of either, l>y 
associates. In neither 
a complete and pei-fect 
identity to be possible ; nor are the dis- 
tinctive characteristics by which different 
writings are recognized less marked ormore 
uncertain than are those of physiognomy 
and other peculiarities by which persons are 
distinguished one from another. 

The skilled and observing accountant or 
correspondent will recognize the various 
handwritings of all associates in bis bouse, 
as well as of his frequent correspondents, as 
readily and unerringly as be does their per- 
sons : nor can tbe identity of their hand- 
writing be more effectively concealed by 
disguise than can the persons of the writers. 
It is also an observable fact that original or 
highly eccentric persons usually develop a 
correspondingly original and eccentric hand- 
writing. By eccentric writing we do not 
refer U) the well nigh unintelligible hiero- 

in his 

intimate relativ 

glyphics of such newspaper writers as 
Greeley and others, whose essentially had 
writing has generally resulted more from 
the attempt to force an unskilled pen to per- 
form the utterly impossible task of keeping 
pace with !i rushing torrent of thought, 
tliiin from any real eccentricity of charac- 
ter, hul to those whimsical, nondescript 
forms, in which tbe writers utterly ignore 
all system or example, and seem to defy, 
alike, all rules of art and nature by deliber- 
ately introducing forms and combinations 
which may be anything or nothing, accord- 
ing to their position and tbe context, and 
which constitute as a whole a "hand" as 
grotesque and inimitable as is the character 
of its author, and one which seems to say 
to tbe beholder, "This is my style." and 
very properly, for certainly it will enter 
into tbe heart of no other man to conceive of 
anything like it. 

Below we present a few specimens of 
such writing. 

VVc a[>inii(i a fiw autographs of noted 
persoiKiLi ^)ii>li 11' I I iiaiuly »ni ffemria. 
and in til. ilily and defiance 
of presi I i ; . . ; 1 1 : . . graphy are typi- 

cal of tbcii iL-iJL'. Li\'. :uiLb(irs, who. in their 
careers, have been equally original and ir- 
respective of the beaten ways of their grand- 

As another example of the eccentric nu 
tograph— certainly its writer has departed 
widely from the ways of her grandmother 
— we present the following : 


in the words of another writer. 
" a fine combination of masculine vigor and 
feminine caprice." Authors of such writing 
and autographs as above need have no fear 
of a mistaken identity or of any consider- 
able number of accidental coincidences be- 
tween their and any other "sign manual.' 

As between tbe writing of persons who 
write less eccentric or original bauds, the 
dissemblance will be much le-ss marked ; 
the more nearly wriiing remains to the sys- 
tematic style practiced in the school room, 
the more liable it will be to a general 
resemblance and a mistaken idcniity. 

It is the peculiar eccentricities of habit in 
writing, as it is in the figure, dress, etc., in 
persons, which readily and certainly deter 
mine Iheir identity. 

Persons of tLe same color, of medium 
etature, regular features, clothed in tbe pre- 
vailing fashion, present much the same ap- 
peflrance to »hc eye of n slningtr. and on a 
slight acquaintttDce may eiwily lie mistaken 
ouc for another ; hut persons liighly excep- 
tional In any of these respects will he rec- 
ognized at Hight : there can he no mistaking 
(I hlack for a while man. a giant for a 
dwarf, or a cripple on crutches for a man on 
sound legs. Persons arc never so identical 
in form, features, dress, hahit. etc.. as to he 
niislflkeu hy intimate acquaintauces, and 
usually where even ft marked personal 
resemhlance is apparent to strangers, it 
ceases to he observed upon a more intimate 
ac(|uainlnnce. So. however close the re- 
senihlance between the writing of different 
persons may appear to the unfamiliar ob- 
server, the identity of each will not only be 
apparent, at once, to its author and others 
to whom it is faniiliar, but they will usually 
fail even to note a characteristic resem- 

The handwriting of every adult must in- 
evitably have multitudinous distinctive and 
habitual peculiarities— of many of which 
the writer is himself unconscious : such as 
initial and terminal lines, forms ami methods 
of constructing letters, combinations, re- 
lative proportions, turns, angles, spacing, 

Answers to Correspondents. 

O. W. C. Gniflon. Dak.—'* What posilio 
) vou consider best at the desk as we fin 
lliciu ill our public schools, and would yo 

adviw! using the combined movement at such 

Respecting both position and movement 
we should be governed by the circumstances 
of each case. At tlic averaga school desk 
we should seat the pupil right-side to the 
desk so that in most cases and especially at 
narrow desks will begiven the best support to 
the arm. We should advocate and teach the 
combined movement, as a rule, to all but 
the very lowest grades, i. e. to all having the 
necessary muscular development and the 
discretion to imilerstand and intelligently 
practice the movement. 

C. R. J., Wild Plains, Cal.— " I am much 
pleased with your Guide. Is it intended for 
a complete course, and do you think book- 
keeping a good practice for bejjinners ? " 

The Guide is designed for a brief course 
of instruction and practice of plain and 
artistic penmanship. It is by no means to 
be regarded as a full course in every depsirt- 
ment of penmanship as is Ames' Compen- 
dium which is over four times the size of 
the Guide. The practice of bookkeeping 
may or may not be beneficial to the learner 
of writing according as the manner of the 

F. L. N., Momeuoc, III.— •• 1. Can a tt-le- 
grapher who necessarily must write very 
rapidly and therefore i ' — !ii.,..!i.i.. 

and if so what would you t 

It is an old and sensible saying that a Jack 
of many trades is good at none. It is not 
often that a writer can keep his hand sn 
trained as lo write good and very rapid liusi- 
ness writing, and at ihe same lime wriie 
graceful and delicate professional writing. 
Thft essentials of each kind of writing and 
the peculiar training of the hand are so dif- 
ferent as to well nigh preclude their union 
in any degree of perfection in the same 
hand. We can prescribe no remedy for 
nervousness in writing, except that the more 
completely one vises the forearm movement 
the less uervousnass will manifest itself in 
writing. Extensive practice on good move- 
ment exercises will be good. 

L. D. B., Hulmeville. Pa.— " I find that a 
continued use of the oblique holder renders 
me incapable of doing good writing with a 
straight holder ; why should it do that ? I 
can write with more ease with the oblique 
and form my capitals better, but after pro- 
ducing a nicely shaded capital letter I can- 
not gain enough control over my pen lo 
write the small letters of the word lightly, and 
therefore they each ami every one are shaded 
too lieuvily in look nice." 

College, Propideme, It. I. 

slope, shading (in place and degree), crosses, 
dots, orthography, punctuations, etc., etc. 
These peculiarities are the outgrowth of 
long habit, and come at length to be repro- 
duced by the sheer force of habit— as it 
were, automatically by the hand, its move- 
ments being independent of any direct 
thought or mental guidance. Heing thus 
unconsciously produced, and, tn the main, 
unnoted by the writer, they cannot be suc- 
cessfully avoided or simulated through any 
extended piece of \vriting. To do so, a 
writer would be required to avoid that of 
which he was not conscious, and lo copy the 
undiscovered habits of another writer. 

Though writing be changed in its general 
appearance, as it easily may be by altering 
its slope or size, or by using a widely cliffer- 
eut pen, yet the unconscious habit of the 
writer will remain and be perceptible in all 
the details of the writing ; and such au effort 
to disguise one's writing could he scarcely 
more succeJisful than would bo an cITort to 
liisguise the person by h change of dress. 
In either case a close inspection reveals the 
true identity. 

Although it be a fact thai writing ulti- 
mately becomes the aut<mniiic production of 
the hand, it is equally a fact that it does so 
as the pupil and agent of the mind ; and in 
ilicnunilding process the peculiar qualities 
of its tutor and master enter unconsciously 
into its composition, and it becomes, as it 
wiTp. a mirror of its creator— the mind. 

writing upon ilie books is done. If carefully 
written with the view of improving the wri- 
ting, it will be an aid ; but if carlessly done, 
so that the writer falls into old style and 
habits, it will be detrimenlal, as old and bad 
habits will be coufirmeil rather than over- 
come and supplanted by those new and im- 

J. B. G., Sumner, Texas. — "Does farm- 
ing debar one from becominji- a skilled writer, 
or is near-sightedness a hinderance ? " 

Neither of the things mentioned arc bar- 
riers to a good and skillful use of the pen, in 
fact, farming, if not of too heavy a sort, 
would develop and strengthen the muscles, 
80 as to give greater power and endurance. 

B. P. B., Morrisville, Tenu — " Is pre- 
pared India ink mentioned in the Jouunai, 

No prepared India ink is as good for very 
fine pen work as that made by grinding the 
ink freshly from the stick, which is invari- 
ably our method. For lettering all work 
not spec iallydelicateiuitscharacter prepared 
ink answers every purpose. 

C. D. S., Greenfield, Iowa.— "Will you 
give in some future number of the Journal 
a plan for one year's course in writing in 
graded schools ? " 

Will not some of the many special teachers 
of writing in graded schools favor Mr. S. 
and the other readers of the Jouknai. with 
jilans for such a course ? 

In practicing with the oblique holder 
writer becomes accustomed to turning I 
hand outward from the body too much for 
a good position for a pen in aslraight holder, 
hence the increased difficulty in using the 
straight holder after the oblique. The diib 
cully experienced in writing lightly is fruiii 
the want of sufficient discipline of the hand- 
A liberal and careful practice of light move- 
ment exercises will be the most cfTective 
means for overcoming the difficulty. 


"Outlines of Psydinldj^y," with spc* ial 
reference to lln' iIh^m ^'f ^ iln. .iii.m, by 
James Sully. M A I . . i ihr Uni- 

versity of Camliiiil i l; lull edition 

abridged and cdiiril wiih nip. (i.Ihch, ques- 
tions and references lu pediigugical works 
by J. A. Reinhart, Ph.D.. Principal of High 
and Normal Training School, Paterson. 
N. J., C. W. Bardeen. Rymcuse, N. Y., 
Publisher. So far a^ we are able to judge 
of the work from a cursory examination, it 
is admirably adapted to the purpose for 
which it is intended, and would be avabmble 
book not only for the class room but for 
private study and reading. Mailed to any 
address for $1. 

"Ward's Blanks." Letter Writing and 
Business Forms. A. S. Barnes & Co., New 
York, Publishers. The set consists of four 
books. No. 1 gives stamlurd forms for 

letters and bills. No. 2. letters receipts and 
accounts. No. 3, notes, drafts and letters. 
No. 4, business correspondence and review 
of business forms. Examples for each of 
the several forms arc first given in elegant 
script, followed with blank spaces for stu- 
dent's copy. The blanks are handsomely 
printed on good paper and deserve, as they 
no doubt will have, a wide use in the vari- 
ous schools of the land. Every teacher 
should examine them. Price by mail 60 cts. 
"Shaylor's Compendium of I^enmanship," 
by II. W. Shaylor, Portland, Me. Price by 
mail |1. Thi8 is a series of practical copies 
systematically arranged, and in au excellent 
style of writing, and is indeed a valuable aid 
to all learners of writing. As an example 
of good sensible copies, it is in sharp and 
favorable contrast with the more notorious 
Gaskell Compendium. Either teacher or 
pupil had better pay $10 for the former than 
to have the latter as a gift. 


Tfm Office is the title of a new periodical, 
the prospectus of which is at hand, and the 
first issue of which is promised June 1. As 
its title indicates, it is to be devoted to ofBce 
work. It describes itself as "a practical 
journal for accountants, business nuinagers 
and office men." The editorial conduct of 
this paper, which in part enters upon the 
Held left vacant by T/ie Bookktcper, Ameri- 
can Counting iloom and TreasuT}/, now de- 
funct, is in the hands of a successful jour- 
nalist of wide experience, and at the same 
time a man who is practically familiar with 
all the details of office work. The publiai- 
lion of the paper is-as.snmed by a company 
^lH■ri:l^y ui^;iiii/r(l fui I lie purposc, and the 

res ■■ i'-. i.r w lii< h ;irr ;iniiili.' for the under- 

iiiLiiii: //'- ofji'-^ ii"i'- imt propose to con- 
IJiir ii-i'li |m houkkrijiiim and accounts, but 
\\ ill iliM u--- r\-. i-\ pUa&c uf office work, in- 
< IikIiii. oilirr rijiiipmeut and facilities. 
l'r.>iii |n i-MMii knowledge of the men con- 

--.■ I III ilir niirrprise, we are led to ex- 

l>.ri ;iM^iiri;^ aud Valuable paper, and 
Mil, \\\:\\ will prove especially serviceable to 
III. \;i-i number of young men who annu- 
,ili\ I (ii.i upon otHce work. At the same 

;i Miv nil. M -nil- riiiniber. "A Honiance 
oi kiNj i'!iiii|.- \\;ir," is an article in which 
iMi\ M i.Im >.^ill lie interested, also " New^iiiiii Miiiiiii IS," published by the Bay 
hhiii- MuiiUily t ompany, Boston. Mass.. for 
$;!.UU per year, single numbers 35 cents. 

The Tmith'a Companion is published by 
Perry. Mason & Co., Boston, Mass., for 
$1 T"! |Hi vcjir. aiidisoneof the few clean, 
lui-jlii Aii<) ^:iic young folk's papcra pub- 
li^hrd :iiiil iiiMuul doubt it is the most 
|iu|.ul:ii mill widely circulated periodical 
priuiiid ill Auarica. If any of our readers 
have not seen it they should send for a copy. 

The TMm f^tar Penman is the title of a 
new venture in the line of penmen's papers, 
published by Frank U. Spring, Dallas, 
Texas. It is an ti-paged quarto, sprightly 
and interesting. Subscription price %l a 

The Ruchester Commercial Ttcoiew puts in 
its monthly appearance, well dressed and 
well stocked with .sensible ideas. 

'J'hr s„u(/i,ni Ihn'ii.n- fui" May closes the 
in-i \ .iiiiiu ..i Mil ih 'A M'ii).'.s most credit- 
;ii . [ 1 ■ II illustrated Story 

\.\ \' ■:. \ ■ ■ - 11 (old and dram- 

ii If 111. The entire 

;,:i;. : , and Virginia 

< !:■ ■ I" . ; . !■. ■■.in. ■sting. $2 per 

>. .. . : I . '..I ■•■i) cts. B. F. 

Awl.'. -■■ ■■ \ ■ ■■■' I !■ Ky., publishers. 

/ /': /.■ li luiilished by the. 

I >- iN.ii I \] .. I; i:.i ■■!■ I iiivLTsity, makes 

vi;;ui..u.., juiuiii 111^ ^iingftkr and looks as 
if it had come lu .slay. 

Tfie Iloositr NaturaliKt. by A. C. Jones 
& R. B. Trouslot, Valparaiso, Ind., is an 
Illustrated Natural History Magazine, ably 
edited and full of interest to all students of 
that department of knowledge. Mailed one 
year for 75 cents, single copy 5 cents. 

The NonnxJ VriUrio,,. l.v Maxwell Ken- 
nedy. Rushvillr, 111., is a wl-II printed, well 
edited, and vcii.siitli- idiuatiunal paper. 

Mailed r 



1 No 

1 L. M. 
per year. 

,... by S. C, ai 

, N. H., for »1 . 

iii:, and Hie April 

ill of interesting matter. 



And School Items. 

n. W. Ellsworth, author of the Ellsworth Sya- 
tern of I't-tiiuanshfp, has dissolved his partnership 
with Hr. WIlsoQ. and has removed from X' Bond 
nlreet, to Ko. 7 Uotid street. 

Speaking of Prof. Geo. E. Little's "Chalk 
Talk " before the Teachers' Inalltutc of Dauphin 
Co., Pa., Superintendent It. U. McNeal says : "Bis 
wonderful skill displayed in rapid and acuurate 

D. P. Dndsley, author of "TakiKrapl'y. oi' 
LtndsIey'B Shorthand," is now located at No, 817 
Forty-fifth street, Plilladelphia, Pa. 

The Obirlin (Ohio) College Wrltinf; Department, 
conducted by Mesere. McKee A Deuderaon, Is a 
B and popular Institution. Mr. McKee 

sof c 

Hon. Thos. E. Hill, of Chicago, author of " UUVa 
Manual," and " lllll's All>uni of Biography of Art, 
etc.." has of late taken a lively Interest In the 
" eight hour movement " In that city. 

It. B. Tronalot. Valparaiso, Ind.. sends us a box 
of E. E. Isaac's Ideal Pens, which are indeed 
excellent. Send iS centa and g«>t a quarter gross 
box and try them, ynu will Hud It a good luvest- 

The Spencerian Business College. Washington, 
D. C. held its twentieth annual graduating exer- 
cises, on the Aibaugh'a Grand Opera 
Uonae. The tickets of Invitation were highly 
artistic in design and linely engraved on steel. We 
return our thanks for an Invitation, and express 
our regrets for not being able to be present. 

The hynn (Maus.) TYansaipt says : " An excel- 
lent exhibit of penmanship and drawing from the 
(iiiblic schools of l.ynn was presented al the Essex 
County Teachers' (Convention, recently held in the 
Cobbet building In this city. Mr. H. W. Lamson, 
the director of drawing and peiiuianship, has been 
unumaily succeasful in the special teaching and 
fouductof his department in our schools during 
tliepaat flv<^ years, and our oitlzeus take a just 
pride in such an oxhiltlt of results." 

The Journal of Education also mentions Mr. 
I.Amaon'B school work in a hi.thly complimentary 

I.i.fii Hiivii {V:i ] r"! I ning Rrprtss mya :" The 

lain? .1 j.iii.i.. ■iiL-i .lii i| i^iipy of a let ter written to 
llii- flii.u Ml iliai \:,[:<-r by Prof. Wm. 0. Christie, 
Instrui L"i 111 tu'ii}ii;nisliiii at the School of Busi- 

is a model furplniu, oiwy and excellent wriliug, 
and in striking contrast with the rude and ungain- 
ly furmn known as Gaskell's t'oin|iendium.' The 
AuT JouitNAi. Isrecoguized authority on all mat- 
ters relating to penmanship and exerolsea good 
Uiste In selecting so worthy a siibjeot for it.s 

ig tbe past school year ending 
iLiniensin nearly every instance 
inipruvemcnt and certainly re- 

Stewart of Uh 
awarded prizes f i 

e postage paid in full at UtUr r 

1 packages come short 


Lett<^r3 Uie style of which were worthy of note 
have been received from : 

V. H. Whiteraan, Blinabcthtown, New Mexico, 
renews his subsoripllon and says • " Too much 
cannot be said in favor of the Journal. It Is the 
best of all the penmen's papers. I hare taken it 
four years, and we arc going to Ite life-partners." 

.). J. llagcn, Newbury, Minn. 

A. ('. Miirls, Janesviile, Wis. 

S. L. Ouinn. Guinn's Commercial College. Texas. 

L. D. llloudln, Ilolnieville, l*a. " I consider the 
Ji'UKSAi. the I>e8t penman's paper published in the 
United suites. It has been a good Investment lo' 
me ; eaib iniini>er Is superior to its predecessor." 

A. B. Blanchard, Romney, Ontario. 

E. L. Ullck, Caledonia, Mich. 

A. C. Cooper, of Cooper Normal College. Dule- 
ville. Miss. "Of the eight papers I take, the 
JotTRNAL is lirst." 

C. M. Robinson, Union Business follege, I,a 
Fayette, Ind. 

W. J. Kinsley, Shenandoah, Ind. 

G. P. Sturges, Northwestern University. Evan- 
ston, III. 

A. A. Uazellon, Shaw's Business College, Port- 
land. Me, 

A. B. Stauffer. Ohio Nomnl University. Ada, 

Ira It. Harris. Allstnu, Mass. 

0. W. Allison, Newark (Ohio) Business College. 

J. A. Wesco, Lovllla, Iowa. 

N. 8. Beardsley, penman. High School. St. 
Paul, Minn. 

W. A. Moulder, Clyde (Ohio) Business CoUego, 

H. S. Eneeland, Cadillac, MIoh. 

\V. J. Elliott, Chatham (Ontario) Business College 

C, F. Wellraan, E. Jaffery. N. H. 

H. J. Putnam. Archibald's Business College, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

E. Q. livans. Burlington, Vermont. 

W. A. Uarshbarger, teacher of writing, Frank- 
lin, Neb. 

C. G. Prince, penman, Clark's Buffalo (N. Y.) 
Business College. 

J. R. Williams, Pleasant HUl, Miss, 

W. V. Chambers, Cornell College. Mt. Vemnn, 
Iowa, and a club of twenty names, 

W. G. Christie, penman, Christie's School of 
Business, Lock Haven, Pa. In the last number 
of the Journal was Ipubllshed a letter written 
by Mr. Christie. In connection with which he was 
mentioned as the proprietor of the school, which 
was our mistake, as it is his nncle, S. N. Christie, 
who is the proprietor. Mr. W. G. Christie Is a 
pupil of II. W. Flicklnger. 

T. A, I,eddin, Business College, Memphis, Tenn. 

G. A. Shaw, Huron, Mich. 

W. W. McClelland, Union Business College. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

D. L. Muaselman, Gem City Business College, 
(lulncy. ni. 

Locke Thompson, Iowa. "Tlie Joitrnai. Is the 
paper which every boy and girl should hare." 

Normal College. Logans- 

0. II. Sohweinhart. St. Mary's, Ind. 

W. C. Harney, Davenport (Iowa) Business Col- 
lege and a club of subscribers. 

S, C. Malone, pen artist, Baltimore Md,, and a 

A. A. Clark, superintendent of writing in the 
public schools of Cleveland, Chlo. "I find the 
JouRNAi, a valuable aid to me." 

A. W. Lowe, Lynn, Mass. 

E. H. Cavert, pupil of the Albany (N. V.) Busi- 
ness CoUege. 

J. R Burner, Eureka, Nev. 

C. J. Peatt. Shelby. N. Y., and a club of sub- 

William Feller, Canton (Ohio) Business College. 
II. II. Stutsman, Denver, Col. 

D. R. Young. Mt. Morris, III. 

P. D. Taylor. Traverse City. Mich. 

A. D. Skeeis, Romeo, Mich. 

J. G. Harmiston, Lexington, Ky. 

G. W. SluBser, Mc(Jaheyavllle, Va. 

II. J, Williamson, Pen Art Hall, Rlelimond, Va., 
and a club of subscribers. Mr. W. says: "Prof. 
A. n. Ilinman taught a coui-se of lessons In short- 
hand to a class in uiy school during the present 
mouth. We were all delighted with the Instruction 
received from him, and were highly pleased in 
having so distinguished a penman and business 
educator in our midst." 

S. <'. Williams, Spalding's Commercial College. 
Kansas City, Mo. He says "The April number 
takes us by storm ; should you double the price of 
the JoiTRNAL we should not complain." 

Geo. Spencer, Mutual Life Insurance Company, 

C'has, E. McKee. CanBeld, Ohio. 

A. E. Dewhurst, Ullca. N. Y. " I get more than 

.1. C. Knapp. Rushvllte, 111. 

A. W. Lowe. Lynn, Moss. 

L, T. Hannun. Nunnal Sobool, York, Pa,, and a 
club wf KubKcrlhcrs; "The Jouukal leads all the 
penmen's i)aper8. and Is Improving every month." 

C. L. Martin, Des Uolnes, Iowa. 

H. W. KIbbe, pen artist, Utlca, N. Y., and 
promises a speuimen soon for publication In the 


Thos. P. Dassett, Philadelphia, l>a. 

O. W. Wood, MoKee«purt(PaO Business College. 

Henry .Sykes. teacher of penmanship. Munches- 
tor, lingland : "Vour compendium received; 1 
consider It a perfect gem." 

P. B. Stern, Spring Hill. Kan. "Was pleased 


I alont 

s subscription." 

Emma Crook, Corry. Pa . and a club of subsorib- 

W, F, Morlng. Chicago. In a good practical hand. 

E. W. Burnett. Providence (R. I.J Business Col- 
lege and a club of subscribers. 

J. H. Livingston, teacher of writing, Carey, Ohio. 

Lizzie Stockwell. Milton. Wis. " I (ind the Jour- 
nal a great help in my school." 

J. M. Davis, penman and card writer. Lincoln. 

G. R. Black, Washington, Iowa. " For real merit 
the Journal leads all publications of Its class." 

n. II. Kellogg. Shenandoah, Iowa: "Tlie Jodr- 
nal should be in the hands of every penman." 

Thos. Hogg, Chealey, Ontario. 

L. Madarasz, card writer, NewJYork, In elegant 

J. C. Walk, C^ambersburg, Pa. 

F. P. Judd, Bonder's Business College. Chleago. 
Hi., and a club of twenty subscribers. 

A. D. Small, New Brighton, Pa., aletterflourished 
bird and specimen slips. 

G. tl. Chapin. card wi-iter in Assembly Chamber, 
Albany, N. Y., a letter anH cords. 

E. L. Modlin, Excelsior, Minn., a package of 
flourished cards. 

R. W. Ballentlne, Balleutine's Mills, N. C. a let- 
ter and cards in excellent slyle. He says " I have 
had no instruction except through the Journal." 

U. N. Alien, Huntsvllle, Texas, a letter, a 
flourished bird and several well eseouted move- 
ment exercises. 

J. A. Wlitis, pen artist. Georgetown. N. Y., a 
letter and a Bnely displayed circular, photo-en- 
graved from his own pen-and-ink work, He says 
"The Journal Is a valuable 
and fraternity." 

H. Foiardeau. Quebec. Can., a letter and a photo- 
graphic copy of a skillfully engraved memorial. 

C, D. Sllnker, Greenfield. Iowa, a letter and a 
flourished bird, 

P. B. Shlnn, a letter and a photograph of a speci- 
men of flourishing and drawing on lilaok card 

L. H. Ilansam. Fort Scott, Kan., a letter, cards 
and copy slip, all good for a 16-year-old. 

J. H. Cottle, Fort Totten, Dak., a letter and 

Minneapolis, Minn., a letter 
with several skillful combinations for a signature. 

C. L. Perkins, Norwich, Conn., a letter and 
several specimens of flourishing. 

J. M, I-ant/., Enimltsburg. Md,, a letter, flourish, 
and several copy slips. " The Journal li-ads them 
all. 1 was duped into buying a Gaskell Compen- 
dium, but soon discovered my mistake and sold It 
for fifty cents, I came near meeting Mark Check- 
up's fate." 

W. T. Lyon, special teacher of writing. Youngs- 
town, Ohio, a letter in excellent style. "The 
JoouKAi. pleases me exceedingly and I can heartily 
endorse what Mr Root yays, ' the Journal is the 
best in the world.' 1 thought of writing up a les- 
son for a futiire number, but when I read Mr. I'nr- 
ley's admirable paper in the February number I 
found he had said what I wanted to say much bet- 
ter than I could do. I wisli everybody coulil mid 
would fully appreciate one point In it; ■ When 
studying form you must sacriflce movement, and 
when studying movement you must sacrifice form. ' 

Messrs. Goodyear & Palmer, of the Cedar Rapids 
(Iowa) Business College, several photo-engraved 
specimens of artistic penmanship. 

D. A. Grifllths. Capital City Business College, 
Austin, Texas, a, letter and several specimens of 
praoticat writing, also cluii of eight suliscrlhers, 

A, M, Hargis. of the Grand Island (Neb.) Bus. 
Col., a letter and flourished bird. "April Jouunal 
is splendid, espeelnily ' Checkup.' If there Is any- 
thing in the Jourm-^l that I have uppveoiated. It 
has|been what you have said aliont the ' nask>>ll 
Compendium.' " 

Lessons in Practical Penman- 

The lesson for June will be given by 
Lyman P, Spencer, upon " Pen Drawing. * 
and will be most elegantly illuatnited by 
gems of pen art from bis pen. It will be it 
lesson that no lover of pen art ciiu afford to 

Tbe lesson for July will be given by A. 
W, Lowe, Lynn, Maaa. 

W. A. Moulder, of tbe Clyde (Ohio) 
Business College will give tbe lesson for 

G. A, Hougb, of Fort Scott (Kan.) Nor- 
mal College, will give a lesson in tbe Sep- 
tember number. 

Tbe following named gentlemen bave 
already given notice of tbeir acceptance of 
our invitation, and will give lessons at such 
times as will be mutually ncceptable : 

n. W. Flickinger, Pbiladeli)bia. Pa. ; 
Tbos. J. Stewart, Trenton, N. J.; W. R. 
Glen. Phila.,Pa.; H. A. Spencer, New York; 
R. J. Mogee, New York; L.L. Tucker, New- 
ark, N..T.; C. Bayless, Dubuque, Iowa; W. 
n. Patrick. Baltimore. Wd.; E. Burnett. Bal- 
liniore. Md. ; II. T. Looiuis. Spencerian 

Business College, Detroit, Micb. ; Uriah 
McKee, Oberliu (Ohio) College ; F. F. Jndil, 
Chicago. 111. 

We are very sure that the practical infor- 
mation that will be presented in tbe scries of 
lessons to be given by sncb representa- 
tive teachers as are named above will be 
of solid advantage to all teachers and pupils 
of writing. 

Note, — All who bave consented to give a 
lesson, are hereby requested to designate ibe 
time at which they prefer to do so. Also, 
to any teacher or author, who has not sig- 
nified his purpose to give a lesson, and who 
contemplates doing so, 
hereby extended. 

Buffalo, N. Y., April, 17. I88G. 
Editor Penman's Aht Journj*!. : 

Prof. Toland makes the following sur- 
prising declaration in bis lesson in tbe last 
number of tbe Journai., i. e. -. "Tbe 
oblique holder is a nuisance in every sense 
of the word." and goes on to say that 
"those who use and recommend it nre. 
with a few noted exceptions, either very in- 
ferior writers or interested in selling it." 
Now, I will venture the assertion that there 
is not a single intelligent and skillful penman 
in this country (with the exception perhaps 
of Prof. Toland), who does not both use 
and recommentl tbe oblique bolder, and it 
.certainly cannot be supposed Ihat all these 
penmen are either " very inferior writers " 
or "interested in selling it." Tbe various 
points of superiority which tbe oblique 
holder possesses over any other ever in- 
vented, have been so often commented upon 
in the Jouunal and all other penmen's 
papers, that they do not need to be revived 
here ; suffice it to say that this bolder is 
univer.snlly conceded to be far superior to 
any other for the use of the professional 
penman, while many good business writers 
prefer them on account of the firmness with 
which tbe pen is held in position, to;:ellier 
with greater certainty of securing unir.nti 
ity of slant and spooiug. 

The writer iillnws bis pupils lo ns.'i itli.r 
the olilii|ue ur straight bolder as lliey preler, 
and invariably finds that those pupils who 
choose tbe former make the most rapid pro- 
gress, while those who at first tried the old- 
fashioned holders soon discard them for tbe 
more serviceable oblique, and express them- 
selves as much pleased and profited by Ibe 
change. It is to h<-,l liml Ijii-: question 
will be thorougb!\ ill ' i -> M'^ iIh l.nihren 
at the Convention ihi- -nn,iii,r. .in.l ii free 
expression of opiniim biuuyli) uiil. 

C. G. Puincd;, 
Clark's Business College. 

An Odd Will. 
When I was a boy I beard fif a lawyer 
who was called out in the niiihllc of a cold 
winter's night to draw up tlie will of an old 
farmer who lived some three uiiles away, 
and who was dying. Tbe tnessengers had 
brought a cart to convey the lawyer lo the 
farm ; and the latter in lUw time arrived at 
his destination. When he entered the house 
he was immediately ushered into the sick- 
room, and be even requested to be supplied 
with pen. ink and paper. There was none 
in the house ! Tbe lawyer had not brought 
any himself, and what was be to do ? Any 
lead pencil V be imiuired. No : they had 
none, Tbe farmer was sinking fast, though 
quite conscious. At last tbe legal gentleman 
saw chalked up on the back of the bedroom 
door column upon-cohnnn of figures in 
chalk. These were milk " scores " or 
" shots." lie immediately asked for a piece 
of chalk, and then, kneelin;,' on tbe lloor, 
he wrote out concisely uptm the smooth 
hearthstone the last will and testament of 
the dying man. The farmer subsequently 
died. The hearthstone- will was .sent to the 
principal registry in London, with special 
affidavits, and was duly proved, the will 
being deposited in the archives of Ihe regis- 
try, I may meniion that Ihe law does not 
slate upon what substance or with what in- 
strunu'nt a will must be written. 

The Writing- Ruler has become a standard 
article with those who profess to have a suit- 
able outfit for pmctical writing. It Is to the 
writer what the chart and compass is to the 
mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a reliable 
penmanship chart and compass, sent by the 
Journal on receipt of 30 cents. 

'-JilliJ ^^"_._.... 

An African New Year's Card. 

Orconraetill boys and girls know what 
the cactus is— o green, grotesque-looking 
plant, almost covered with sborpspines and 
bearing a most gorgeous flower ; but I am 
sure they do not know all of the uses to 
which the cactus can he put, nor do I be 
Ilcve that the most ingenious guesses could 
come near to tbc truth. 

It is a native of America, but it has bceu 
taken to Europe and Africa, and now grows 
in the latter country in great profusion. 

But. after all. the oddest use of the cactus 
prevails in Cape Town, South Africa, 
where its leaves are made to serve the pur- 
pose of visiting-cards. Fancy cnn-ying 
about in your coat pocket a lot of thick 
leaves covered with spines as sharp as 
needles ! But, wait a moment. The leaves 
.of the particular kind of cactus so used are 
not very prickly, and, moreover, they are not 
carried about, but arc left growing on the 
plant, which stands at the foot of the front 

When a lady calls she has only to draw 
out one of these ever ready hat pins, with 
wliich ladies are always provided, and wiUi 
the sharp point HCnitrb her name on the 
glossy, green surface of the leaf. A gentle- 
man generally umcs the point of his pen- 
knife. The lines turn silvery white and re- 

('ollege and the Speheerian College will Ije 
at the option of the Convention. 

On Wednesday evening a mei^ting will be 
held at Chickering Hall to nhiih the public 
wilt he invited, and wliieh will be aildrei-ied 
by representative New Yorkei-s in a welcome 
to the delegates, and responses made by 
members of the Association, 

It is also suggested that at least one other 
public meeting he had for the discussion of 
some broad educational topic ; and Ihal the 
public be invited to attend the reguhir ses- 
sions of I he Conventiou. 

It is proposed that Thursday, Saturday, 
Monday, Tuesday and the forenoon of 
Wednesday be given up wholly to the real 
work of the Convention, and that Friday be 
devoted to an excursion and banquet, wliicli 
has been ten{lered to the members by the 
Packard Alumni Association. 

Suggestions as lo hours and means of re- 
creation and leisure are given under the 
proper head. 

The daily proceedings t 
following schedule ; 

Meeting at 1 p. m. for Organization. 
— 1. Report of Secretary and Treasurer 

committees; 10 to 11:30. Bookkeeping as 
adapted to retail business ; 11:30 to 1, Busi- 
ness piaciice ; At what stage of the course 
shall it begin, and of what shall it consist? 

Afternoon Session. 3 to 4.— Women in 
business ; 4 to 5, The ethics of business. 


Morning Session, 9 to 10.— Meetings of 
committees; 10 to 11:30, Penmanship in 
class instruction; 11;30 to 1. Shorthand: 
Methods of leaching, and practical results to 
be accomplished. 

Afternoon Session, 2 to 4. — Social econo. 
my : Its place in a business course, and how 
it may best be taught ; 4 to 5, Commercial 
law : Method and extent of instruction. 

Morning Session, 9 to 10.— Meeting of 
committees ; 10 lo 11:30, Language : How it 
can best be taught in business schools, and 
lo what extent; 11:30 to 1, Election and 
general good of the Association. 

The Committee desire to make room for 
all members who have anything to say, and 
wish lo suy it; and, in order that proper 
arrangements may be made to this end, it is 
suggested that those who are willing to take 
part, either in the preparation of papei 
in the discussions, shall communicate 

The abow cut was pJioto-ejigraved from a Utter written by A. D. Skeds. TeacJier of WntCng, Borneo. Mich. The Utter was writUn 
in Vte ordinary course of eorTe»pQnd€iice, with tw expectation of its beinff published, and is a good itpecimen of practical writing. 

main on the leaf, clear and distinct, for 
years and years. On New Year's Day, 
these vegetable cards are especially conve- 
nient, aud ladies who wish to keep the calls 
of that day apart from those of other days, 
appropriate a branch of the cactus to that 

Oue gentleman in Cape Town has a cactus 
plant which fs nearly tiftceu feet high. Its 
great thick leaves are almost all in use as 
visiting cards, so that he ha** a complete and 
lasting record of his visitors. It cannot he 
said that this practice adds to the beauty of 
the plant. l»ut then it is oddity and not 
huauty that is desired in such cases. 

There is one cactus, not so plentiful as 
that just described, which is of a very ac- 
commodating character. It not only has 
smooth leaves, but the spines it has are so 
■■ aud stiff that tht-y can be used as pens 

tht' h'l 

. ihi,, 

Eit^hth Annual Convention of 
the Business Educators As- 
sociation of America, to be 
held in New York, Wednes- 
day, July 7. to Wednesday, 
July 14. 
The Executive Conunitiee of the " Busi- 
ness Educators Association " takes pleasure 
in -(ubmitiiiig the following suggeslicuis as 
III ihe comini; Convention : 

Tlie Convention will be calleil to order 
at Ihe rooms of ihe Packard College, on 
Wednesday .luly 7, ai 1 p. m., for organi/a- 
tiou and listening to the President's address. 
Forsuksequeni meetings, bolli the I'aikitr.l 

Chickering Hall, 8 i-. m.— 1. Adresses of 
welcome from emineul citizens : 2. Res- 
ponses by the President and members of the 
AK.«io(;iation ; 8. Slitlementa from the Ex- 
ecutive Committee and 
the meetings of Ihe Convention, 

Morning Session, to 10. — Meeting of 
committees or .sections for the eonsiileration 
of special subjects; 10 to 11:30, Bookkeep- 
ing: How to introduce tl»e study of accouuis: 
11:30 lo 1, Penmanship: The best method of 
leaclung in commercial seliools. 

Afternoon Session, 3 to 4. — School Man- 
agement, as applied to the BuHincss ('ol- 
U'ge ; 4 to 5, Helation of businesa colleges 
lo public schools. 

Morning Session, 9 to 10. — Meeting of 
committees; 10 lo 11:30, Bookkt epiug : 
How far and in what tlircclion sliall we go 
in applying the science to business special- 
liesy 11:30 to 1. Aritlimetic : How to teach 
it to secure the best practiced results. 

Afternoon Session, 3 to 4. — Induslrial 
education : Its relations to busincfts college 
work and to the educational interests of the 
country ; 4 to a. Commercial Coirespun- 
dence ; To what extent it may be taught as 
a special duty? 

M(nning Ses,si 

10.— Mectin 

the Cliairnian of the Committee, before tlie 
day of meeting. 

It is desired that every discussion shall be 
opened in a deliberate way, through a care- 
fully prepared paper or addre-^B, occupying 
not to exceed thirty minutea, to he followeil 
by extemporaneous discussion ; and, while 
evei7 member will be accorded the consti- 
tutional privilege of speaking upon any 
open question, it will very much aid the 
Committee to know in advance, the names 
of those who may be called upon to speak 
upon the several topics named. The experi- 
ence of former conventions hjis taught us 
that a full hour for discussion of the points 
in any prepared paper or address is as brief 
a lindt as shoidd be set. 

The Connniltce are prepared to say, from 
assurances already at haml, that none of the 
topics are likely to go begging. 


The object of devoting the morning hour, 
from 9 to 10, to "Meetings of the Commit- 
tees and Bectious," is to give ample oppor- 
tunity for the penmen, the shorthand writers 
aud teachers, and all other specialists, to 
confer with each other without restraint, 
and thus to promote a belter acquaintance 
aud more effective cooperation. A room 
also will be set apart for the exhibition of 
books, machines, and appliances of any sort 
ay)pn)pii!iie to the work in hand. 

The matter of reduced fare on the railroads 
has been seriously aud ciu-efully considered 
by the Comniiltee, the result being, that on 

account of the uncertainly as to the number 
of persons to be provided for on any partic- 
ular route, aud the fact that very few will 
eare to come and return over the same route, 
the effort to secure special reductions would 
prove of little avail. They would also call 
attention to the fact that these are times of 
abnormally low rates on all roads leading lo 
New York, aud that, tlirough outside ticket 
agents, even these low rates may he dis- 
counted. It will be the business of the Com- 
nuttce to secure all possible favors in these 

New York is a city of hotels and boarding 
houses, and good hoard can be secured at 
from ten dollars a week to ten dollars a day, 
according to the inclination and the purse of 
the guest. The ordinary price for gor.d 
single rooms, at the hast hotels, is from %\ 
to $1.50 a day; double rooms, |;2 to f3..')0. 
There is no good reason ior placing the en 
tire cost of lodging and board, in good 
hotels, aaove $3 a day ; and any one who 
desires to ceouomize, cau live comfortably 
and respectably on $3.50. Good boarding 
houses can be found, in close proximity to 
the Convention, at a rate not to exceed $10 
a week. Places at hotels or boarding hou.sea 
will he secured in advance, by addressing 
the Chainnan of the Committee. 


A Bureau of Information will be estab- 
lished, to hold during the Convenlion, from 
which can be obtained all necessary infor 
mation as to places of recreation and amuse- 
ment ; and it must not be forgotten that 
New Yoik, in summer time, holds out un- 
usual attractions in this line. Especially is 
it rich in cheap and pleasant excursions to 
the country and the sea-side, while the 
numerous theatres and concert halls, ar- 
ranged especially forsummer entertainments, 
are itH- thai could he desired. 


In conclusion, the "Co,ramittee would r&- 
-speetfully call the attention of members and 
their friends to the fact that this is an im- 
portant time in Ihe hislory of onr Associa- 
tion, aud that tlierc are weighty reasons why 
a special effort should he made lo properly 
place our work before the public. Many of 
us have been in the field uninterruptedly for 
twenty-live yeai's and more, aud others who 
have come into it more recently have the 
same or even greater interests at stake in the 
malter. There seems to be almost as much 
neee.'«ity for educating the public mind now 
as there has been at anytime in the past, 
notwithstanding the growth of our specialty 
and the missionary efforts of earnest and 
progressive tcachei-s. Those who have fol- 
lowed the line of progression as advanced 
by our recent conventions, cannot fail to see 
that in this method lies our best avenue to 
the public sense and our best means of pro- 
moting efficiency in our individual schools. 
The Business Educators Association had its 
hirlh in New York eight years ago. and 
there are important reasons why its return 
to the old ground should be .signalized by 
such evidences of soHd growth as shall 
impress the public. To this end, it is essen- 
tial that we bring into our discussions the 
best thoughts that are in us, and that we 
leave no doubt in our own minds or in the 
minds of our friends that we are in the line 
of advancement in educational ideas and 
processes. It is believed by the Committee 
that the convention of '86 will be in many 
respects the most important that has yet 
been held. Evidences are at hand of a very 
large attendance, and the prompt responses 
which have been made to reciuests for papers 
and CO operation in other matters give- evi- 
dence of unusual zest. It is to he hoped 
that members of the Association will not 
only make an effort to be present them- 
selves, hut will use their influence to induce 
a large attendance of teachers within tlie 
line of their correspondence. Especially do 
the Committee request suggestions and 
inquiries touching any point of interest. 
They are detennined to leave no effort un- 
tried which shall lend to the comfort of 
members or to the advancement of the cause. 
Communications should be addressed to the 
Chairman, who engages to render prompt 

S. S. Packaud, 805 Broadway, N. Y. 
D. T. Ames. 205 Broadway. N Y. 
L. F. Gardnek. Poughkecpsie, N. Y. 

Exeevtise C&mmitUe. 
Ni:w YouK. May 10. 18S6. 

Discomfited by His Wife. 


It wan merely tlicquestiou : "Do you be- 
lieve in eliiimcter iu Imudwritiiig?" which 
cmised the old Professor of Calligrftphy to 
cense hi8 'Equips niul cranks" and lo be- 
come sedately meditative. Before that query 
had been addressed loliiui his geniality and 
affable verbosity hud delighted the ambi- 
tious boy who sat before him. But bis flow 
of elo(Hience stopped suddenly: • Jffi' expres- 
sion of pained recolleclio;, supplanted the 
bland smile which ■■iq^j previously illumi- 
nated bis coii^icrmnco; the floodgates of 
^^'eni07,jKe,(, openc.1 and out rushed a 
C.TCain of reminiscences with such force that 
tbey overwhelmed llie ambitious hoy. So 
be sat qniclly down and made ibe best be 
could of them. 

"Do I believe in character iu bandwrit- 
ing?" echoed the Prof es.sor, waving his right 
hand dramatically and placing his left over 
the region physiologically supposed to cover 
the heart. "To be brief witli you, my 
friend, I do not. Why not? Ob, simply 
because, a few years ago. I made the rend- 
ing of character from handwriting a spe- 
cialty in the far West and earned my bread 
and buttrr by the thousands of specimens 
which were submitted to me, mid for wbicb 
I charged sat is fac lory rates," 

This Hstounding announcement brought a 
roseate tinge to the jaundiced complexion 
of tlie Profciwor. Shnme was not entirely 
dead in hlui, and be resolved, as be subse- 
quently said, to. torture himself iis much as 
possible by frank conftsBion. " I owned a 
little paper," be said, " the name of which I 
do not care lo reveal, but which you will 
allow me to call 'Character' when I allude 
to it in my conversation with you. It was 
not a stupendous sheet. It merely professed 
to receive specimens of handwriting for 
analysis— the luinlyNis to be printed in the 
form of the character of tbe sender. I un- 
dertook to make this analysis for anybody 
in any city in any counliy in the world, and 
I advertised myself very considerably. I 
must say iliis r<.r, when I siurted 

.uM 1 


'^'"•'"f^ ■■" I- " -MMi i.. u,...,|,iiteun- 

prejudn;Ld, tiui^^d aL .>.,!■».■ ,-,uri ol a satis- 
factory reaull. You see I was uutrammeled 
by loaves and fishes at that lime." 

The Profe^sor sighed, and tbe ambitious 
boy sighed to keep bim company. Then the 
Professor looked ashamed of him.self for 
having siglicd, and the ambitious boy did 
exactly the same out of sympathy, 
,„"l.'l''"'^ 'i'>', ^^"S^i'^l' ':'-g"» Hbout the 

sitid : - i in. 

In Ibe's.m 

■d I hem 
■ which 
tion for 

and a demand for analysis of the bundwrit 
ing. Ill a third heap I arranged the de- 
mands for analysis, accompanied by a three 
months' subscription. Into tbe fourth and 
last heap I carelessly threw those letters 
which simply requested an analysis of hand- 
writing, unaccompanied by any lucrative in- 
closure. From that moment I was a changed 
man. I was a charlatjin. My sincerity had 
gone. The mania for dollars and cents bad 
replaced all myambitious ardor." 

The Professor drew a handkerchief across 
bis perspiring brow, and paused a mouient 
before he continued: " Tbat morning I set 
10 work to analyze, Ilie 40 specimens I had 
just rec^ved. liecoUect, I never knew un- 
til aiierward that I bad lost my earnest- 
ness, I first of all analyzed tbe handwrit- 
ing of those who bad inclosed a year's sub- 
scription money. There were six of these. 
I remember tbey all seemed very remark- 
able in their vigor. One I set down as 
' clever, thoughtful, and well trained ;' an- 
other as ' energetic, persevering, and well 
balanced;' a third, 'frank, candid, with 
cool and active judgment ;" a fourth as 
'original and brilliant.' The last two were 
the handwrllings of ladies, and I analyzed 
them, respectively, as ' well cultivated and 
self-relinnf and ' yen tie and sweet.' Then 

I ftirt:^-,) fn mv ^, ,,.;i,l 1, ,,-,]■,, wMch COn- 
l;liU"! !■.' [>r- ■:■„■, ' " ' 'r. ■■|n^r to HjQgp -^yJiQ 

li.i'i I i)i> to ' Charac- 

i-i-i - 'I.- ■.:.. 1 ...iiiiii these speci- 

iijni- f ii- 1..-. :.iii;i",tciui_\. Among them I 
I>ut such aniilysc'B iis ■shrewd,' 'scheming,' 
'inclined to be thoughtful,* 'prone to er- 
rors of judgment, ' " lacking in persever- 
ance,' and so on. Then, in my analyses of 
tbe handwritings iu my third hesip, which 
represeuttd tbe three months' subscribors, 
I found things lo be still more unsatisfac- 
tory; one man I discovered lo be ' hard 
hearted," another had his moral sense some- 
what blunted," a third was ■ not too consci- 
entious,' while a lady was 'frivolous and 
not to be relied upon.' In tbe last heap I 
was horrified at the depravity which the 
handwriting of those who had asked for 
no subscription showed me, I was posi- 
tively shocked at the utter lack of princi- 
ple which these appIiciiuUs luiide numifest. 

'Will you kil,li]^ ..Mu... M,v l,,M,l^MUil,JrV' 

paper, I I....' ■ \u:\-;\i- 

bors.' I iilia.\/iii U i:iii - |i:iiMHM-ltiug 

very quickly." I ,ii.-.Luwieil tiiai lie was 
' unreliable, egoiistieal. .sellish to a degree, 
and utterly lucking in busiuess skill and 
ability to push his way through the world.' 
Ah," said the Professor, sighing, "I remem- 
ber now tbat I wrote that analysis while I 
was very angry. 1 never stopped to aak 
myself why 1 was angry. It surely ought 
not to have made any ditTerence to me 
whether the applicant was honorable or the 
contrary. However, I never asked myself 
if I were inrtial or impartial." 

The ambitious boy smiled. He fancied 
he saw a smile on the Professor's face. He 
was mistaken. It was an embryo frown, 
and he lost no time in putting a similar ex- 
pression fnt^ his own countenance. 

^'^U' ("rtT'-jiMiidcnce continued to in- 
11. I. i-,ii[u I tin- Professor, "in a dis- 

''■'■ aiiner. But in less than 

■' ■ ' I Hint I no more read tbe 

'ill' "''I "1 4>pli<iints from their hand- 
^^^^ll.-^ ihiiu 1 ilid from the manner in 
will. Ii Tliey stuck on their postage stamps 

They were n 

■ taffy.' W I 

seemed tn Hi 
accorded u.i 
true, so I ;i.l' 
very well iti, 

("luiilitied lo be 
iliuds. I knew 
L'entlemen pro- 
my unqualified 
c any very un- 

pleasant remark tliey would still be more 
irate. Oh! I knew and I know still the in- 
wardness of human nature. My method for 
the f -iture was to be less lavish of praise, 
with a trifle of non-promising censure. Here 
is one of the analyses I sent : 

"'There is energy iu this handwriting, 
but the writer is tno prone to rely uppn -1*7* 
own lnilliM!U'\- 'I'lii- has pro(^UjW"*^jzinesa.' 
NdonriMnM i.i.i 1,^ <:.„, .^ytaingbntpieas- 
'^"' ' ' as that. Another ran 

^'";. :. . lyle: ' This is a lady's 

baiiii ^!ii ill. .iliisive and demonstra- 
tive, which is llie result of a kindly, loving 
disposition not properly controlled. She is 
mucTi admired by the gentlemen, however, 
who — perhaps, wrongly— foster tbe effusive 
and demonstrative featvires I have mention- 
ed.' Nine out of ten girls would chuckle 
with glee at tbe receipt of such un analysis 
as tbat. Then again: 'The writer mighj 
with advantage curb the lavish "jenerosity 
which I detect in his writing, fie makes 
friends in this manner, but he also makes 
enemies. His heart is in the right place, birt 
he lacks judgment. Would you object to 
such a character as that'/" 

"No, indeed," said the ambitious boy, 
" lavish generosity implies tbat you have 
something of which you can be lavishly gen- 
erous. I would that such a condition of 
things were mine." 

' ' Well," continued the Professor, unheed- 
ing the flippancy of the last remark, "my 
twelve-months' subscribers enjoyed this kind 
of thing very much, and I managed the six- 
months' crowd in the same manner. Nu- 
merous complaints, however, reached me 
from three-months' subscribers, while those 
who merely sent the unaccompanied speci- 
mens of handwriting, which 1 so hated to 
see, openly attacked me in the newspapers 
as a charlatan. Even my wife turned upon 
me in a most unwifely manner. One morn- 
ing as I was seated at my desk, the servant 
brought me in a letter. It was written in a 
strange liiiudwiitiDg— I mean to say a band- 
writ iiii: w liicli wa-. .-^(iinething farf'romordi- 

'■ I .iirh-r y,>, ^-.i aa subscription to 
youi pajii IV 1,11 iwn \ear3. Kindly analyze 
this liuudwiiiiiig. 1 bad never received a 
subscription for two years before. ' Send 
this letter to X. Y. Z., Box '2.222 General 
Post Office,' were tbe directions. I was 
very pleased. It seemed to me that the 
owner of the handwriting must be charm- 
ing. In fact, it struck me that the hand- 
writing itself was particularly interesting, I 
wrote the following analysis : ' This is a 
gentleman's handwriting. The writer is 
frank, original, courteous, clever, thought- 
ful, and refined. He is so general a favor- 
ite that his few enemies are traced lo that 
fact alone.' You ace I s.iiri he had a few 



unqualified. I mlu ilie kMn lo X. Y. Z., 
Box No. 2,22'J Ciieiiil I'n-i uitlee. Then I 
thought no umie hIk/iiI the malter. The 
next day I went to pay a bill amounting to 
$50. I bad put bills to that amount in my 
pocketbook. When I reached the store 1 
discovered that I had only $47 with me. So 
I of course supposed tbat I had made a mis- 
take when I counted the bills previous 
to placing them in tbe book, ami set the 
matter rigln by returning for more money 
I .i|«n r.M<j"i 'li't f^rr^irrenee. A few days 
later ^^h :. I .^ . vMikiug, my wife said to 
me ^ , ,. , I told me what y<iu 
th<ni_l I isiitiug.' I replied that 

IciiiiMiii I.I ili-iNi IikI. and only analyzed 
handwriliug for bread and butter. But she 
insisted and scribbled a verse of poetry in a 
handwriting which I remembered had struck 
me once beiore, though when and where I 
could not recollect. ' What do you think 
of that?' she asked. I was ratfu 
and replied, ' It's not cultivated, not 
nal, and not refined. The writer, I could 
bet in a moment, is a woman." My wife 
laughed, (Irew from her pocket an envelope 

■ angry. 

directed to 'X. Y. Z.. 
Post Oflice.' Then she 
where I kept tbe speciiin 
selected that fiom (he ^l < 

closed $3, and w im <| iii. 
my eyes defianih i ) 
a3ketLi>mi' "' , , ,, 

whole thin- . .,.: ; ,,i 

writer is flunk, uii^iiial, conrleoii 
thoughtful and, refined. He is t 

three mouths' subscribers can 

same fashion, and wrote [Ln > \\ ni-, 

to tbe papers, which, m r w . i ,\i<' 
only too delighted to |.i , li- 

ences. The most rcin.i 
that I declined to ackmn- ' i i in<, 

wife, my inability to r. i,, ,,, 

handwriting. It wa^ i i.i^ ini i in^a 

given up tbe busiliess i ; ,1 

mittcd the fact that, whiii [ ..n./r-, i.^.avnl 
that when an amateur 1 did lui-vu:,. lU- art 
in question, I lost it entirely when I look 
it up as a means of earning my daily bread. " 

where I c 


Some infernal old idiot has put my pen 
I it," growled old Asperity 
this morning as be rooted about his oflice 
desk. "Ah— aw — yes; I thought so." be 
continued, in a milder tone, as be hauled 
the writing utensil from out behind his ear. 
—Chieago JWgram. 

It is said that tbe autograph fiend is again 
actively engaged in tbe pursuit of his 
nefarious industry. One of them wrote to 
General Sherman the other day for his 
autograph and a lock of bis hair, lie 
promptly received the following answer : 
"I regret to state that, as my orderly is 
bald, aud as the - > ■• 

authority. WilJiam wmd- ,,l m.mi ni line.l 
slaves." But wt^ do not know whctbcr a 
man who spelled ins name iu a dozen differ- 
ent ways is entitled to be considered as 
authority iu ortho-raphy. 

Customer— ■' A r. 1 n ili.uil l.) |ra\'e 

all these cloiln - i. ' n iiir suW- 

wftlk with nolinJ., ■ ■, i m , .,, | ^d,,,,),! 

steal them." Deaiei— "Mii. ! i , i ■!,, ' 
Mein himmel. no ! K mhi :. : . , . 

niein friend. I dell you, I H i i, i, . 

so sbeap tbat it doesn't i!"'// i i ir 

— Soincrnlle Jouriint. 

Col. i^uort, editor of the CroH/it/ Voitnty 
Clarion anil Fiirmern Viiiilindur, did n<it 
publish a poem which was contributed by a 
young bank clerk. The clerk came around 
and wanted to know why tlie iioem had not 
appeared in tbe C/arivn. 

•'Your handwriting is so beautiful, so per- 
fectly Spencorian," said Col. Snort "thai it 
would be a pity (o put that poem in print. 
Keep it just as it is. Don't profane it by 
putting it in type." 

Superior Pens. 

Jv«l reeeieed — a new lot of "Ames' Pen- 
men's Favorite Pens." made from new dies 
and with extra care. Kvery effort has been 
made to secure a belter pun than any now 
iu the market, aud we believe we have suc- 
ceeded. Sample quarter gross sent for 25 
cents, regular pri<c. SU cents. Try them. 

Can You Make a Better Invest- 

lll«n U> pay »1 'or tlic Jolknai. one year, and 
thu ■•Guiilf '" ScIMiiBtruclion m Ploin and 
irti«tfc PcnmnmUp" free »s a premium 7 

The Guldo containB siily-fmir large pages 
of inslruclion, and copies for plain writing, 
flourishing, and lettering, and is alone sold 
for 75 cents {in paper covers), and $1. banrl 
somely bound. 



Adapted for use with or withmit TcxlIJook, 

aud tbt; ouly set rccommcDded to 



Bryant & Stratton 



Favorablo orran^omento made with UiiBini 

4'olle^es Knd Public and Pr 

duotlon and — " ' 


duotlon aud use. Descriptive Litst i 

cScliOGla forintro- 

J.S., and best pcDmon use Iheni. 


'liis IVn.knnwn t.j-the ;il»ivo tillo. is maniifai'- 
.■.I ..I il . I., t -■■ . : :■ I . ■:, M] I ly selected. Tliey 
I ■ I'uhllo aud Private 

^■"t HP in Boxes, 
1 receipt iif 



Penmen's and Artists Supplies 

By ordering 
upon receiviDi; 

Ames' Guide t 

and Artistic 

Ames' Book of 

Bryant '8 Book 

Fifty sheets jO 

Bristol Board, 

French B. B., -J 

" "6 

Black Card-boa 

Black Cards! p 

ol B rd d p 00 

rnamenlal Ci 

3ur packs, 100 

1000 •• '.'.'..'. 
1000 " by ex 
Prepared uidia 
GlUotfs 303 8t« 
Ames' Penmen 

Speucerian No 
The New Spen 
3, 4, K, 6, each 

gns p p k SG 

Ung Pe 
WilllamB' and 
Payson. DunU 
Sponire Riibbe 


205 I 


i A thousand yearn aa a day. No arithmetic 
teaches it. A short, simple, practical method by 
E. C. ATKINSON. Principal of Sacramento Busi- 
ness CdlleRe, Sacramento, Cal. By mull, 60 rents 
Address as above. 2-]o 


In Every Town in America, 

to solicit subscriptions to tlio I'KtoiAN's Art Jouii- 
KAt., end to sell iwpular publications upon practical 
and artistic pcnmansliip. 
The followiiit is H list, .if thf wurks wliicli wt? 

offer forSiil. ■. \Mrh n.. i.iif:i-ii. r~ ith . • 

Ornamental and Flourished Cards. IS desiniti', 
new, original and artistic, per pack of 50, a 

50o' -^ !:!!'.■.. !!!'■.!'"! 25 

1000. " »i 60; by express --10 

Live agents can. and do. make money, by tukini 

subacribors for the .loirRNAi, aud selling the aboy. 

works. Send for our Special Rates to Agents 
D. T. AMES. 
J'-tf 305 Broadway, Now York. 

Thorough instruction lutlie best system 
low ; satisfaction RuarnnlGcd. 

Toung men have only to master Shorthand to 

make it a sure source of prollt. Stenographers 

better aalaries than are paid in any other 

clerical positlcn. 

Send stomp forspeclmen of writing and circulars 

W. U. HUIjTON, Stenocrapber, 


prepaid. Address the 

205 BroaUway. New York. 

Given in plain Pennnanship 

hi'lncirlVL-n in plain pemimnsliiii. hy luuil. r.r ?i i"' 
Ciutti bi atlVBMCe. Vuu cim U at home and y. i 
have one of the iinwt skillful peumeo in ilio wr>rhl 
for your UMiclii-T. Tlila cuiirne has been |iri iMini 
wllhcare. The elylw of leaching Is on an eniiiul) 
new plan, and le inoctlnK with great success. 

Over lOO Pupils 

Aru now taking IIiIm coui-He, and all expieRsine 
tlielr Hallsfaollon. It Ik fast Ijccunilui; known that 
this Is thu best and cheapest way to learn to write 
atiolcgant hand. 


Pay tlOOto attend a BiiHinosa College 
ian«hlp. • 

one whcwiTl follow ih.- iiiBirucij..u in yourcoiirsu 
oau fail to greatly iiuproro their writine. The 
marvelous sicitl m^Iayed lo your copies is won- 

McClell.-n P'eiit, Mt. Victory, Ohio, says: "I 
have r.i-tiv.-.l til., -ornn.i V^-on and am wt-U 
plensr.l "ith it i 1-./.,. ynnr I.--,,,,, very h.-!ily 


curds 1)1 aamany different styles 

J, makingthe handsomest signa- 

oblainalile. Many could write their o am es 

' if they had good oople: 






With Tavo Supplementary Books. 



sNstciiuitizc iuid teucli writing iu acoordimce with Uie usiigus of the bist 
writers in tlie bnsiuess world. 

gliisliing features of " Spencers' New Standard Writing." It effects a saving 
of from 15 to 26 per .cent, in the labor of writing and a corresponditig 
saving of time in learning to write. 

A Sample Set, containing all numbers, sent for examination on reeeijit 
of $1.00. 

l'"nll Descrijitive Circnhir sent, on request, to any address. 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, & Co. 

753 and 755 Broadway, New York. , 






For Sale by all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


The finest flourishing ever 9ont out hy any pen- 
man will not equal the marrclous specimens I can 
Ni-nd you, 3 for 60 cents. Executed hy W. E, Den- 
nis, who in this line has no etiual. To be had only 
hy addressing L. Madarasz. Box 2118. New York 

To the Readers of the Penman's Art Journal : 

Thf undfrMi/nttl, fpfto haii/fiUotDttt the pro/tmbm <tf 
card wriliriir jiff tJie pant wfvn yean, and ha» yet to 
ifOm 0/ thefirft instance wkerHn hi* teork hiu falUd 
to give entire tati^faction, tatua pUaiun in catiitig 
your aUmtion to the eompleU Hn* qf written visUini; 
eardt, which are qfftrtd at rate* eonMtttnl with the 
ijuatity 0/ cardt and iieniuaiuhlp. Orden promptly 

l^r With every 4 p;ickiigC8 ordered at one time 
nri c\li/i piickag<' "f Gilt itevel Edge Canls will be 
8.iit free, with any niirac wri««» on. With a little 
effort you can easily Induce mevei-al of your Iriends 
to order with you. 

Number of Cai-ds In each packaRe: 16 36 

Sty'.e A.— /Vain IVAto, Rood quality »P,88 ta.7T, 

" B.~ Wedding Bristol, very hwl '10 .77 

" c— out Edge, aasorted 14 .S4 

" D.~Bevet Oilt Edge, the flne»t SO .»8 

" E.—BrotU 0/ Cr<-ain and ty/afe ... .52 1.00 

" G.-SM au-l Satin lievfil 65 1.05 

" w.—Eir/htphj Bureh, a.'iHorteti 57 MO 

" l.—Elil'!, the liitest Btyles.... 80 1.15 

Address ii/w-extra 16 ,30 

If you order caids you should have n citrd case 
to keep Ihem clean and noal. 


No. l—nusiia LeatlKT, 4 pockets $0 a3 

No. 2— " 4 " .3.'. 

No. ^—Morocco, best quality. - . 50 

No. ft- Co//, extra pood W 

No. ^—Atligaio 


26 John Street, New York. 



K.idd models <.f 11- 
will be found to In 
per package of 13, 


An unsurpassed alicoiitien of bold butiiliieAs writ- 
inn in the shape of a letter, and any (|uestiuii 
answered, on the HneHti]uality of unruled paper. 


blegaut sptciintuo of oH liiiiid flourishing, »uob 
IS blnl-t eifcles sw ui-- tit on unruled paper, 
vlnch art coiiLedtU by all to be the moat epirifed work 

■ forJacent^ fclUperd./tu 



In response to numevoue culls lov very brllliuiit 
hlack ink, arrangementji have been completed for 
M'uding, securely packed, quart bottles to any part 
i<( Ihe country. Price Bydtluting 
with some good writing fluid (Arnold's Is the best), 
more than three (piurts of go<id Ink may be had 
from a single quart of this quality. I use this Ink 
In all my work. See auniplcs. Recipe for its 
manufacture, HO cents. 


If you expcvieucc diflkulty in securinga pen that 

The Favorite 

CardWrlllfig, No.l.. 

r box. 40 ct*,, iKirm-oM. $1.ig 

liber to write your full nai 

1 Notes or Registered Letter, and 

New Yoi'k Citv. 





Author of Nalson't Meroantilo Arithmetic itiid 

o( the Nelwjn IIUMineiw CoIIbkb CoiiiiHiny 

of CfnciunatI and SprlnKfleM, Ohio. 

From Prtt. G. IF. Bmwn.qf the JarkmnvUlt . II' . 

•■ WlUioiit (tiiallBuntlon rour work Is the most 
exhaustive of the wliol««ubje«t of iu:i'ouiilatiMlii|> 
that 4 hftve cvi^rcxftinlned/' im 

From t*U! PrtMdmtgf Ihe Hftrojmtitiin RiuiTVn* CurS > 

ywork titrlie 

Ug$ (ff Nrw 
f couitldoritff 
^Vwn Toptka Ihainrg* an/l NomuU CoUtgt.Kantagj 
" We jjiircliawd n v^y of your now booKkcci)ii«g 
at the miiineMC'olleico Couventlon.and after e\- 
ARiinRtlon have advpted tt in nm- school. 


Ml,,- .Minn 1/ f..r //(., uMiilAt the Pr^fMCT uti/fji: 

1 I .l..^ .>^l.,l I <ookkeO|)IU){ id Hlld 1^)111 

ri ' ^ - ihcad of anything I hiive 

l-rir. I. i' ,' i III t'.ii>r.nn(lNora)al<.'ollefce. 

lux. I. 'Ml.' ' "N-laloollogos, 

«'i'I'i'-' i . . . ^ ...'■,' m^^Scc of 

Frrnii fht Bryant, Sfrallon <t-AWiW«T CoUtge. BtUti- 

" It contains a fund of vahia))l« Information 

iloliiit you Breat credit, and no dotilit will prove a 

■ ■' ■ - - - •niefliishysty'- ' ' '-■ 

'ork.iii myopi 

. ujuMllue. The Inside la fni- better than 

itdc. and bookn of such sliowy 

e his work, hi niy opVnlon. doei 

the «iit{«tdc~ and bookn _. 

sonciiniy fall as regards Iheir oontents. but it 
the revcrso with youra. f * * 

/-Vw/i Prtif. I.. F. Stubf^, Simla Smo, fti{. 


Q doJieu Nfllson'B New Book 

t and ready BMlstHiU I 

) vomplelv hi vvcry detail that ( 
t, no matter what hi» poHftlon or at: 
r valual)le for ready reference for t 

tuaaterhie of any difSoult proposition 
JSr.'/nirfr. Cttu4nftm. 

of Neleon's Ne 
I it has buen i 

Fmmihe G'li-.ral UuokU-mrnf Uic Gu-mun Xatlwial 
BunX, Cineinniin Ohio : ■ 
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in Capital Letters, 
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in Spelling, 

in English. 

inWritingTelegraph Messages 
Exercises in Writing Advertisements, 
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The Form and Structure of Letters, 
Sample Letter Headings, 
Sample Envelope Addresses, ' 

Sample Social Letters, 
Numerous Sample Business Letters, 
Numerous Full page Engraved Specimens 
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Many Valuable Suggestions, 
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ress all communications to 

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lentPeirre's Bnalnites Polleire, ami Sunerlii- 
iidcnt of Penmanship Departmei 


-lirANTED— A Teacher who uiulerBtands 
„W Commen-ial Bl'anche... Salary $1.(m 
.q-l A.ldie,^ "J." ^c l-enmauJt^Art .Inurnal. 
-n^ » f ^ V 

American Pen Art^U«ll| 


Ikst sihool of Petiniansbip m Amerii ( 

NSUII coneish 
d common su 

>W 1 FN 

READ I READ HEAD The only I atly Card 
V 1Tt«n yWtlTigftt rt » tufi ' m i Bh cr^ TpecTmerw sent 




K small volume designed as an iDtroductlnu to 
! Study of Book-keeping. 

fbe course will requii-e about six weeks for Its 
mpletlon. when taken In connection with other 

\ notable feature is the large number of Busb 

irly all the Notes, Draft*. Checks, 

' " • - otf., that occur 

1 easy Mferenoe 

are given from 

' t«6tlngthostu- 
I'litiitluna <>cour 

Hy I 


_ _ York, .-, 

eney bySxpreu 

Uemit l>y Dntft on Cliloago or Now York, by 

i'cstai or iCxpresa Onie- — " "-■" »-" " 

jrltcglsKTed Leltvr. 

H. B. mivANT A SON, 

W-Vi HI Kiittn Slrest, CThlcago, 



<. wi.K i:li>santly addressed 

irt'ulara and largo catalogue 

■lithe Northern Indlanx Normal 

1 Buimaii InsUtuti. and 

1 thorough I 

II. 'Ill Liiv nonnern inaiana noi 
School and Builnaii InsUtuta. i 


Ornamental Penman- 

»^gn you write, you wtU 


Vol.. X.— No. G. 

■> Act of CongTt»g. i 

• 188B. by I 

■ 0J^4 of the Hbrarian <)f Cdn^ets, WofhingUm, D. C. 


(CopjTiffhtfld 1886. by the Spencer Biiotiikhs,) 
AH rightd reserTed. 

A:* an infilriimpnt for drawing, the pen is 
uurivallcd for the production of sharp, clear, 
definite lines i it can also, with extra t!me 
iind care, almost rival the softness of the 
pencil and the brush. Its aptness at imitat- 
ing the styles of engraving has lirought it 
Into large rccjui^ition of late in connection 
with the photo -proceHses of that art ; and 
its sphere in that direction seems to be 
rapidly extending. 

The pen has been strongly recommended 
to beginners in drawing. The difficulty of 
changing or erasing its lines enforces a 
thoughtful attention to the work in hand 
not to he expected whore an instrument is 
UHcd whose errors can be remedied iu an 
instant by a crumli of bread or piece of rub- 
ber. The point of the pen, also, is com! 
paratively constiint. reliable, while that of 
the pencil is conliiiuuUy changing, by wcur- 
iug away, and reiiuires freiiuent ri'sbnping. 

Many drawings extent of eminent artists 
show that they had frequent recourse to the 
pen in Uiiur work;.uiaking use of it in hasty 
ski-lches and in studies, sometimes alone, 
and sometimes with tints of shade laid in 
with the brush or stump. In the latter .style, 
the sharp, definite lines of the pen forma 
striking contrast with the broad soft tones 
of the brush. 

The main principles of drawing are simi- 
lar whether the instrument be pen, pencil or 
charcoal, and a like knowledge, training of 
eye, and discipline of hand into subjection 
to the eye and mind, are required in each. 
Instruction in the practice of drawing in 
general is not, liowever. within the scope of 
this work, but rather the offering of such 
hints as may prove useful where the instru- 
meot to be employed is the pen. 


* Good papers for pen drawing are be- 
coming plentiful, hut there is still probably 
none better than the Whatman, except for 
photo-engraving, which needs a perfectly 
Kinooth, level, while surface, more aatisfac 
torily found in the Bristol and some other 
card boards. The Whatman papers are 
made with two varieties of surface— the 
smooth, known as "hot pressed," and the 
rough, designated ■' cold-pressed." The 
former is the one best suited for pen draw- 
ing, the latter buing more especially for 
brvish work. Tlic following are the names 
of the diflFcront sizes of sheets, with their 
proportions in inches :— 

'^**l' 18x17 Imperial SSxflO 

"<""y I5XS0 Coliimblcr. a3xa« 

"*"*'""' '"»^ Atlas 20x« 

™>'''' >0»^l Double Elepham. 27X40 

Super Royiil 19x27 AQtiquarlan su.-vi 

Klepliant ffijxa* 

In addition to the paper to receive the 
drawing, some thin, transparent paper for 
tracing and transferring— to be mentioned 
further on— is requisite ; also blotting paper 
to take up any truant drops of ink falling 
where not wanted. 

A good knife eraser and one of rubber 
might also to be at hand to remove marks 
of pen and pencil wlien desired. 
_^e pens to be chosen for pen drawing 

nr^ TnH..i;;'^l'". ''".^^ ""* *'"^'« '" "''« article wo 
liummeruI.V ... . V.'* ,'"*"" "' "f- R««»cUi. Mr. 
Maxton ij; Vim „ , ^ , ^i' Warren and John 

well n 

should be of the best make, with smooth, 
nicely-finished points, and of a fineness from 
that of the delicate crow quill, Litliographic 
Pen, and Spenceriun No. 12, upward 
through tlie coarser grades, as ndnpted to 
the work in hand. 

The new oblique-clasp pen-bolder- 
shown in Fig. 73, will be found gen- 
erally preferable to the common 
straight holder for pen drawing, 
as it brings the points of the pen 
more equally to the paper and favors 
smoothness of line in di 

When straight-line tinting is 
to be done with the aid of the 
ruler, it is better to use a drafts- 
man's drawing pen instead of 
the ordinary steel pens. Fig. 74 
shows such a pen, exclusive of 
upper end of holder. The regu- 
lating screw opens and shuts the 
jaws of the pen. so as to make 
the line tine or coarse at plea- 
sure. The ink should be intro- 
duced between the points with 
a brush or writing pen, so as to 
leave the outside dry and cleah ; 
but the pen may be dipped into 
the ink, if tbe sides are after- 
wards wiped before using. Select 
ith care in purchasing, and keep 
n good order, using in it only 
India ink, as the acids of writing inks will 
be likely soon to roughen it. Hold the pen 
nearly vertical in use, and, pressing lightly, 
move it from left to right. 

India /«*.— The only ink that can be re- 
commended for anything more than the 
most ordinary pen drawing, is the India or 
Chinese ink. It is fadeless, and attains the 
moment it is dry the color and depth of 
shade it will always retain ; so that the artist 
using it knows just what he is doing. Of 
this ink, which is probably the most ancient 
of all the materials employed about writing 
or drawing, Mr. Hamerton says ;— 

"Indian ink. of good quality, must al- 
ways be esteemed as one of the most success- 
ful inventions amongst the materialarts. 
Human ingenuity has seldom attained ita 
object so completely as the Chinese inventors 
attained theirs when they tried to present 
the black smoke of lamps in such a form 
that it might be cleanly and portable, and 
convenient both for writing, for linear 
drawing, and for the most delicate shading. 
It is one of the very few things in whicli 
absolute perfection has been attained. It 
lasts forever." 

takes upon itself a skin which has a metallic 
appearance. It flows easily from the pen. 
even at a low temperature, and when it has 
dried on the paper a brush charged with 
water passe,'* over it without disturbing it. 
Tbi-- pr,M.,.r(vi^ v-ry renmvK-nl.lp, for tl»- 

same iiiU, dried upon marble or 
ivory, gives way as soon as it is 
wetti'd, which proves that an indel- 
ilile conxbination is formed by llie 
ink and the paper impregnated with 

the point i 

In the last sentence he probably refers to 
the inks never changing in color or depth, 
either on the stick" or upon paper. 

The qualities by which good India ink 
may he known are quoted by the same au- 
thor from Merinu'e ; and we can hardly do 
better than to repeat his description here. 
It is as follows .—" When broken its frac- 
ture (that of India ink) is black and shiny. 
Tlie substance is fine in texture and per- 
fectly homogenious When you rub it with 
water you do not feel the slightest grit, and 
if you mix it with a great deal of water there 
will be no sediment. In drying, its surface 


Signs by which to know a good quality of 
the ink before use have been suggested : 
such as, that it should be scented with musk 
or campher, that the stick should be nicely 
moulded and finished, and the characters or 
ornaments upon it should be finely executed. 
Such indications doubtless increase the prob- 
ability of the inks being good, but without 
making it certain. It is very unlikely that 
any fine quality of ink would be offered to 
the public with a coarse and unfinished ex- 
terior appearance; so that iu rejecting such, 
one could, hardly go amiss. Hut when all 
the exterior signs are favorable, it is still 
admitted that the only certain test of the 
ink is in its use. 

To prepare the ink, place a teaspoonful 
or so of pure water into a small saucer- 
clean and free from dust— and dipping the 
end of the stick into the water, rub it about 
in the dish, until the liquid reaches the re- 
quired blackness ; which can be best told by 
trying it upon paper with a pen. In grind- 
ing rub the cake of ink partly in the water 
and partly out of it to prevent its absorbing 
too much of the water and cracking. Do 
not press too hard upon the stick or rub too 
vigorously as it tends to make the ink de- 
tach in larger particles, and so produce a 
Huid not so fine as obtained by gentler 

A better arrangement than the, saucer for 
preparing i n k . is the tile of porcelain or slate, 
specially devised for the purpose, with a 
slant for grinding the ink and a well for re- 
taining it. The form of U^c with the circu- 
lar grinding slant and well in the middle, is 
considered rather preferable to that with an 
oblong slant and well at the end. The 
covers often provided with the tiles, help to 
preserve the ink from dust and evaporation, 
when not iu use. 

India ink should be freshly mixed every 
day, when needed, to be at its best 

A sponge— the softer and cleaner the 
better— held in a teacup or sponge glass, and 
charged with water, is needed to wipe the 
pen upon occasionally to keep it clean and 
promote the flow of ink. The sponge is 
particularly necessary when the ink must be 
used very black, and therefore rather thick; 
but care must be taken, in that case, lest the 
pen retain so much water, from its contact 
with the sponge, as to reduce materially the 
shade of the ink. 

A drop of ox gall added to the India ink 
is said to make it flow more freely ; the ox- 
gall, of a refined quality, is to be had of 
dealers in water colore. , 

There are several tiq^uid preparations of 
India ink that may be purchased in small 
bottles ready for use. These Inks are not 
so satisfactory, however, an that freah 

ground from a good stick, as above 
plained ; but they will often answer and 
therefore convenient to have at hand. 

To promote accuracy and steadiness in 
outlining, the going over, with pen and black 
ink, of circles, s<iuares, triangles and other 
regular geometrical figures first drawn in 
pencil with ruler and compasses, is to be 
recommended. The tracing also, iu pen and 
ink, of such figures, or of syni metrically- 
formed ornaments, upon tmnsp^uat paper 
placed over them, would be similarly useful. 
Try to reproduce exactly the forms inked or 
traced. Hold the pen much as in writing. 
It is prudent, when the line is a difficult 
one to execute, to sweep the pen over it 
first without touching — so as to be sure that 
the hand is in a position to command it. 
Then, placing the pen to the paper, execute 
as much of the line as can be done with 
certainty, when the hand and pen can he 
readjusted and the next section drawn in 
like manner. 

A little practice will show that the pen 
produces the most satisfactory line when 
drawn downwards — or in the direction of 
its hollow side— as in making the down I 

strokes in writing. When, tlirefore, it is 
desired to have every line smooth and per- 
fect, it is best to turn the paper or the hand 
so that the lines can he all executed in that 

It is generally best to ink the left side of 
a figure first, so that the side completed 
may not be hidden by the hand, but remain 
in sight while the other is in course of ex- 
After outlining, the matter of shading is 
to be attended to. Shades may be either 
flat or graded, the former being of one uni- 
form depth throvighout. and the latter in- 
creasing or decreasing, more or tessgnidu- 
ally, in strength in one or more dircclions. 
The shades of nature are mostly finuiid, and 
to a perfection that no hand can nuiich. 
and therein lies much of their beauty. Flat 
tints are to shading what the straight line i.s 
to form, and the graded shades correspond 
to the curve. 

The uneducated eye is blind to the finer 
shades, hut abstract exercises, Jike tho^c to 
be suggested, tend to improve the capacity 
to see and appreciate them. Common writ- 
ing paper and ordinary black ink will 
answer in this elementary pnietice. 

Itcgin with flat shading, by enclosing 
squares, a half inch or more in height, with 
the pencil, and filling them evenly with pen 
lines. It does not matter so much at fir^t 
how the lines are made or in what direction 
they run, as that the tint produced be even 
throughout. When the square is filled in 
nearly aright, if a spot in it looks too light, 
the lines can be carefully strengthened there, 
or additional lines or dots stippled in be- 
tween ; and a place found too dark may be 
reduced by slightly erasing with the point 
of a sharp pen-knife, until at last each part 
will he as dark as every other, and no 
darker. Take care not«to work over the 
same place again till the lines laid there 
before arc quite dry. A piece of flat-tinted 
cloth or paper placed beside the shaded 
square will help to make its imperfections 
apparent by the contrast with a standard 
approaching something like perfection. 
The lighter and more delicate these flrat 
essays can be made, and preserve their 
>, the better the discipline for the 



eye. To secure such delicacy take little ink 
ill the pen aiid carry it lightly over the 

Fig. 75. 

At first, as said tibove, Httle attention as 
to how the lines are made is advised, in 
order that the entire thought may be given 
to securing evenness of shade. But after 
some practice in that way has begun to 
awaken the eye to the perception of even- 
ness and unevcnness, the quality, distanc 
ing and direction of the lines may be taken 
more into consideration and systematic 
lining be done like tliat. for example, 
shown in Fig. 75, above. Fine or open lin- 
ing, or both, secures lightness of tint ; while 
tints are darkened by making the lines 
heavier, closer, and by adding one or more 
series of cross lines. In the latter case, the 
different series of crossing Hue."*, whether 
straight or curved, should have some 
orderly relation to each other, to produce 
the best results. Cuts B. C and D, of Fig. 
75, for example, show tlie courses of lines 
related to each other like the diagonals, and 
also like the sides and diagonals of a square. 
The figures in connection with the exercises 
on graded shading illustrate the same or a 
similar idea. 

Some skill having been attained in mak- 
ing shades flat and even, one is prepared to 
try his hand at grading them. For this 
purpose enclose with the pencil some oblong 
spaces— say a half inch high by one and a 
half to two inches in length, and grade 
these with pen line shading from white at 
one end to black at the other. Aim to make 
the shade increase in regular degrees 
throughout the strip. It is best so in the 
first exercises, though in nature the degree 
of inerense often accelerates towards the 
darker. When the grading of a strip is 
nearly complete, points too light or too dark 
may be corrected in the same manner as 
suggested in the flat shading. In this, and 
also in the previous exercise, two or more 
squares or strips may be in progress at once, 
the ink being given time to dry upon one 
while engaged upon another. 

At the beginning of this exercise the aim 
should be accuracy of gradation, without 
much care as to other points. Afterwards 
more systematic work can be undertaken — 
something as shown in Fig. 76, the quality, 
spacing, and direction of the lines being 
more attended to. In these exercises it is 
well to covet with the first series of lines the 
entire strip, except the part to be left white; 
then let the second course cover the first, ex- 
cept a small portion near the light end. and 
so on with the third and each 

If these different courses of lines have an 
angle to each olher somewhat as indicated in 
Fig. 76, and in B., C. and D. of Fig. 75, the 
crossings will be more likely to be clean and 
sharp and the shading clearer. 

Figure 77 shows in the left group the 
crossing of curved lines in shading in a 
manner similar to that just mentioned in 
respect to straight lines. It will be noticed 
that in the group on the left in the figure, 
the different series of curves, have to each 
other a relation, in respect to direction, like 
the diagonals and sides of a sijuare; while iu 
the other group the relation is like the sides 
of a triangle. The formal outlines given to 
the groups of lines in the cut was intended 
to noake their peculiar relation more appa- 

All the exercises hi-rc recommended can 
of course he done In stipple or other styles 

of finish, instead of line. The sphere bulow 
is an example of one style of stipple sha- 

Excellent ad- 
ditional practice 
will be found in 

shading cylinders 
and spheres. Ex- 
amples of such 

exercises are shown in Figures 78 and 79. In 

the former the highest light is a long strip 
form which the 
shades grade to the 
right and left;wMle 
the highest light in 
the sphere is of 
circular or oval 
form, from which 
the shades increase 
Hk. 78. outwards in every 

direction. If the learner can have before 

him copies in 

plaster, or in 

wood painted 

white, of the 

solids mention- ' 

ed or others. 

and study and ^ "rf^*^^ 

,, -^ . Fig 79 

copy them m 

different lights and positions, it will material 
lyaid him in mastering the subject of shad- 
ing. In imitating the shades of such 
objects or those of nature or engravings, 
notice first the lightest and darkest points 
of the entire subject, and then of each part 
in succession, observing also Ihe relative 
strength both of the extreme lights and of 
the shades of the different portions. 

Sometimes it makes a good beginning for 
a pen drawing, after the outline is secured, 
to cover the entire piece with a fine close 
lined tint, except only the highest light. 
This first tint may be followed by another 
similar, leaving this time not only the 
highest light, but the one next to it in 
brightness. The process may be carried 
still further with additional courses of tints 
and furnishes an admirable groundwork for 
an attractive drawing. For work that must 
be entirely in quite black ink, this method 
would not be so well adapted. 


The outline for a pen drawing may he 
drawn free hand, or it may be transferred 
to the desired place from a previously pre- 
pared drawing, or from other copy, by a 
more mechanical process. In preparing a 
free hand, outline use a medium graded 
pencil and avoid as much as possible the 
making of heavy lines, as well as roughen- 
ing the surface of the paper by a too free 
use of the rubber, and thus unfitting it for 
the reception of ink. 

There are various methods of transferring. 
The outlines may be drawu upon a separate 
piece of paper ; which is afterwards black- 
ened upon the back with a soft pencil along 
the course of the lines, and held with 
weights or pins in the place where the draw 
ing is to go, the lines being then followed 
with the point of a hard pencil or a smooth 
ivory or metal point, with rather firm press- 
ure, will be transferred upon the sheet be- 
neath. The outlines of an engraving or 
unmounted photofjraph can be copied iu the 
same way. But, 5s that process injures the 
copy, where it is desired to preserve the lat- 
ter in good condition, methods like the fol- 
lowing should be employed. 

Place thin* transparent paper over the 
work to be reproduced, and trace upon it 
the outlines with a rather hard pencil. Re- 
moving the tracing so made, and placing it 
face downward, goover the lines upon the 
other side with a softer pencil. Then, ad- 
]ustingit to the place the drawing is to oc- 
cupy, go over the lines again firmly with a 
hard smooth point, or with a burnisher, aud 
a good transfer shoidd be the result. Two 
or more additional transfers, though fainter 
— may also he made from the same tracing 
without relining. Instead of going over the 
lines upon the other side of tracing with 
])eneil, a piece of transfer paper — which is 

• TraclDE paper may he made of ordlnnry whlt« 
tissue paper, by applying to 11 with a BpoD{;o or 
broad hrusb a mixture of trolled uli uud lui-peiiline, 
ta the proportloa of one part of the former to Ave 
(Athe latter. Oue coat only la required aud that 
not too thick ; the paper la then hung upon a strlne 
to dry, and la ready for ose when the clear oily 
marks have entirely disappeared. 

thin paper rubbed evenly over one side with 
black lead or a soft pencil — can be used. 
After the tracing is in position (his transfer 
paper is placed beneath it with its blacked 
side down ; when a tracing point going 
again firmly over the lines, as in the other 
method, impresses a copy of them upon the 
sheet beneath. 

When the outlines of a picture to he copied 
are obscure as is generally the case in a pho- 
tograph, sheets of prepared gelathae, on ac- 
count of their almost perfect transparency 
are preferable to ordinary tracing paper. 
The lines are to he traced upon the gelatine 
with a keen steel point, like that of a well- 
sharpened darning or etching needle. The 
point must cut into the gelatine so as to leave 
a little furrow; which being afterwards filled 
with pencil dust, and the gelatine turned 
face down and rubbed with a burnisher, im- 
parts aclcjirimpression to the paper beneath. 

The impression as made, however, will re- 
verse the position Of the original. If this is 
not desired, the first impression from the 
gelatine may be made upon separate paper, 
which being turned face downward at the 
proper place and its back rubbed with firm 
pressure, will yield a second ^transfer in cor- 
rect position. On the same end can be se- 
cured by again tracing the lines— after filling 
them with pencil dust to make them distinct 
— with the steel point upon the other side of 
the gelatine. An impression taken as before 
from this retracing, will be in the position of 
the original. 

The gelatine process of transferring is a 
favorite with cngi-avcrs. The sheets should 
not be exposed to sunshine or to moisture, 
and are best kept covered with clean paper 
and placed between the pages of a large 

The outline to serve as the basis for a pen 
drawing is often secured also by jilioto- 
graphic process. A mclluKi liirgdy iistd in 
the production of work fuipliutntngraving, 
is to line in the design with ihe pen directly 
upon an unfixed photographic print. The 
photo-color is then bleached away leaving 
the pen lines standing. This bleaching is 
done by flowing over the print a solution of 
bi-chlorate of mercury (corrosive suhlimutu) 
iu alcohol — the proportions of the solution 
being one ounce of the former to one quart 
of the latter ingredient. 

Drawings made with the pen may be 
broadly separated into two classes — the free 
and the systematic. The latter are generally 
made after some eonsideraiion and prepara- 
tion, upon an outline previously sketched in 
pencil, transferred or otherwise obtained, 
while the former are done off hand upon the 
spur of the moment. The pen drawings of 
artists are more after the free style, and fulj 
of interest, revealing at times the budding 
of those ideas whose full flower and fruitage 
are their finished works. It is hardly in 
place, however, to attempt to teach that 
style of drawing, it being better left to be 
formed by and be an expression of the in- 
dividual taste aud temperament. 

Systematic pen drawing which gives more 
attention to accuracy, finish, and the lay of 
the lines, has drawn its lessons largely from 
the eug^vers and etchers ; hut is likely to 
deviate more and more from them, and per- 
haps form a distinct style of its own. 

In respect to finish pen drawings are of 
many sorts, varying both in their degree and 
iu their style. By degree of finish we mean 
the stage at which the drawing is left and 
considered complete ; as first, aud simplest 
— outline only ; second, outline with principal 
shades and shadows ; third, the last men- 
tioned with addition of middle tints ; fourth 
and last, a combination of the three lower 
stages with such additional fine touches as 
may produce an imitation of nature as com- 
plete and perfect as pen and ink in the style 
of finish chosen can achieve. The fourth 
and full degree of finish is more witMa the 
province of the brush, and pen draftsmen 
very wisely do not often attempt it, further 
than perhaps in the more central or Interest- 
ing portions of their work. 

A number of the leading styles of regular 
or systematic finish are illustrated in Ihe 
group of drawings, numbered from 1 to 7, 
upon iiagc 83. The drawing numbered 2 
is an example of pure outline. No. 1 
is an accentuated outline ; while of the 
shaded drawings. No. 5 is finished entirely 
with lines ; No. 3, with stipple work or dots; 

No. 4, with lines and stipple; aud Nos. fi 
and 7 are outlines shaded very simply wilh 
little more than a fiat tint laid with pamlkl 

There is another styleof drawing with the 
pen^t|ftit ought to he here mentioned ; which, 
instead of using black ink only, employs 
several lighter shades in addition. The dif- 
ferent shades arepr.cparcd iu separate dishes, 
the darker ones being made so by longtir 
grinding. Three or four tints will be suffi- 
cient, graded from the black downward, 
lighter and lighter, to a delicate shade. 
Further range of tint is obtained by having 
a cup of water at hand, to dip Ihe pen in and 
thus reduce, when required, the shade of the 
ink with which it is charged. This mode of 
pen drawing favors a much nearer approach 
to the finish of nature than the exclusively 
black ink styles, aud is capable of rivalling 
in softness and beauty the finest engravings 
and photographs. It is not adapted however 
to producing work for photoengraving. 


Photography offers a ready and acciinilo 
method for securing enlarged or induced 
copies of drawings, and is often employed. 
But there are other ways, both graphic and 
mechanical, for doing this, that may some- 
times be of use. The time honored method is 
to divide the work to be copied, or a tracing 
of it, into squares, aud the space it is to 
occupy in the reproduction into the same 
number of sqiiarcs. The portion of the de- 
sign in each square of the original is then 
to be drawn freehand into the corresponding 
one of t_he enlarged or reduced copy. 

Another method is illustrated in Pig. H, 
and consists in drawing from a common 
point, selected at plea.sure, lines of indefinite 
length through the principal points of Ihe 
figure to he copied. Upon those lines at a 
distance from their common point propor- 
tional to the change of size required, the 
corresponding principal points of Ihe figuie 

FIG 81 

sought will be found. For example, sup- 
pose the scries of curves between A and 1 1 . 
in Fig. 81, is to be reduced oue-half. From 
any point, as 6, draw lines A, () B. O C, 
etc., through each of the principal iioints, 
A, B, C, etc., of the curve. Then find upon 
those diverging lines the points 1, 2, :i. etc., 
midway between the point O and ihi' pi>inis 
A, B. C, etc., and they will he the principal 
points of the reduced curves sought, If the 
curves were to be reduced to one third or 
one-fourth original size, the points 1,2,3, 
etc., of the new curv^would be at one-third 
or one-fourth of the way from the point O 
to the points A, B> C, etc. If the work is to 
be ei larged— for instance, if the small series 
of curves from 1 to 8, is to be doubled in 
size— the distances measured upon the di- 
verging lines to find the points A, B, (', etc.i 
of the curves required, will each be double 
that to the corresponding points 1, 2. 3, etc., 
of the smaller curve. To enlarge the same 
curves three times, four times, etc,, the 
points A. B, C, etc., would each need to be 
carried out upon the nidiating lines to dis- 
tances three times, four tinus. etc., as great 
as tfic points 1, 2, 3, etc., are from the centre 
of divergence, O. 

A niechiiiiical melbod for enlarging niid 
reducing drawings is furnished by the pan- 

Care shoukl be taken to have a clean piece 
of paper under the hand, to protect the 
drawing while engaged upon it ; and it is 
well e-specially if the design he large, to keep 
the portions covered which are not being 
worked upon. The process of restoring the 
surface of a much tarnished piece is likely to 
injure the delicate parts of the work ; and it 
is hence advisable to keep it iu the best con- 
dition possible. Still, with the utmost care, 
the drawing will probably become suffl- 


L. P. Sim- 

Sek Paoe d'i 

oii-utly soiled lo uecii soniu rcuovaliiig when 
iloue. For svicli general cleauing, bread, 
somewhat stale, is the best article. Sponge 
rubber, andalso the old-fushiimed black iudia 
rubber, when of good quality, may likewise 
\w employed. These appliailces must be 
used gently upon the drawing where the work 
is fine. Very tiue saud or glass paper can 
be used to clean the margins, where much 
soiled, as also to make erasures too extensive 
for other means. 

A piece of good blotting paper ought al- 
ways to be at hand, with which to remove 
as much as possible of any chance blot be- 
fore it Is dry. For erasing what the blotter 
may leave of such mishaps, or others which 
dry untouched, as well as for taking out er- 
roneous ink lines, a knife eraser is generally 
used ; which needs to have a very keen edge 
to do its work well. The misplaced ink 
should be removed gradually, moving the 
eraser quickly and lightly in one direction 
for a lime ami then in another. This care 
may preserve the surface in good condition. 
After the ink is thus removed it is best tomb 
the part gently with a piece of ruljl)er ink 
eraser, and Ihcu burnish it with a tit of 
Mnoolh ivory or bone. In re-drawing over 
ihe spot where the erasure occurred, carry 
the hand lightly and use little ink iu the pen. 
Auother method for making such erasures is 
lo place over the part lo be corrected a piece 
<'i lirm drawing paper with a hole in it ex- 
posiug just what is lo be erased; which is 
ilien washed out c irefully with a clean toft 
^•ponge or a stiff brush dampened iu pure 

A "Glazing Pencil " has recently been in 
vented which restores surf ace of writing 
drawing paper, and tracing linen after 
sua-s when applied with light friction. 



For the convenience of those who raay 
wi.-ih to mount their paper upon cloth, either 
before or after the drawing is made, we ap- 
pend directions by which it may be done. 

Select white cotton or linen cloth, and 

{.Iretch it tightly upon a frame, table, or 
other suitable place, fastening the edges wii h 
tacks driven half way in and close together. 
The paste should be cold, rather stitT, free 
from lumps, and be applied evenly to the 
back of the paper— a large brush being best 
for that piirposc. The paper is then laid, 
paste side down, upon the cloth, and made 
to adhere in the middle Jlrst, and gently 
smoothed down with the hands thence out- 
ward. Then press the paper down to close 
adherence with a clean soft cloth, and leave 
it till thoroughly dry before taking up. 
Maxton recommends dampening the back of 
the paper before pasting. This would pro- 
bably be good for a drawing made entirely 
with India ink, but one containing ordinary 
writing ink would need to be kept as dry as 
possible iu the process of mounting, to pre- 
vent the lines from running. It is advisable 
also in mounting drawings containing work 
in common ink, to have the paste as dry and 
stiff as can well be worked. 

The photo-engraving processes now offer 
a wide and tempting Held to those who are 
masters of the pen as an instrument for 

Designs to be reproduced by this method, 
should be upon the whitest of paper, with a 
surface sraooth, tirm and level. The Bristol 
boards and other similar papers are there- 
fore best suited for the purpose. There is 
also an enamelled board, fviroished by photo- 
engravers, upon which both black lines and 
while can be produced — the former being 
drawn with the pen, and (be tatter wiih a 
steel potnt upon the black lines or masses 
previously laid with pen or brush. The ink 
for the rfnamellcd board is improved by the 
addition of a little glycerine. White lines 
may also be drawn with the pen across black 
lines and masses upon otherpapers, by using 
the water color whites. For lines to be thus 
crossed with white, the ink should be well 
sized ; but neither white nor black lines 
should be crossed l)y others or retouched 
until perfectly diy. 

The lines for pbolo-engiavingmaybefine, 
but to obtain clear sharp work upon the 
plates — ought always to be pcrfeetty black, 
the ink being of the best quality, and ground 
until it attains its deepest shade, though no 
longej. lest its flowing (jualities be impaired. 
A drop or so of ox-gall may be added to 
the ink, as before recommended to improve 
its fluidity. The photo drawing ink, which 
is similar to the India and to be mixed in the 
same way, is a dead black, quite free from 
gloss Kud esteemed by some as better for its 
purpose than any other ink. 

Pencil lines should be removed from a 
drawing intended for photo engraving, when 
complete, but with soft rubber and very 
carefully to prevent impairing the pen lines. 
Ruling for .script to be photo- engraved is 
sometimes done with faint blue ink Hues. 
These do not reproduce iu the process, and 
so do not need to be erased. 

The drawings are not to be in reverse, as 
sometimes required for other engraving, but 
should be made as they are to appear when 
printed. And it is best to have them at least 
double the size (that is, twice the height and 
twice the width) the engraving is to be. The 
reduction necessary for the engraving makes 
the lines finer and smoother, and so helps to 
counteract whatever opposite tendency may 
arise from the imperfections of the process. 

For the photographic method of securing 
a basis for a pen drawing, see under head of 
"Securing an Outline." 

[Thefm-egoing article t'a an extract //-orn the 
ktter-prcxK Inatrttetions to appear in the bound 
edition of the Spcnceriun New Cmnpendiutn.] 

Fine Specimen of Penmanship. 

There are a few copies of the Blaine and 
Logan campaign pieces left, which we will 
now mail at SOc. each, or by the dozen $1,25. 
These pieces are not, nor have they been, 
offered for any other purpose than as speci- 
mens of artistic penmanship, and, as such, 
are richly worth the price named. The copiee 
are handsomely printed on plate paper, 

"Toilers of the Pen." 

The expression is a familiar one — "toilers 
of the pen" — and is commonly used to indi- 
cate those who make a living by their 
brains — authors, journalists, correspond- 
ents and the like. But it might be, 
and sometimes is, used in a more literal 
sense, as applied to Ihose who earn their 
bread by what is ofteu called " thcdrudgery 
of the pen," that is, the labor attendant 
upon the mere mechanical use of that 
instrument. Thus, the type wrilcr nuinu- 
faeturers tell us that we can avoid " the 
drudgery of the pen " by buying their 
instruments. The copyist "toils over end- 
less pages of manuscript," and the school- 
boy " tabors at bis pot-hooks." 

All these expressions tend to convey the 
idea that penmanship — writing with a pen — 
is a peculiarly laborious and wearisome ex- 
ercise ; something old-fashioned and crude, 
to be done away with by labor-saving con- 

Now every accomplished and practiced 
penman, who has learned his tmde artisti- 
cally, scientifically, according to the true 
method, knows that this impression is false 
and misleading. In fact, there is no me- 
chanical exercise so easy, so graceful, so 
far from being drudgery, as practical pen- 
manship — what is commonly known as the 
"running " or business haml. 

Penmanship is drudgery only when it is 
unformed and uncultivated. Take the 
laborious and illegible hand of the rapid 
thinker whose meehauical powers of ex- 
pression have never been trained to keep 
pace with his racing brain. No wonder 
that the muscles of hand and arm ache and 
stilfen. No wonder that " writer's palsy" 
and ' writer's cramp " cry halt to such 
abuse of the overdriven and undisciplined 
muscles. These are the men who may 
justly be spoken of as " toilers of the pen." 

Suppose a man should set out lo become 
ail orator, and having written a glowing 
production of logic, imagination, fancy, 


wit, and should step upon tbc platform witlj 
his untrained voice, his clumsy bauds, his 
unmnuiigeable feet, and altempl to do jus- 
tice to that production of his brain. Whnt 
would be tbe result V lie would in»ke a 
miserable failure and retire from the effort 
A pbysicHl wreck. And just so long us be 
persisted in declaiming without iinowing 
bow to declaim, and gesturing without 
knowing how to gesture, he would And 
oratory up-hill work, " moist work "— 
drudgery, in fact. 

Why should it not be likewise in the 
matter of brain and pen work ? Here are 
these same untrained, unskilled muscles 
trying to draw tbe fiery ebariot of this 
same imperious brain. The result is, un- 
equal and over-exertion, a revolt of muscular 
tissue against brain tissue, and finally a 
"strike" of tbe over- worked muscles, and 

Did you ever know a professional pen- 
man, who bos thoroughly learned the scien- 
tific muscular movement, to bave pen- 
paralysis t Did you ever know tbe trained 
orator to break down and come off tbe stage 
a physical wreck ? What is the difference 
between tbe man who does these things 
easily and tbe man who does them with 
difficulty ? It is no difference of native 
power, or adaptability, or tbe genius of 
piTsevercticc, It is a difference of method. 
This man talks easily, gracefully, with 
sustained cU'iirncss and power, because he 
has learned how to talk. He has, in fact, 
learned how to breathe, how to articulate, 
how to control and regulate all bis vocal 
resources. This other man, who writes 
easily, gracefully, with sustained force, with 
an unvarying, unweaiyiug movement, has 
learned bow to write. He has, in fact, 
learned how to control and apply tbe mus- 
cular power of the entire arm, from the 
shoulder down. His muscles are Ukf 
tiaiued steeds. Tbc brain may be a fiery 
cbarioieer, but it drives fiery horses. No 
one can watch tbe sustained, smooth, rapid 
action of a good business writer, without 
bc'ing impressed with the fact that "every- 
t riing depends upon knowing bow. " 

There arc no "toilers of the pen" who 
undei'stand tbe pen. Those who write 
laboriously are those who write without 
system, regxilarity or training. Their 
tirhfiiqiie is all a bungling. They use 
fingers instead of forearm ; tbey wear their 
pens out OS a man wears the beels of his 
shoes— all on one side. It is a case of man's 
brain working with boy's hands. 

The Limit Reached. 

> !■■! '" 

e Icxtiua ririlr, 
ling. Jlr. a.L.n 
Chester Kaihv;L\ 
ing the prayer 

: lime past expert penmen have 
with oarli (ilIiLi to .see how small 
iv lii< li I 111 I I .1(1 w rii(3 the Lord's 

' ^ ' ■■■■■■ was made of 

'■ ^1 ■ I ICiigland, who 

" ' i- I in Knglish 

I'l-' 'I' ■< n\.<:\ i,v :i,i Knglish shil- 
ii'li'rM'ii, of the Man- 
^r^ll..(l this by writ- 
•irele described by a 
■iling of both these 
sppcimeris of penmanship is legible to the 
naked eye, and when viewed through a 
magnify ing-glass it seems to be perfect. The 
palm, however, must be awarded to work 
done nearly forty-tive years ago. by Jos. R. 
Neilsou, a resident of this city, who was a 
teacher of penmanship and a clerk on a 
sieamlioiit. In those days diamond- pointed 
iinrGillott's pens were unknown, and quills 
were used exclusively. Mr. Neilson wrote 
the Prayer in a circle three eighths of an 
inch in diameter, and his work, after the 
lapse of so many years, is legible to the 
nuked eye. This wonderful piece is now in 
ibe possession of Mr. J. Moore, of McClin- 
lock & Co., and was given to bis mother by 
Mr. Neilson, who at that time resided on 
Logan street. Tbe writing is as fine as can 
he made unless miemscopic eyes arc i)ro 
vidcd—PitMjiirff Telegraph. 

The Writiog-Huler has become a standard 
article with those who profess to have a suiv 
able outfit for practical writing. It is to the 
writer what tbe chart and compaas is to Uie 
mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a reliable 
penmanship chart and compass, sent by the 
JoDRMAL on receipt of 30 cents. 

Andrew J. Rider. 

Andrew J. Rider, President for the cur- 
rent year of the Business Educators' Asso- 
ciation is forty-three years old, having been 
horn in Geneva. Livingston County, Micb 
igoD, March 12, 1643. He is principal and 
proprietor of the Treulon Business College, 
and is one of the best known teachers in the 
country. He has been for tbe past two years 
the efficient Secretary and Treasurer of the 
Association, and was elected to his present 
position at the Jacksonville meeting by the 
unanimous vote of his fellow workers, who 
recognized in him the qualities requisite for 
the place. 

Mr. Rider is a representative man in the 
broadest and best sense. He not only has 
exalted views of the work which he has 
chosen, but has tbe faculty, possessed by 
few, of attaching his pupils to him personally, 
lie is constantly working for their good, not 

joint proprietor of the Trenton Rtisiness 
College, succeeding to tbc full proprietorship 
in 1867. 

In 1878, he became interested in an enter- 
prise in Southern New Jersey, which, (^laim 
ing his entire attention, he withdrew from 
the college which was then at the height <if 
its prosperity, 

He was sent from bis district to the State 
Legislature, tbe nomination coming to bim 
without premonition, and his election being 
almost by acclamation, and wholly outside 
of party lines. Some of tbe reasons under- 
lying this result may be giUhered from the 
following extract taken from a New Jersey 
paper : 

" Some years a.E:<>. tie Olr. Rider), was 
called to superiiii- i .1 ,.i. . rjh i |.i i-, in "^., Nth 
Jersey.andretii in ':. m !,■.■.■,..■ : ■■ ,. ;mt, 

he took up liiN y -I .11 u ,■. . i. .,; ,,,,, ,,. 

ship, Camden ' :. 1 m ,.i.. ii 

wftsthena wiUIciu. . . h.. , ._uiiiL i., I.Jm,>..^.iii 

only in the class room or as pertains to their 
progress in study, but after they leave him 
and enter upon their life work. There is m 
fact no class of institutions where better op 
portunities for the practical and helpful 
fealty are afforded, than the business col 
leges, and Mr. Rider is oneof thosewise men 
who have found out this truth and know 
just bow to act upon it, 

Sfr. Rider has bad a varied and valuable 
education. After spending the usual time 
ill tbe district schools, and receiving a finish- 
ing touch at a school for teachers under the 
direction of Mrs. Dayfoots, who was a sister 
of the famous Miss Lyons, of Holyoke Sem- 
inary, be began to teach at the age of sixteen, 
teaching in winter and attending seminary 
in tbe springand autumn. He was graduated 
from the seminary liret, in a class of twenty, 
being tbc valedictorian of the class, and af- 
terwards spent a year at Hillsdale College, 
Ho look a commercial course at Bryant's 
Business College, Chicago, in 1865, after 
which he came to Newark. N. J., and en- 
giigcd in leaching at Bryant, Stratton & 
Whitney's College. In 18(56, be went to 
Trenton, and in the following year became 

as a lose Ik advinctd money from his 
pnvate funds to budd a school house, and 
spaied no time nor pains to give the people 
of tbe neighborhood every advantage for the 
education of their children. He has won 
the hearts of tbe people m that locality. To 
tht laboring man he hai always shown him- 
self a friend When others reduced wages 
from $1 to 00 cents he conHnued to pav 
$1 2'i believing that to be as small an 
amount as would support Ibeir families." 

We cannot say whether this is tbe theory 
of business Mr. Rider teaches in his school, 
but it makes a pretty fair record for any 
man who believes that the world was made 
for all tbe people in it, and not for a few 
who happen to get to the top. 

Mr. Rider is deservedly popular with the 
members of bis profession, and is n im;iji nf 

great public spirit. Hchasanas^ \ lu i 

ness and soeial position in his ow n < : 
is foremost in all jrood w..i ks II,. 

plied t 

The Muscular Bugaboo. 


If reasoning from cause to effect is esseu- 

il to the proper understanding of other 

tsand sciences it is equally so when ap- 

writing. They must be recognized. 

e in all mechanics the effects are from 

known or unknown ; if known, pro- 

i intelligent, if unknown, progress, if 

satisfactory and somewhat 


Earnestness, courage, grit, determination, 
pluck, enthusiasm— nil these forces, either 
natural or acquired, are needed to success- 
fully continue the onward march, yet we 
cannot shut our eyes to effects as we sec 
them without knowing their cause if wo 
care to make the nuirch progressive as xvcll 
as pleasant and profitable. 

To give character and expression to small 
writing tbe loop letters arc made three, four 
and more times the height of the short let- 
ters. This is simply the effect of a certain 
eause, and tbe knowledge of il adds another 
de-rcc of intelligence to a l^st that must be 

in tbe possession of every one ^ 
any part in tbe play. If Idesiretostn nirthrn 
a capital letter, and at the same tiim -i\. ii 
an artistic appearance. I must kmw iln 
cause that will produce the desired rilcci, 
or if by any process I find an effect not in 
keeping with good taste. 1 must change it 
by substituting tbe proper cause. The ob- 
ject of capital letters is to secure strength 
and give chanicler and expression to writ- 
ing. If they be made contrary to alt artistic 
effect and too small tbey fail to meet tbe 
the requirements and are but little better 
than small letters. If I make Ibe capital 
'■ G '■ with a very small loop at tbe top. say 
half a space in length, then follow with the 
stem part five spaces in length, ending with 
a little oval about a space in height. I pro- 
duce a monstrosity; that is tbc effect of 
violating well known rules which govern 
form. If I join the top of a capital P to 
the stem, make it very small and almost 
straight, tbe stem long and curved with a 
short hook, and a line drawn diagonally 
across the centre of stem with a short heavy 

line to represent a dot, I have disregarded 
all artistic effect and violated the rules that 
should always conform to the best taste, 
that in turn i-; flrrnriiiiicd by systematic dc- 
velopiin 111 iiiilii liiiliiL' of themuscleswbich 

invariai>l\ |ir..,i, ulis in proportion to 

the inti lli-i m , <li-|i|;iud in their manipula- 
tion. The must lis are so constructed as to 
be limited in their action. 

Written characters may have been discov- 
ered at a very eariy date, yet I hope that I 
am correct in tbe statement that the creation 
(if muscles antedates that period. 

Whatever may have been the design of 
the original artist in giving foim to the (52) 
fifty-two. letters now employed we bave no 
reason to believe that he or she contemplated 
tbcir execution with the muscular movement. 
If he or she did not consider this idea of 
paramount importance or even at all, should 
not tbe advocates of a purely miignular mote- 
ment be indeed grateful to an allwise Prov- 
idence for such a harmonious effect ¥ It is 
fair to presume that the form of the (52) fifty- 
two letters are not adapted to any one set of 
muscles. I would be glad were it so, be 
cause all difllculties now encountered would 
never have been known and learning to 
write would bave been a very easy matter. 

It may be true that the forearm is suscep- 
tible of producing the greater amount of 
work imposed in tbc execution of writing, 
but that would not be conceding more than 
accepting the statement that bread is made 
principally from flour. I deem it wrong to 
say that writing is executed entirely with 
the forearm, at least as erroneous as tbe 
statement that bread is made aitirely from 
Hour. If one is true the other is likewise. 
y tbe latter is lacking in truth with con- 
noisseurs the former is doomed when prop- 
erly interpreted by critics. Loose, unquali- 
fied stntemenls may sound pleasing and 
truthful to tbe many, but when tested must 
go by default. If birad is imt ;ill flour v\liiil 
else is in it ? U" \m iimj r n-.i . -, , i iii,ii i n 

tirely with the i-i.". ,i, ,,,v, 

ment what otbiM r ■ I ■ i !■ . ■ \\i>,( 

necessary to produce ibe blall ''. What 
muscles, as well as the method of their con- 
trol, are necessary to produce good writing ? 
Cause and effect are inseparable, and we 
must insist upon the advocates of Ibe great 

to prove by some reasonable argument the 
reiterated claims in favor of it before it has 
been ridden to death. 

Genius of India Ink. 
I^binese imagination has run riot in doing 
nor to ink. As there are divinities to pre- 
e over almost every object tbe instru- 
nts of literature do not lack their supcr- 
ural guardians, and their places and 
■• ' ili'iice arc settled by strict rules of 
lie Tbe "Prefect of tbc Black Per- 
is the olHcial name of tbe ink deity, 
! ii. ranks higher than the " Guardian 
iSpiiit of tbe Pencil ;" while on a still lower 
level stands the "Genius of Paper." One 
day when the Kmpcror Hiuanisong. of the 
Taug dynasty, was at work in his study, 
suddenly there popped out from a stick of 
ink that lay upon his table a quaint figure 
no larger than a fiy. but having all tbc 
appearance of a Taoist priest. Tbe startled 
monarch was soou reassured by tbe words 
of the apparition, " Behold," it said, "Tbe 
'i( iiiiis of the Ink. i\Iy title is the Kuvoy of 
iIm lil.ick Fir, and 1 have lo announce to 
Mil iIkiI beiieeforth, when a man of true 
k;Lriiin;.'orgenius writes, tbe Twelve Deities 
of Ink have remained invisible, although 
many centuries have passed away." 

Back Numbers. 

Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
ancT m others: All numbers for 1871*, ex- 
cept January, May and Nvveinbcr ; all 
numbers for 1880, except Jtily, ^T>- 
teiiiber and November; all numbers for 
1881, except December; all for 1882, except 
June; all for 1883. but January ; all for 
1884; all for 1885. All the 75 numbers, back 
of 1886, will be mailed for $6. or any of the 
numbers at 10 cents each. 

Remember, you can get the Journai. one 
year, and a 75-ceut book free, for |ll ; or a 
$1 book and the Jouiinai. for $1.25. Do 
your friends a favor by telling tbcm. 

The Varieties and Processes of 


U'licn UicroiTCClionsarc finally compIeU'd 
(hf proptT book-form is given to the type 
(if it liad not been done before). Tbc com- 
positor is proviflt'd with a number of pieces 
of appnraliis tiy ■\vliirh lie is enabled to 
wed^'i-itii i\ |.i - i..j< rhi I «o closely as to bear 

the (1(1 I'll ■ I I I J press or machine. 

In tlir ( III'. . I h I he bas transferred 

as mm )i t^ ]>, iinm iIh • composing stick" 
to the ■■ galk-y ■■ !if will fill one page, the 
compositor binds this group round with a 
siring. Tlien, when he has us many of these 
groups us will fill one side of a sheet of 
paper, he arranges them in proper order on 
a bench called the " imposing stone;" be 
surrounds each page full of type with pieces 
of wood culled " furniture." in (ffder 'o keep 
Ihcni at the proper distance apart. If there 
are sixteen pages in n- sheet, as for octavo, 
there are eight on a side, and therefore eight 
are arranged in this way, so that the num- 
ber of pages thus collected depend:^ on tlie 
size in which the book is printed. The 
whole of the pages, mth the "furniture" 
between them are then wedged tightly to 
gether in a stout iron frame called a " chase.' 
and this frame, with its contents fixi-d im 
movably in it, constitutes a "foi"m." An 
other "form" is built up in a simihn \\;i\ 
containing the pages which arc to priiii thf 
other side of the sheet ; so that the sheet of 
paper, after being printed by one of these 
forms may undergo a second printing by 
the other. 

As a proof of tbc care with which these 
operations must be conducted it may be 
stated that a form sometimes contains a 
hundred thousuud types and separate pieces 
of metal or wood, not one of which must 
shift from its place throughout the whole 
process of priuting. 

In common type priutiuE; the form ih 
carefully exauiiucd to see that all the letters 
are on one general level, and that the ink- 
ing is not stronger at one point than au 
other ; after (tiiftthe priuting proceeds. 

Bui iu Tuodern times a great feature bas 
been introduced, under the name of '"stereo- 
typing." by which the printing is not ef 
fecled from Ibe types tbemsflves. but from 
a cast from these types. 

Let us suppose, as an ilU stralion of the 
object of the "stereotype" process, that a 
publisher is pretty sure of a sale of one 
thousand copies of a new work ; that he is 
doubtful as to a greater number, but that a 
greater number is actually called for by tlie 
publisher, lie must proceed in one of three 
ways. In the lir»t, he prints off only a 
thousand copies, and agrees with the printer 
that the " forms " of all the sheets shall re- 
main sljmding until it is found wlictber 
more copies are wanted, the publisher pay- 
lug to the printer a sum of money equiva- 
lent to the loss of capital incurred by allow- 
ing the forms to remain idle. In the second 
method, when the tho\i8aud copies are sold 
and a demand still continues, the publisher 
prepares a " second edition," for which he 
bas to incur the expenditure of money and 
of time sufficient to. re compose and re-uiakc 
the book just as at first. In the third 
method, after the form of types has been 
liually (corrected, a cost is taken from it and 
the printing is (•(niihictcd from tliis cast ; so 
thill ilic ' ;i>i i:iii be preserved as a 

fuiiil I "I hi line copies of the work 

niJiy ^"- I'linhii I- w ,tiii,i, while the types 
iu till' luim t.iu hi .1 i.amted, to be applied 
lo some other use. This constitutes the 
stereotype process, which is found to be 
very advantageous for periodical works 
having large but at the same time fluctuat- 
ing and uncertain sales, since it gives a 
power to the publisher of adapting his ar- 
rangements to the demand at any particular 

Return If not Satisfactory. 

Reuicmbcr, that if you order either our 
'■ New Comi>emlium ef Practical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship," or the "Guide to Self- 
Instniction," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 
the entire amouut paid. 

An Old Copy Book. 

MRiichester (Ene.) (Jranimer Sctiool. 

To my way of thinking, an ancient time- 
worn copy book always possesses an inter- 
est peculiarly its own. The leaves discolored 
with age, and covered with old fashioned 
characters, bring vividly before my mind's 
eye (be image of the bright-eyed child for 
whose lienefii it was written, and that of the 
master who trained his hand in tbc cunning 
of our beautiful art. AnU if this is the 
case with those copy books, of which so 
many were engraved in the 17tb and 18th 
centuries, how much more so nuist it be 
when a copy book like the one I am about 
to describe, is in the handwriting of the 
master and bears his autograph and ■ 'posey" 
(as the iuevitable flourish that accompanied 
it was called). I have before me two copy 
books, the production of John de Bau- 
ebesne. a descriptiou of which will, no 
doubt, be interesting as they are the only 
examples still in existence of the works of 
a very worthy member of our craft. The 
one containing 28 leaves out of 45, which it 
had originally, was printed from wooden 
blocks in 160a by Richard Field in London. 

Besides the ornate initial letters which are 
really beautiful, it contains specimens of 
the various hands then iu vogue, the very 

Ibe master nothing is known. Asthisbook 
was written in 1010. de Beauchcsne must 
have lived to an advanced age, for, in o copy 
book engraved by Judocus llondlus at Am- 
sterdam in 18U, there are five pages con- 
tributed by him. I send you a page I have 
copied from this book which will perhaps 
inierest you, as showing the fashion of that 
time. I cannot close this letter without ex- 
pressing my regret that in his time there 
was no publication like the Pknmaks Aht 
.Journal to rescue the name of dc Beau- 
cbesne from oblivion. 

• Yes, Give Us Fair Play. 
Editor Penman's Aut .Juuhnal : 

You will have to pardon my audacity in 
claiming space for the following ; but as 
the compendium (piestion has now reached 
a stage where they call for "fair play." why 
I'm there also, and don't you forget it t I 
am one of the old compendium writers my- 
self, and can say, as you have to frof. 
Ferris, the best part of my writing is what 
I did not learn from the compendium, and 
what little is left of the compendium 1 hope 
to obliterate in due time. Some five years 
ago, before I became the owner of Gaskell's 
Compendium, I wrote a fair business hand 
which I had acquired at one of our colleges ; 
but after practicing from the compendium 

result? In nine cases out of ten, system is 
never thougbt of by the scholar, and as he 
is not told what systematic writing is, how 
should be know? Rapidity, legibility, 
and beauty. Prof. Ferris says Gaskell 
claims; very well, we will see how Ibe 
scholar succeeds. As rapidity is the first, 
that must be acquired. After devoting 
some time to that, the scholar thinks he bas 
got that down fine, and of course it is legi- 
ble. Now the main thing is beauty, which 
ran only be acquired by making as many 
different letters with as many flourishes 
as possible, and behold you have a full- 
fledged penman! Yes, but what kind of a 
penman ? I could say more, but it would 
require too much space. Gaskell's Com- 
pendium was put on the morket and ad- 
vertised shrewdly to sell, and it did sell. 
I have seen ignorant boys discard the Spen- 
cerian slips because there was not enough 
flourishing in them, but I have seen 
them regret it. Gaskell was undoubtedly a 
fine writer, but if so his compendium is a 
poor specimen of bis skill. I say go on ; 
show it up, until it is driven from the fitld. 
We have enough works more meritorious. 
Then wby sboidd the public be duped 
longer into buying such trash? Gaskell 
was a abrewd advertiser, and in that way 
succeeded in selUng the compendium, and 

TheaboDi: cut teas photo-enffraved from ffriginaljopy executed by R. 8. BoimiU, of the CoTpenter B. d- S. Bnsi. 

names of which are unknown to modern 
penmen. There are the Secretary, Small 
Secretary. Bastard Secretary, the Set hand 
iu the C'ommon Place, Italique, Romaine 
letters, and others. But of still more im- 
portance are the master's instructions for 
plain writing. Like Prof. Ames he seemed 
to have had au aversion for flourishes being 
interspersed with ordinary writing. We 
will let our author speak for himself : 

To write very fair youv pea let be new, 
Dihh-duBb loDg-tftiled (lie false wrItiUK pscliew. 
NoAtly And cleBDiy your hand for to frame 
StroDj; afilked pen use, best of a rnven. 
And comely to write and give a good grace. 
Leave between eacli word small (a) letter's apace. 
Tlmt fah- and seemly your liuud may he i-ead, 
Kff i» even your letters at foot and at head, 
Wtth distance alike between letter and leltei-. 
One out of others shews mnoli the better," 

The other copy book is a small oblong 
volume bound in calf with beautifully 
tooled and gilt back and edges. Everything 
about it bespeak.*; rcflnement, and one can 
sec at a glance Ijcfore opening it that it be- 
longed to no ordinary person. The book 
consists of 19 leaves of vellum and 5 of 
paper and is elegantly written in several 
.styles ; tbc initials are executed in burnished 
gold. This is the identical copy book used 
by the Princess Elizabeth, only daughter of 
.lames I. This lady, commonly known as 
the Queen of Bohemia, was one of the most 
charming, talented, as well us the most un- 
forlunute women of her time ; the copy 
book is dedicated to her in French verse, 
and on the last leaf is the inscription. " Je- 
Imn de Beauchcsne. .^Eta, Sua, 72i. Of 
the pupil volumes have been written, but nf 

a while, I acquired a style of writing which 
I thought for a time was leading me on 
to fame, but a year or so later I became a 
subscriber to the .Iouunai,, and in compar 
ing my work and the pretty, systematic 
copies of the Spencers, iliuman, and others, 
I found I was on the wrong track. I could 
make large capitals, but oh, what kind of 
capitals 'i My writing was loose, sprawly — 
in fact, a regular Mark Checkup style — and 
it required months to overcome many of my 
faults ; and for what is good in my writing 
to-day, I am indebted to the Art Joihinal 
and Ames' Compendium. 

That Gaskell's Compendium inspired me 
with a love for the work I am willing to 
admit, for, like a great many others, I had 
never seen anything of the kind published, 
and having always bad a love for penman- 
ship, how could it be otherwise V. That is 
all the good I can say for it. To the begin- 
ner it is fascinating to the extreme. By 
phicing such an endless variety of work 
before 'the novice it cannot be otherwise, 
and, of course, with the laudation aud 
pniise bestowed upon it, and the many flat- 
tering testimonials of those who have 
extolled it, it inspires the aspirant for cali- 
graphic fame, with such an aduuration for 
the copies before bira that he, in bis wild 
race to become a penman, forgets what the 
author himself has forgotten — proper sys- 
tem, accuracy in form, height, space, and 
shade— the most essential parts of a half- 
way good hand, be has not become 
acquainted with, and very few even attain, 
any good movement. Now, by practicing 
from these many-varicgaled aud compli- 
cated slip.s. what kind of a writing is the 

there are many to day who can be duped by 
a liberal display of cuts, etc., into investing 
their spare dollars. I believe in giving 
honor to whom honor is due, aud I think 
Gaskell received about as much of it ns lie 
was entitled to. I, for one, would noi 
have anything I say construed in such a 
manner as to appear as a slur on Gaskell's 
memory, for uothiug is more distant in my 
mind than that, but I would not, and could 
not, conscientiously recommend Gaskell's. 
Compendium as being " without an equal," 
and I'd like to know if Prof. Ferris would '/ 
Now have not any of the old compendium 
writers the courage to acknowledge that t lie 
compendium did not make them the writers 
they are to-day ? Will they show some of 
their work while practicing from the com- 
pendium, and then submit it, with some of 
their jjresent work, to the readers of the 
JouiiNAL to decide bow many write like 
the compendium slips. I, for one, have a 
few scraps which I am really ashomed lo 
show, but in vindication of the above I 
would allow Hs publication. Let us hear 
from those who have "been there," and if 
they will disprove my statements, I am 
willing to make proper amends. Until then, 
I remain fraternally yours, 

11. F. Vo(;ei.. 

2754 Orrst., St. Louis, Mo. 

Mr, Vogel is a pen artist of note, and is 
certainly competent to speak rcKpecting the 
compendium matter, Ilis voice is certainly 
one of many. 

In one year the people of this country use 
about I50,nO0,UUO steel pen.s. If placed in 
line the pens would reach from New York 
to Liverpool. 

(Copy rlgli ted 188H. b7 J. II. Bsnutn.) 
It is noccasary to uiiderstand sonietbJDg' 
of the principles of light and sbade in tbo 
represcntntiou of objects ; for it is ouly by 
tbe judicious luiinagement of ligbt aod 
sbade tbat an appcurance of rotundity, re- 
lief and projection cau be giveu to tbera, 
Sbades and sbadows may be made by a 
^rcat many methods ; by wasllfug with a 
brush in nomc single tint or color, like India 
ink, sepia, etc. ; by the stamp with graphite 
or crayon, or with tbe pencil or pen. 

said to have of vacuily. To oliviiite this 
defect even in tbe smallest surfaces, it is 
easy to suppose something of reflections. 

If tbe surface is one vanishing or retreat- 
ing, then the light or shade is to be modi- 
fied to couvey this impression. The ligbt 
on tbe side towards the light will be dimiu 
ished correspondingly to llie diminution of 
size. The sbade on the shaded side will be 
gradually diminished in the same way. 

The shadia^f plain surfaces, when dbne 
by a linear pr^tfess can be easily managed to 
represent the peculiar character of the sur- 
face ; whether it is a smooth one like glass 
or polished wood or mcUils, or rough lik^ 

The last instrument will be treated of 
most especially. Graduation is a very im 
poitanl quality in shading. It is said, 
nuihoiitatively. that unity and variety are 
necessary to constitute the beautiful, also 
graduation and radiation. These facts 
must be considered in the "Management of 
light and sbade. It may be generally sup- 
posed that a vertical plane resting upon a 
borizonlal line, like tbe front face of a cube, 
might have a uniform tint or degree of 
shade, but it seems as if nature had nearly 
as great an abborrance of monotony as it is 

Special Penegram from Austin, 
Texas. .* 

For obvious reasons I will state that I am 
a penman, and in connection with this state- 
ment it is important that I deny, positively, 
being "the best in the world;" however, I 
am gradually being educated up to the point 
where my modesty will allow me " to own 
up," at which time due notice of same will 
be given through tbe columns of the AiiT 
JoDRNAi,, and the usual liberality displayed 
in offering a reward for a man that can beat 
'■ my capitals." 

I have just received a letter from Boston, 
written in two colors. Avbich reads as fol- 
lows : "Send me 25 cents and receive by 
return mail nn elegant collection of orna- 
mental pcumausbip fresh from the pen of a 
;;nuiuati- penman." Said letter, according 
lo my occular observations, is a horrible 

massof illegibilities. Dear Mr. II .your 

letter should have read tlds way : Being an 
amateur in penmanship I desire to exchange 
crom' nesU with you, and should also be 
pleased to receive a few plain copies. Stamp 
enclosed for reply. This would have re- 
ceived my immediate attention. I have also 
received numerous letters from penmen who 
vend their autograph for ■'Scents." This 
is hard on tbe profession ; the idea of a man 
selling bis name for a nickel ! History fails 
to record but one instance equal to it, namely, 
that of the New York aldermen. 

Aside— O, ye scribes, listen ; what think 
ye ? A certain pharisee, whose name is here 
withbttd, arrived in Austin some time since 
and spread his eagle over the uu-suspecting 
populace, crying aloud : " Jerusalem, Jeru- 
salem, bow oft would I have gathered you 

some stone surfaces. In tbe representation 
of curved surfaces like a cylinder, sphere, 
scroll, etc. The lines of shading must con- 
form somewhat to the direction of curva- 
ture ; and the peculiar character of surface 
as it regards roughness or smoothness may 
be treated according to its character. It is 
proper the student should understand the 
difference between sbade and shadow. 
Shude is tbe side or portion of an object 
turned from the light and the shadow is 
that portion of surface adjacent to it from 
which the light is intercepted by the object 

under my wings, etc., and ye would not 1" 
—because — well because he displayed a set 
of Prof. W. E. Dennis' capitals on his cir- 
cular and forgot (?) to explain that they 
were not executed by himself. Well, Mr. 

K . hang out your own goods and sell 

according to your sample, in other words do 
honcut compUition and we shall welcome 
you. Remember that even in Texas we oc- 
casionally get hold of the Penman's Akt 
JoimNAL.iVfA. Judge, Harper's and Leslie's 
publications, etc., etc., and that isn't all. we 
have operas, street-cars, baseball, daily 
papers, and tbe finest and largettt state capitol 
in the United States— yes, the, largest, for 
I've been to Chicago, and therefore know 
what I am talking about— yes, indeed. 

The Penman's Aut Jodrnal is far ahead 
of all papers of similar purport. Prof. 
Ames deserves much creditand more money 
for the good he is doing. May he continue 
to live, for I've just renewed my subscription. 
D. A. GniKKiTs, 
Secretary Capital Business College. 

Ames' Compendium restored to 
its regular price $5.00. 
It should be observed thai the price of 
Ames' large Compendium of Artistic Pen- 
manship has been restored to its regular 
price of f 5.00, at which it will hereafter be 

Agent for Canada. 
We have commissioned A. J. Small. 13 
Grand Opera House, Toronto, Canada (P O 
Box 634), to act as agent for the Jouknal 
in Canada. He will take subscriptions, ad- 
vertisements, and supply our miblicationsat 
tbe regular rates. We trust that our Cana- 
dian friends will give him a liberal patron- 

The Secret Service Bureau. 

One of the most intieresting places to visit 
in Wa-shington is the Secret Service Bureau 
in the Treasury Department. In its rooms 
may be seen the photographs of nearly all 
tbe noted "gangs" who find it profitable 
to spend their time in counterfeiting the 
currency of their countrj'. Tbe groups of 
pictures hung around the walls contain 
every imaginable type of countenance,.from 
the moat lepulsive-looiiing individual to tbe 
handsome young man and most beautiful of 
the fair sex. Here are exposed for the bene- 
fit of the public the pictures of girls, yoimg 
mothers with babes in their arms, old 
women joung and old men. and even the 
innocent but mdustrious Chinese, who have 
sought to defraud tbe Government by 
counterfcitmg the national currency. The 
tools dies money, bonds, etc., which have 
been captured from the counterfeiters, arc 
kcpl m an iron safe at night and displayed 
in cases to tbe puljlic gaze during the day. 
In tbib museum the Government will soon 
have a vaned collection constituting a 
second Ptitent Office for the exhibition of 
American genius. Inquiry of Chief Brooks 
reveals the fact that counterfeiters are most 
numeious through the Nonh and West, 
and instead of prosecution crushing them 
out It only seems to serve to give them 
lenened life and increased vigor. National 
bank notes are much more counterfeited 
than U S notes and certificates. Coins of 
all kinds and of every denomination have 
been counterfeited. The most dangerous 
counterfeits are those struck from a steel 
die. and are principally imitations of tlie 
gold coins. Moulds of various kinds are 
extensively used in counterfeiting gold, 
silver and other coins, but these counterfeits 
are much inferior to those made from dies. 
The principal metals used are platinum, 
silver, copper, brass, antimony, zinc, type 
metal, and their numerous compounds. 
Tlic standard silver dollars are extensively 
counterfeited, and are composed of anti- 
mony and lead, heavily silverplated. The 
5 cent nickel coin is a very dangerous 
counterfeit. It is struck from a die, and is 
made of the same metal as is used by the 
mint. The cent, made of copper, nickel 
and bronze is counterfeited to a small ex- 
lent, principally to fill cabinets of numis- 
matics, particularly tbe old dates. Such in- 
formation as the above is given by the 
obliging attendant in charge of these valu- 
ables, and instead of tiring in telling to the 
visitors the history of each counterfeit and 
the ingeniously-contrived tools ou exhibi- 
tion, be seems to become enthused on the 
subject and to call to^mind some "blood- 
thrilling" event omitted by inadvertence in 
relating the story to some person who has 
left the room just before you entered. If 
you want to spend two or three days in 
listening to thrilling stories, don't fail to 
visit tbe museum of the Secret Service 
Bureau when you are in Washington. H. 

A Word on Handwriting. 

" Writes badly, docs he ? Ob, that doesn't 
matter ; I've generally found that boys who 
could write well were little good at anything 
else. " 

So spoke the head master of a large pub- 
lie school, when discus.sing the penmanship 
of a favorite pupil, who was a prodigy in 
tbe matter of Latin verses and Greek roots 
but whose writing would have been unwor- 
thy of a small boy in a preparatory school. 
What with letters of all shapes and sizes 
some sloping to the right, some tumbling 
over one another lo tbe left^his exercises 
looked very much as though a spider bad 
contrived to fall into the ink-pot. and then 
crawled over a sheet of paper until he bad 
gol rid of the ink that covered bis body and 
legs. And with the bead master's dictum 
to encourage him in his carelessness, it is no 
wonder that matters did not improve as the 
boy passed from school to college, from 
college to professionalism. He had been 
taught to consider bad writing a sigu of 
genius, and the result was, he wrote plenty 
of clever letters and essays, which no one 
but himself could decipher. 

And is not this typical of hundreds and 
thousands of cases at Ibe present day ? 
Partly because bandvvriiing is not taught so 
carefully and industriously as in by-gone 
limes, partly because of the headlong speed 

Examples in Drawing. 

(Copyrt|jIit«d by George E. I.lttle,) 

In tbe present lesson Prof. Little presents 
another familiar object ; yet bow many can 
readily reproduce the copy, certainly no one 
could fail from want of familiarity with it. 
They could want only the proper training 
of the eye and hand. The sketches given 
here would be reproduced by Prof.. Little 
upoa the blackboard in a spaoe of less than 
three minutes, and in the space of an hour 
he would represent from fifty to one hun- 
dred sketches of similnr objects. 

bieh characterizes most of our daily trans- 
actions, whether in private or public life, 
there seems to be some fear lest penmanship 
may become almost as much a lost art as 
letter-writing.— CaMe«'« Magaei\ 

Tlie difference between liim- and our read- 
ers is, first, that he ha.s .«o disciplini'il bis 
eye and judj-mcnt that a gin nee at an object 
conveys to him a perfect conception of its 
form and proportion, while those untrained 
get no accurate, well-defined conception of 
what they really see, and second, they have 
not the properly trained haml to enable 
them to produce it. One of the lieauties 
of art training is that the eye is made 
to become as it were a camera that ac- 
tually photographs and retains an object 

in perpetual view, while the traine<l hand 
sketches its outline. A good practice for 
our younger readers, and It would not harm 
tbe older ones, is to study sharply the object 
they would copy and then close the eyes and 
endeavor to recall it in its general outline 
and in detail. Try it. These examples 
may be practiced upon the blackboard with 
crayon, or with pen or pencil upon paper or 


Educational Notes. 

[Communications fur tbia Oepi 

Brief educational ii 

The Oxford University, tlie largest in tlie 
world, bus iwenly-one colleges iind five 
Iialls, aud was a seut of Iciirning as early aa 

Cornell, Micliigan and Virgi 
lies have adopted tbe principle of voluntary 
rliapel attendance. 

The principal schools in Alaska are still 
tliose sustained by tbe Presbyterian Cburcb 
and situated in tbe soutleastern portion of 
the Territory. 

President Eliot, of Harvard, is reported 
as saying, in substance, that it were a great 
loss to the country if the ten bright boys in 
a school were kept back by the ninety dull 

The maximum of daily school work in 
Prussia is seven hours for children eleven 
years of age, up to nine hours for those six- 
teen years and upward. The standard is 
still higher in Denmark. 

The University of Michigan has instructed 
twenty prvKidents of colleges and seventy- 
fnur college professors. 

lu one Pennsylvania county school teach- 
ers receive $l-J.->Oi>tr month, and are com- 
pelled to diiMiye tlieir boarding places every 
week. — Uonton Journtil. 

In the United States every two-hundredlh 
man takes a college course ; in England, 
every five-hundredth ; in Scotland, every 
six hundred aud fifteenth, and in Germauy 
everyone hundred and tbirteenih. — ^fiool 

from Sanskrit to Oshkosh. 

Twenty years ago thiTf weif imt l.j.OOn 

colored people in the S.iiii!, , i .1.; nid. 

and now l.llOll.OOO (■■(j|..i-: !■'■!,. ,■ i, id 
the public schools of th, - ,1, I I,. < lu- 

16.0UU colored tcaclKi > :■ il,,m 

eighty newspapers u\w,l.i ..uU i.hLLd by 
colored men. Over lOlt ithouls for higher 
educatiou are now in successful operation. 
In fact, in the history of edijcatiou nothing 
con compare with tbe present work among 
the colored people.— i?e%iou« Herald. 

Gcruinuy has eight schools of forestry, 
where five years' training is required of those 
who seek positions under the government, 
although a course of study half as long may 
be taken by amateurs. France supports a 
single school at Nancy. 

Educational Fancies. 

[In every Instance where the souroe of any Item 
osed tu tbls department Ifi known, the proper credit 
Ifi Klveo. A like courtesy from ottiera will oe eppre- 

A soft spell— D-u-d-e. 
" Does my question puzzle you ?" asked a 
^professor to a pupil. " Not at all," was the 
'ybright reply; "It is the answer that is a 
Bticlter." — Rocfieiiter Daily Express." 

■' Charley, do you like to go to school V" 
kindly inquired a gentleman of a nine year 
old boy. "I like goiu' well enough," 

ing hopeful •••■•• ■- 
staying after I get there. 

Professor in mechanics : " Master Wiltae, 
canyon give me an example of lost motion V 
Master Wiltse, after a moment's delibera- 
tion : " Well, professor, a woman with a 
panilyzed jaw." — Indianajwlia Uerald. 

Christopher Columbus teaches school in 
Tabor, Iowa. lie is very particular to im- 
press upon the minds of his scholars that 
the world is round, not tlat —^nck. 

Ponsonby. — "Education I Don't tel! me I 
America is far behind Europe. Why, sir, 
look at France, for instance." Bagley. — 
"Well, what of France?" Ponsonby. — 

Fred's uncle visited his nephew's school 
((me morning, and at dinner said : " I liked 
your teacher, Fred ; she struck me very 
favorably.*' " H'm ! you ought to see how 
she struck me after you left," 

Little Millie (;ii ih.- ditin. i i;.l.le to her 
father, who had i;i Mil h. i ilj, -inallest pieci 
of pie on the phiiri--- ' ' 

piece of pie like l.niMp- 

-■ ; ' r;i|>.'i lihought- 
V Iu.IlliI, I don't 
know. Why is it?" Little Millie— "Be- 
cause ifs the smallest of the grand divisions." 
First small boy.—" Say, Johnnie, where 
are you in Sunday school ?" Second small 
boy.— " Oh, we're in the middle of original 
sin." First small boy.—" That ain't much ; 
we're past redemption. " 

"I siec father," said Rollo,""that two 
boys in Maine were frozen to death while 
going to school." *• Quite likely, my sou," 
replied Rollo's father, " quite likely ; a 
thing that ia liable to happen anywhere, 
even in July. But you never heard of a 
boy freezing to death while coming from 
school. Never, my son." And that gave 
Kollo something to think about all the monx- 
{ag.— Brooklyn Eagle, 

A whole Sunday school was demoralized 
and thrown into convulsion by a precocious 
youth when a distinguished visitor was in- 
terrogating the school, and asked: "What 
was the forbidden fruit ?" Up jumped the 
p. y,, and said: "I know." " Well, what 
was it ?" inquired the stranger. "Pickles," 
shouted the boy in a stentorian tone. 

One Sunday Deacon Bucrag, a good man, 
l)ut rather a crude talker, addressed the 
Sunday school. " Dear children. "he began, 
plunging at once into the subject, "Jesus 
said, 'Suffer little children to come unto 
me, for of such is the kingdom of Heaven.' 
Now, dear children, the little ones came to 
him in large numbers, and in — in their 
mothers' arms, and he took them and — and, 
now can any of you tell me what Jesus did 
with all of those dear little children ?" "He 
took them to the circus," vociferated a small 
boy near the door. 

Just for Fun. 

The call to arms— "John, take the baby." 
Smith. — "If you were stung by hornets. 

Jones, what would you do first ?" Jones.— 

The vilest sinner may return everything 

except an umbrella. — lexaa Siftings. 
A Pair of slippers— The orange and ban- 
Bob Ingersoll confesses that one thing is 

created to be eternally lost— an umbrella. — 

Chicago Ledger. 

admitted to the b'a 

A man named Benjamin F. Butler has 
committed suicide. It is not known whether 
there was any other reason for the rash act. 
— New Haven News. 

The Indians originally owned America, 
and would still own it if they had gone into 
the liquor business when the first white men 
arrived here. — Philadelphia Herald. 

Clara — ' ' Have you heard the good news '/" 
Ethel— "No; what is it." Clara (triumph- 

,) — " Papa has been bitt(- ' ' ' 

and ^ 

A Steubcnville woman who left home 
dressed in a suit of her husband's clothes 
is adjudged insane. We publish this merely 
as a hint to husbands whose wives want to 
" wear the trousers. "—P(««&«rp Leader. 

Why docs a young man embracing his 
girl at the garden gate just as the old man 
approaches remind you of a love scene at 
the theatre ? Because he is hugging his girl 
before the foot lights.— /*a<ri^'c Jester. 

"Where did you get your wonderful 
power of language t" asked qd admiring 

auditor at the close of a lecture. " Oh," re- 
plied the lecturer, with a laugh, "' I used to 
work in a barber shop." 

A Chicago editor, absent on a trip to 
Washington, wriles that he has been all 
through the national capital and considerable 
of his own. 

" Madam, "saidashiveringtramp. "w-will 
y-you give a p poor fellow a ch-chance to 
get w-warm?" "Certainly," replied the 
woman, kindlj' : " you can carry in that ton 
of coal, but don't burn yourself." 

' ■ Have you found religion yet. my friend?" 
the Rev. Sam Jones inquired of one of his 
hearers, " No," was the reply. " What is 
your occupation, may I ask?" "I am a 
detective." . " H'm !" observed the great re- 
vivalist, "that accounts for \i."— Wicked 

seat and tottered toward the doi 
He was, however, stopped by the conductor, 
who said: "Your fare, please." "I paid 
my fare." " When? I don't remember it." 
" Why. I paid you when I got on the car." 
"Where did you get on?" "At Fair 
Haven." "That won't do," said the con- 
ductor ; " when I left Fair Haven there was 
only*a little boy on the car,'' " Ves," an- 
swered the old man, "I know it, I was 
that little boy."— 27i(3 Way Bill. 

Complimentary to the Journal. 

The Grant Memorial is a very tine pen- 
and-ink picture, and accompanies the prmce 
of penmen's journals as a premium.— ?'/<« 
Quide to Sh&rUiand. 

We cannot speak too highly of the Pen- 
man's AuT JoDKNAL as a valuable medium 
to peunianship instruction. It is deeply in- 
teresting and full of practical auggcetions 
and information. — Bvstness Uriiccrmty J<mr- 
nal, Indianapolis. 

Every person Interested in penmanship 
should take the Pknm\n-^ \\n- Joiminai,. 
It is without doubt iiii t' v< T pub- 
lished on the sultjtri ; , , , . , i,i|,, und 

the cost is really uiulLin i ■ i |.m mium 

which is given with ii i- \\--n\\ nnir than 
the price of the paper. \Vc hnvi' nceived a 
copy of the "Guide for Self-Instnicliou," 
which is given as a premium ; it is truly a 
valuable work. The other premium . Gniut's 
Memorial, is one of tbe finest productions of 
the pen we ever saw. — Union Business Col- 
lege Journal, L<\fayelte, Ind. 

The\'s Aiit Joijcnal gives to the 
student of pLTiiiiiiii-fiiii ilii \ cry best home 
schooling in pi niniiri-lili. .iml drawing that 
can be oiiiniiH.i iiinMi-ii ihe press. Sub- 
scribe for ii ;ti o\t\\ njii liullar per year. 
You will ha\c uu euuiu to regret it.— St. 
Joseph Commercial Jieciac. 



PubUahed Monthly at »1 per Ye 



il ArUsUc Peiunajublp:"ur,rori 
l>tcHber„ remitting «1. ■ 

" Bounding sue, ' ' ^^'^ 

New Vouk. June, 1880. 

Exact vs. Inexact Copies. 

The tendency of all Imuiaii iuvention and 
dUcoveiy, from the earliest dawu of time 
to the present, has been from crudeness 
toward perfection— from the lower to ti 
higher order — and according to the modern 
idea of evolution, man, and even the uni- 
verse of life and matter, ore the results of 
an unfolding progression. 

Nuked, man lias clothed himself with com- 
fort and elegance ; unsheltered, he has pro- 
vided u home, commodious and stately in 
its architecture; unarmed, he now wields 
the deadly Winchester ritie; a precarious 
subsistence from hunting, he has rendered 
more reliable by agriculture; incoherent 
and meagVc speech he has transformed to a 
language, systematic and so abundant as to 
readily convey every shade of Uis thought 
and feeling, and in place of scarcely intel- 
ligible pictures and hirnglyphics he now re. 
cords his thoughts and acts in systematic 
writing, or by the aid of the press, and his 
lightning messengers send them flying to 
every (juarter of the globe; slow and tire, 
some of foot, he has hamvHsed the elements 
to his chariot, which outstrips the wind in 
the ease and rapidity of its flight ; his 
knowledge he has dassified. and its several 
departments he has resolved into ns many 

In its long line of progress from primeval 
crudeness to its present stage of perfection, 
every department of thought and discovery 
has been compelled to tight its way against 
the oppusition of eavilers and vested inter- 
ests, and not infrequently, under the law 
that fljight made right, has wrong been the 
apparent victor, and truth been thrown 
backward in defeat, but throughout all the 
long march the grand aggregate has been a 
triumph for progress, and of nothing has 
this been more true than of writing. 

Although il miglit. and doubtless would. 

be interesting to trace and illustrate its slow 
and tedious advance from infancy to its 
Itresent high estate, we shall, for the pres- 
Liit, at least, refrain from doing so, and 
confine what we have to say to its progress 
(luring a little more than the last quarter of 

About 1857, P. R Spencer issued his com, 
pcndiumof practical writing, and "soon 
after the firHt series of his copy-books. 
Wheu the compendium was issued the age 
of the (luill pen was not yet past, for in 
it appears ela\)orate insi ruction, with illus, 
tration. for pen making— the latter is here- 

forms presented in his copies, pupils, under 
his inspiring genius, became skilled writers, 
and went forth devoted missionaries for the 
Spencerian. But these were the days of un. 
graded and unclassified schools, and when, a 
few years later, the same style of copies, 
published in a series of copy-books, (see 
cuts for examples), were introduced into 
the public schools, although welcomed as a 
desirable substitute for the well-uigh hiero- 
glyphic scrawls written as copies by the aver- 
age schoolmaster of those times, the defects 
of these new copies soon became apparent to 
the more discerning teachers, as well as to 

porated, until now the several leading sys- 
tems of copy-books present the most or- 
derly, systematic, and easily constructed 
copies that the aggrcgixte teaching experi 
ence of over a quarter of a century ran 
devise. Not only have the copies been sim- 
plified and systematized, but they have been 
graded and adapted to a nicety to the vari- 
ous grades of schools. Thus, the instruc- 
tion of a teacher and the practice of a pupil 
in one school, or another grade of tlie same 
school, is in harmony with the |{>acliing and 
practice of other schools and other grades ; 
heiure the progress of the pupil is unimpeded 

<i:M£c// "^ ^JC^^ (^^M^aJ &/(^ ^. ^.^^^ 


The pen part of the above cut was reproduced from an illustration of the first specimen Compendium published in 1857. The 
script part is a facsimile reproduction of copies given in one of the first series of Spencerian copy hooks published in 1859. Here 
will be seen the variety and style of which Gaskell's Compendium is only a poor imitation. The authors and publishers of these 
copy books learned wisdom by experience and have several times revised their books, thereby suiting them to the experiences and 
demands of the times, hut the author and publisher of the Compendium like Rip Van Winkle have slumbered, and now oblivious 
of the fact that the world has been moving, actually present their antiquated, played out, shifting sprawls, as copies "without an 
equal or a second " for learners of writing. They not only do not discard from the Compendium copies those features that have 
long since been stamped by the best teaching and business experience of the land as pernicious, but actmilly now vaunt the defects 
as so many specific merits. 

Cy£'^^^&'^ ^ri^,^^^l-,^^^/J7^ 

/ / 

In the above cut is presented a specimen of orderly and systematic writing upon the basis of the approved standard for copy 
vriting — compare it with old Spenrerian and the Gaskellian. 

with reproduced. The compendium was 
hailed with delight by the penmen of the 
land, and at once became their toAlt mecum, 
and that it was tretiHured by some, at least, 
is very obvious, from the appearance of 
other and later compendiums, a prolific 
crop of which has been produced. The 
compendium abouuded iu the grace, beauty, 
and never-ending variety of form and shade 
that characterized the original Spencerian. 
Prof. Spencer possessed the genius of teach- 
ing as well Hs of writing, and iu spite of 
this emlmrras&ing variety and intricnry of 

Prof. Spencer himself, and the copies were 
soon revised and rendered far more simple, 
uniform and systematic in their construc- 
tion, and more definite rules were formu- 
lated for the guidance of teacher and pupil 
in their instruction and practice, and during 
the nearly a quarter of a century that has 
intervened these copies have been subjected 
to the ordeal of criticism by teachers, 
agents and .competing authors, which has 
resulted in repeated revisions, in which 
faults made manifest by experience have 
been eliminated aud desired qualities incor- 

as he passes from grade to grade through 
hia coui-ae of study. Were the copies 
otherwise, Uiere could be no concerted 
teaching or practice. A pupil in a new 
grade, or under the tuition of a new 
teacher, would very likely work as indus- 
triously to undo what hud been previously ac- 
quired as he had done to learn it. We should 
add that this method of teaching and prac- 
ticing writing analytically, from uniform 
and systematic copies, is universally ap- 
proved by tochers of experience and recog- 
nized ability throughout the laud. It is true 

that now and then there appears some Rip 
Vim Winkle, awaking from a twenty years* 
slumber, or a bumptious fledgeling, hitting 
uimn (tome imeient idea and imagining it to 
be new. who becomes a roaring advocate of 
IiiM •■ new go as you-please helter-skeltersys- 
u-m of rapid writing from the start;" but these 
are, a« il were, aimply ihe little excrescences 
that attach, like mud, to the wheels of the 
car of progress, and impede, to the extent 
of their weight and power, ils advance. 
But the car rolls right on, and after a few 
revolutions of its wheels these excrescenres 
are dislodged and thrown off. to constitute 
a portion of the wreckage that has strew 
tbi- [mill way of progress. 

The Convention 

In just about one month (on July 7) the 
Convention of the Business Educators and 
Penmen of America will assemble in this 
city, and according to the present indica- 
tions it will be the largest and most thor- 
oughly representative body of teachers in 
this special department of education. that 
has ever come together. The importance of 
such annual meetings to the general course 
of business educiition can scarcely be over- 
estimated. The iulerchange of ideas re- 
specting the system and method, together 

lege* and over 1,000 teachers— to wty nothing 
of the hundreds of penmen not in business 
colleges, there has never been lOU present as 
members in any convention. Certainly a 
convention in which less than one-tenth of 
the working force of ils class is present can- 
not impress the preia and public to the full 
extent of the importance of its cause. 
Every teacher in these 'specialties should 
regard himself as.toa certain extent, a joint 
stockholder, and that his presence and 
efforts are necessary to elevale his own and 
the general stock to par. We trust that in 
the coming convention there will be present 
numbers and quality sufficient to give an 
impressive representation of Ihe fraternity. 

We Don't! Don't! ! Don't 1 1 ! 

deal in any kind of fluid inks. This we 
have said over and over, yet scarcely a mail 
comes that does not bring requests for some 
special kind of ink by return of mail. 
Readers should know and remember (and 
by doing so will save themselves and us 
from much annoyance) that uo fluid of any 
kind is allowed in the mailn, hence we cannot 
mail inks, and as we do not deal in inks— to 
go out. hunt up, purchase, box and ship by 
express any special kind of ink subjects us 
to (in intolerably amount of trouble, and be- 
sides subjects the purchasefT " by paying 

he has been recognized by all competent 
judges as the "American Master" of ex- 
quisitely beautiful, practical and faultlessly 
correct penmanship. The new Speneer- 
ian Compendium, of which the present 
article is a part of the explanatory mat- 
ter, is beyond question the most faultless 
exemplification of the entire art of pen- 
manship that the world has ever seen. No 
penman, or artist in any sense, but coidd 
afford to pay the price of several subscrip- 
tions to the JoDRNAL for this single article. 

They Don't Reply. 

In a late number of the Journal we re- 
quested the editor of the Ccnnpendinm Gaeettt 
who wrote the Gaskell Compendium up 
as "without an equal or a second," to favor 
us with the grounds for this extraordinary 
claim, and also to explain why he thought 
it better for a learner to practice upon from 
five to ten different and crudely made fonns 
for each capital letter of the alphabet, such 
as are given in the compendium rather than 
to practice upon one or two really good 
forms for each letter. We also put the same 
question to Mr. Ferris, who sought to defend 
the compendium, but neither have favored 
us with the information. We still iudidge 
the hope that they will yet do so, else we 
feor that some of our readers will do them 



W. 21. Patrick, Penman at the fiadler B. <6 8. Business Coll 
it is commended to the Oazetle editor wfto wrote that the 
Vioiit an equal or a second." 

with the nctjuaintance and fellowship that 
grows out of such gatherings tend power- 
fully lowai-ds a unity of efforts for the im- 
provement and upbuilding of the general 
plan t»f InisinesB education. Whatever tends 
to generally improve and popularize busi- 
ness education, adds to the dignity, popu- 
larity and success of each iudivkiual. Why. 
then, should not every one in any way in- 
terested In business education lend his pres- 
ence and efforts as a contribution to help to 
make the convention of the teachers of his 
specialty as numerous, auspicious and popu- 
lar as is the convention of tcochers in any 
other department of education. Certainly 
none of the previous conventions have fur- 
nished any adequate represeulation of the 
teaching force engaged in this deparimenl of 
education. Out of about :jOU busines-'* cnl- 

special expressage, to an exorbitant outlay. 
Ilememher, please, that we will not fill 
orders for any kind of ink except India ink 
in stick. We are daily asked, "What kind 
of ink do you use?" we answer. In all our 
artistic work, India ink freshly ground from 
the stick ; for the ordinary office work, 
Mayuard & Noycs black ink. A mixlun- of 
any good Japan ink and Arnold's writing 
fluid will make a good card ink, but is not 
good for photo engraving. 

Prof, Spencer's Lesson. 

Seldom has any periodical presented to its 
readers as interesting and useful an article, 
perl^iining to any specialty, as that which 
is contributed to this number of the JovH- 
N\T- by Mr. Lymnn P. Spencer. For years 

the injustice (?) to believe that they are 
without such reasons to give. 

Again will not the editors of the Qazette 
publish in its columns one or two specimen 
pages of the Compendium copies that its 
readers may see its ftcflMC^ and know ils cf- 
ctlkne^e before remitting $1 for it. also that 
they may observe the admirable harmony 
between its style and the really excellent 
copies presented in the Oazetts by Prof 
Wells. This they can do without expense, 
for we will donate to them ihe culs free of 
charge. Speak gentlemen, please. 

Good Pens. — We have received from 
Messrs. Ivison, Blakemau, Taylor & Co. 
sampler of the fumouK Spencerian pen No. 
1, which write splendidly. They cannot 
fail to give satisfaction. If you have not 
tried them you should do so. 

Living at Small Cost— Positions 

The cost of room and board to members 
attending the convention in New York from 
July 7th to Itith, need not necessarily ex- 
ceed |iIU. Students attending the business, 
medical and law colleges secure board and 
rooms at $5, |6, and %"! per week. Their 
absence from the city during July leaves 
vacant rooms which strangers can occupy at 
small cost. Instructors desiring positions 
for the coming year in colleges or commer- 
cial department of common schools should 
become members of the convention to meet 
their friends and parties needing to secure 
associates and commercial teachers. Quite 
a number of college men desire to effect 
business partnerships. 

The King Club 

for this month numbers one hundred, and 
was sent by W. II. Patrick, the well known 
and popular teacher of penmanship at 
Sadler's B. &. S. Business College, Bnltimore, 
Md. Considering the season of the year 
this is a club of unusual size. 

The Queen Club numbers (welte. and was 
sent by A. J. Small, Toronto, Canada. 

Several letters addressed to " A," care of 
the JouiiNAL, remain in our charge, owing 
to the fact of having failed to observe the 
address we made no note of the name and 
address of the advertiser. Will Mr. "A" 
furnish the same and get his letters. 

Answers to Correspondents. 

C. H. K.. Philadelphia, Pa.— "Can any 
one not a member attend the convention ?" 

The convention will be open to all who 
choose to be present, but only those who 
hrrnnic members can take part in the pro- 
cicriiiiL'^. unless specially invited to do so. 
III. nil iiihership fee is only :$!), and it is to 
\h- Imped that all engaged in teaching busi- 
ness Ijniuches will become meml)ers. 

H. J. M., New York.—" Can vou tell me 
what has become of the Nw-nial Pernnan, for 
which 1 subscribed and have received but a 
single copy t Is it published f 

No ; it has been discontinued." 

W. L. B., Zumbrota, Minn. — "If you 
send an order for goods can a Arm send 
other goods than those ordered and oblige 
you to take them, or, in other words, if you 
send an order for certain articles, aud the 
firm has not the specified articles, or do not 
wish to send the articles as per your order, 
can they send you other goods m place of 
those ordered aud oblige you to keep them ? 
If goods are returned when so sent who 
should pay the return charges ? Are you 
entitled to your money if you return goods 
as stated ?' 

If a dealer cannot supply such goods as 
are ordered he should communicate the fact 
and await advice before shipping ; but it 
often happens that a dealer may have goods • 
so close in quality and style as to lead him 
to believe that they would be acceptable in 
place of those ordered, in -which case he 
sends at his own risk. A man is under no 
legid obligation to receive or pay for that 
which he does not order, and if returned 
the seller should pay all charges and refund 
the purchase money, 

E. L. S., Boston. — "Are not all physical 
movements muscular, in writing as in other 
bodily employments ?" 

Yes. All writing movements involve 
muscular action, and have been so taught 
for generations past, but that name is often 
erroneously applied to distinguish the well- 
known movements of the arm from the sub- 
ordinate action of the hand and lingers in 
writing. The action of the arm, hand and 
fingers should be blended to give easy and 
proper articulation to all classes of chiro 
graphic forms. 

J. C. A., Cincinnati.— " Has anv system 
been published in this ctmnlry advocaliug 
slow writing?" 

No. The whole scheme of American 
writing as distinguished from old English 
round-hand is one of expeditious writing, 
consistent with legibility and good form. 

Eight Pages for July. 

Owing to our desire to mail the paper 
before the Fourth of July and the great 
amount of labor incidental to the conven- 
tion, we have to ask indulgence of the 
readers for the issue of an eight page paper. 


UUi3: . 


And School Items. 

xteuded press re- 
tlie " Sorcerer.- 
B bit of the 

E, noger 

S R. Hopkins U taking a summer \-acatioii at the 
I'uqnod IIouRe, New London, Conn. 

C. B. Cady conducts n commercial department at 

Wm. n, DulT, of Huff's Commercial College. Pitts- 
biirgli, Pa„ lately spent several days in New York, 
and of ooiinie paid his compliments to the sanctum 
of the JouitNAi.. 

Seymonr Eaton, A.M., editor of Jlome and Ssftool 
SupiilfmnU, Toronto, Canada, will be associated 
with the NlftRara Falls Sammer School of Methods. 

A. J. Steadman, penman at the Toledo (Ohio). 
HusineKS College, favors us with a copy of the an- 
imul iuinouncement of that Institution. 

Mr. I.ymati P. Spencer now lias an office in New 
York with his brother Harvey A. Spencer, at the 
Sponcerian Business Colleee, 3C East 14th Street, 
Union Square, where ho devotes Ids time to the 
authorship work of tie spencerlan publications. 

O. R. Jones, teacher of penmanship in the Batavia 
piililln schools, is spendltic a few weeks with 11. 
W, Klhbe. UUca, N. Y". lie will spend the summer 
ill New York, to still further perfect himself In 
the art. 

pathway to victory," wo ^ i ■ 
the Rockford liegUter in \v i 
"There are no obstacle- i 
come by a determined purpi 
will. Uemoathenes ciuiie t.^ 

J. E. Ricki-tts. Saco, Me. 

n W. Flicklnger. College of Commerce. Philadel- 
phia. I'a., In matchless style. We trust we may 
soon have one from the Professor that may be pre- 
sented to the readers of the -TouaKAU 

J. V. Wilson. Montrose. Col. 

I>. W. Hallett, MlUf rton. Pa. "The JonnNAi, Is 
an invaluable aid to teat-hcrs, and no similar piihlS- 
catlon has done so much to elevate the standard 
of Itinerant penmen." 

tieo. W, Wood, McKeesport, Pa. 

W. K. Cayne, Ixinsilale, R, I. 

W. R. Glen.B. & S. Business Collegf. Phiiadel 
phla, Pa. 

W. n. Patrick, Sadler's B. & S. Business College, 
Baltimore. Md. It appears on another page. 

E. Schworm, Ottdmwa, Iowa. 

J. D. Brlunt. Huuma. La. " I am delighted with 
the (irant Memorial." 

E. E, Stevens.Institute of Penmanship and Short- 
hand, Wauseon, Ohio. 

E. Miguel, Spring Dill College. Mobile, Ala. 

C. II, Kerr, Stockton (Cal.) Normal Institute and 
Cummercial College, lie says : " I have read your 
articles on Gaskell's Compendium with great in- 

D. II. Farley, teacher of writing and bookkeep- 
ing at the State Normal School, Trenton, N. J. 

H. n, Stutsman, Denver. Col, He says: "The 
JotmNAL deserves the highest praise; one might 
exclaim mw/(un» in par»o." 

F. O. Wheeler. I'hoei 
writing more than tw 
months since when 1 1 

, R. L "1 1 

I subscriber to the 

render of the Putin.nrs GazelU. but I think the 
JouuNAi. much more practical and far superior to 
any other penman's paper in America." 

L. Madarasz, card writer. New York. 

C. E. llolt^greve. East Pmtland. Oregon, and a 

L. II. Caldwell, Lumberton, N. C. 

R. S. Morton, Portland. Me. 

F. S. Uealh, Epsom, N. II. " I am much pleased 
with the specimens of practical writing you are 
giving In the JonrtNAL. Hope they may continue. 
Wc- hi>pe so, and that Mr. II. will furnish one. 

copy slips. In aformer mention our printer located 
Mr. T. In Iowa, to which ho very properly demurs, 
we therefore give him free transportation home to 

Messrs. McKee .t Tlenderson.Oberlln (Ohio) Busi- 
ness College, sends a package of specimens written 
by S, I. Bartow, G. 11. Schultz. D. K. Campbell, 
Snmue! B -TofTr.-y. L. I. Nelson, D. M. Knaiiff, .r P. 

M. :<■ -rr r Tr I'lifllips. and Miss .losk- M. Piatt, 

r ; ' ' iMitiun. The specimens are all of 

ni. several would do honor to 

I I 1 ' ■■ -Uinals. It is probable that some 

■■ I" ^'' I ii'i>e)ir in a future iMue of the 

E, E. Salisbury, Phenlx. R. I„ a letter and two 
sets of grnuefully executed capitals. 

C. M. Immei. MlUersburg, Pa., a letter, also ppecl- 
mens of flourishing such as are given as prlaies to 
meritorious pupils. 

H. F. Vogel. pen artist, St, Louis, Mo., a letter and 
a photograph of a memorial picture of Gen. Grant, 
designed and executed with a pen liy Mr, Vogel, 
which as far as we can judge from so small a plate 
Is a highly artistic piece of work, also a flourished 
bird design. 

be poets. Prepared by W. C. Ganueti with 
the help of memhers of the St. Pmil Uuity 

"Outline Studies id .lames Russell 
Lowell," his Poetry and Prose. Uy Mrs. 
Susan B. Bcals. 18mo. paper, 31 pages. 
Price 10 cents. Similar in plan and execu- 
tion to the preceeding. Mr. Lowell says of 
it; "The litlle book both interested and 
astonished me. » » * The author is far 
more familiar with my works than I eau 
pretend to he." 

"Seed Thoughts for the Growing Life" 
From Robert Browning and others. Selected 
and arranged by Mary E. Hurt. 18mo, 62 
pages. Price 20 cents. A handbook of 
brief selections of ethical value. Dainily 
printed, with illustrated cover from a design 
by the author. 

"Ten Great Novels." Suggestions for 
Clubs and Private Reading. ISmo, paper, 
23 pages. Price 10 cents. 

,ub of 

int and principal of the 
, of the Newark, N. J.. 
id upon our table a unique 



a club of 

department of Oberltn 

ly the 




., Ind. • 

The Joii«»Ai. 
I have ever 

keeping. The work consists of 
all printed from the professor's 
copy.wiittcn with an electric pei 
outhm is a model of uniform i 
hlliiy. and an far as we are able t 

keeping It la highly creditable. 

N, A. Miller, of Elmiru. N. Y., 
Allen Business College, and will 

. the manual exe- 
jatness and legl- 
I judge of Itslit- 

'orthy of note 
en received from : 
J, 11. Bryant, Spentvrian Business Culieeo.CleTe- 
land. Ohio, and a olub. 

F. L. Christopher, Washington Life Ins. Co.. Chi- 
cago, III, 
R. O. Waldron, I-rospoct, Pa. 
D. S. Welnhelmer, teacher of penmanship. North 
Tonawanda (N. Y.) High School. 

R. S. Bousull, B. & S. Business College, St. Louis, 

O. A. Hough. Fort Scott, Kans. He says : '* You 
have my hearty support in all yuu stay respecting 
theOaskell Compt^ndium." 

Frnnkie Steadman, special teacher of writing 
and drawing in the public schools of McCouncls- 
vllle, Ohio. 

r of writing," 

Lyman P. Spencer, New York, in Lyman's 
"fllyle," which is the model of America." 

W. W. Bennett, Cleveland, Ohio. 

J. W, Patton, penman at Alfred Unlversity.Alfred 
Centre, N..Y. 

W. A. Moulder, Clyde (Ohio) Business College. 

W, A. Raymond, Eastern Normal School, Colum- 
bus Junctlim. Iowa. 

A. o. noftman, Afllwaukee, Wis. 

A. J. Newlunds, Kingston, Ontario. 

J. S. Cooley, Windsor Looks, Conn. 

C. M. Smith, Chicago, III. 

W. H.Klbbe, artist penman and teacher, Utlca, 
N. Y. 

:. Md. 

H. W. Qualntance, Fulton, III., a letter, a flour- 
ished bird, and several copy slips, 

Marcus II. Fox, New York, a letter and several 
specimens of flourishing and drawing. 

N. 8. Beardsley, artist penman and teacher, St. 
Paul, Minn., a letter and photographs of tliree 
pages of a Memorial Album of the late Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Ignited states, engrossed by Mr. B. 
The designs ate artistic and well executed. Copies 
may he procured upon terms mentioned in an ad- 
vertisement by Mr. B. in antither oolumn. 

K. B. Capon, Dirigo Business College, Augusta, 
Me., a letter and flourished blrd—llie latter will 
probably appear in the next issue of ttie .Tournal. 

C. II. Kimmlg, pen artist, Philudeiphia, Pa., a let- 
ter and cards. 

Uenry Syke.s, tea^cber of penmanship in the Man- 
chester (Envland) Grammer School, a letter, a fine 
specimen of italic pen printing and 


A. D. Hlnes, Gap Creek, Tenn., a letter and 

J. A. Buell. Urbana, 111,, a letter, a flourished bird 
and several slips of practical writing. "I am a 
■trong advocate of the Joitknu.. 


" \yhite's Progressive Art Studies— Light 
and Shade, and Landscape." By George G. 
White. Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor tfe Co., 
New York, publishers. Price by mail, |3. 
This is a large quarto-boolt, and is a work of 
rare value to every student f>v teacher of art. 
Itnotonly explains fully the method of design 
and the power and effect of light and shade, 
but furnishes a multitude of effective and 
instructive examples for study and practice, 
both of objects and landscape. Mr, White, 
the author, is one of the most skilled and 
popular artists of this city, and in this work 
he has employed his skill with rare good 
taste and judgment. 

' ■ Sheldon's Complete Arithmetic," by 
Sheldon & Co.. 734 Broadway, New York, 
is a new and practical work just issued. It 
has been prepared with great pains by the 
combined efforts of several experienced 
teachers and authors. It is conqjse, clear in 
its stnlemenis and illustrations, while its 
problems are abundant and practical. In 
deed, we see no reason why it should not 
prove a popular publication. Copies for 
examination mailed for 40 cents. 

"Joint Stock Companies" is the title of 
a small pamphlet, containing an address 
lately delivered by .1. W. Johnson, F.C.A,, 
Principal of Ontario Business College, 
Belleville, Ontario, explanatory of the na- 
ture of slock companies and the manner of 
their organization and conduct. It is a 
clear and comprehensive treatment of its 
subject. Price not mentioned. 

"How to Teach Penmanship in I*ublic 
Schools," is a pamphlet of 63 12mo pages 
and chart, by J. L. Barrett, and published by 
C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, N. Y. Mailed 
for RO cents. The work will be a good in- 
vestment for any teacher or even pupil of 

"One Hundred Valuable Suggestions to 
Shorthand Students." by Shelby A. Moran, 
condtictor of the Phonographic Institute of 
the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor. 
As far as we are able to judge from our 
limited knowledge of the subject of which 
it treats, it is a hook that will be of solid 
service to a vast number of aspiring stu- 
dents of shorthand. 

" Labor Laws of America," is the title of 
a 230 page pamphlet, written by Henry A. 
Ilaight, counselor at law, Detroit, Mich., 
and published l)y the Co-operative Publish- 
ing Company, 58 Congress Street West, 
Detroit. The work is a plain, concise and 
clear statement of the laws relating lo labor. 
The subje(^t just now, in these times of 
labor agitation, is one of special interest 
and importance to all classes. 

"Modern Languages in Education." by 
Geo. F. Comfort. Dean of the College of 
Fine Arts, and Professor of Modern Lan- 
guages in Syracuse University. 16mo, 40 
pages. Published by C. W. Bardeen, Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. Price 2r» cents. This is the 
paper read before the American Philological 
Association in 1872, and afterward pub- 
lished in i^cribner'ti AfuntMj/, but which has 
been for some time uinittainable. 

The following named litlle publications, 
entitled " Unity Leatlets," are by the Cole- 
grove Book Co., ly.'j Wabash Ave., Chicago: 
"Outline Studies in Holmes, Bryant, 
Whittior," their Poems. 18mo, paper. 32 
pages. Price 10 cents. Topics, questions 
and hints to aid In home or clulj study of 


Owing to the superabundance of matter 
demanding a place in this isstic. we have to 
ask the indulgence of our numerous friends 
for omitting to do honor to their editorial 
genius according to their respective merits. 
We love them all, and greet ihem with our 
heartiest wish that their shekels and honors 
may come, in overflowing abundance. Per- 
haps we should say that the " Slang "^rf- 
■ooeate is not on our exchange list. 

7'he Fountain, York, Pa., for June has an 
interesting article on "Penmanship," by J, 
M. Smith. The publishers announce that 
the price of the magazine, beginning with 
September next, will be $1 for Ihc school 
year of ten months. 

■' T?ie Office," announced in the last issue 
of the JouRN.M. to make its appearance on 
June 1, was on hand, and proved to be a 
right promising youngster. Sixteen pages, 
elegantly printed, and filled wilh sound, 
sensible matter, and a cover of four pages 
containing its prospecfcuaond'ntlvertiaemcntB. 
We are coiilidcnt that no porsnn engaged in 
any kind of office duties, whellier as prin- 
cipal or assistant, can fail to find $1 paid for 
this publication for one year a good invest- 
ment, and this is ctjually true of those who 
are teaching any of the business branches. . 

Institute of Chartered Account- 
ants of Ontario. 

The above is the title of an association lo- 
cated in Toronto, incorporated by the legis- 
lature of the Province of Ontario, its object 
being to raise the status of accounting. A 
course of lectures is delivered in Toronto 
during the fall and winter of each year. 
The institute is not a teaching body ; it 
simply places its stamp upon those who pass 
its severe examinations. It grants a diploma, 
which, by the authority of its net nf incor- 
poration, entitles the recipient to use the 
distinguishing letters F. C. A. (Fellow of the 
Chartered Accountants). To the examina- 
tion for this degree only those are admitled 
who " have known standing and eatnblii-hcd 
reputation as an accountant, or who hold a 
responsible position in a financial or o I her 
corporation." It also grants first and second 
class certificates to bookkeepers. Tie 
diplomas and certiflcaics won at the recent 
examinations were publicly presented in Ihe 
Board of Trade rooms of Toronto, by Mnyt r 
Ilowland, a few days ago to the following 
gentlemen : 

Diploma and degree of F.C.A, — L W. 
Johnson, Principal Ontario Business Col- 
lege, Belleville ; W. McC^ahe, Managing 
Director North American Life Insurance 
Company. Toronto ; E, H. C. Ctarkson, 
Public \" Minii ,hi T to ; 0. F. Jewell, 

I'ublir \ ■■! ,ni I ..M,iun. 

Fir-i . . . , ;,, BnokkajKi — 

Second (:lu>s tcrtilkiitc as Bookkeepei — 
C. T, Smyth Cummings, Illinois, V. S. ; 
Henry Derby. Hamilton. Ont. 

Superior Pens. 

JvHt reecirrtl—n new lot of " Ames' Pen- 
men's Favorite Pens." made from new dies 
and witli extra cure. Kvery effort has bun 
made to secure a better pen than any now 
in the market, and we believe wc have suc- 
ceeded. Sample quorter gross sent for 25 
cents, regular price, 80 cents. Try tbem. 

Lessons in Practical Penman- 

TJif lesson for July will he (.'■vcn by A. 
\V. Ivowe, I*ynn, Mnss. 

W. A. Moulder, of the Clyde (Ohio) 
Business College will give Hie lesson for 

G. A. Hough, of Port Scolt (Kan.) Nor- 
mal College, will give n lesson in the Sep- 
tember niiniher. 

The following named gentlemen have 
already given notice of their acceptance of 
our invit;ition, and will give lessons at such 
timeH as will be mutually acceptable : 

II. W. Flickinger, Philadelphia. Pa. ; 
Tbos. J. Stewart, Trenton, N. J.; W. K. 

Franklin. Neh., June 1. 1880. 
Editor Penman's Art JornNAL : 

l/ear Sir .---In the Marcli number of the 
JoiiiiNAL F. J. Toland. in speaking of tlie 
obli(i*ie holder, pronounces it "a uuisonce 
in every sense of the word," and puis a low 
estimate on the skill of those using and 
recommending it. I should like *o have 
your opinion through the Jodknal. I was 
taught to use no other by my teacher. U. 
McKee, of Obcrlin. Ohio, whose work shows 
the world at a glance that he is not "in- 
ferior." I have seen it recommended by so 
many of our beat penman that 1 think the 
question surely has another side. 

Truly, W. A. HAnanBAnoEn. 

It was our opinion that Brother Toland 

various articles of food which go to support 
life. IE the number of times the hand car- 
ries the fork and the spoon and the glass to 
the lips during the dinner hour was multi- 
plied by the distance of the lips from the 
plate, the hand will he found to travel 
farther in a minute while eating, than while 
writing. But there is hardly any necessity 
to use figures to prove that the hand travels 
as fast or even as far as the foot. If it did 
not it would surely be left behind. For 
instance, when a man left his home in the 
morning, he would arrive at the office in a 
decidedly incomplete state if his hands did 
not travel as fast as Jiis feet. He would 
feel decidedly uncomfortable if his hands 
were to lag behind a mile or two, and he 

ta ■/^M.€Ayky/d&4^iyi:a^^A^^ 

\ a htUn- wriiten by F. TT. IT. Wienehahn, Pen Artist, St. Louis. Mo. 
•se of can'espondenfe, with no expectation of its being publifihed. 

C.Ien. nnla..Pa.; H. A. Spencer. New York; 
It, J. Magee.New York; L.L. Tucker, New- 
ark, N.J.; C. Bayless, Dubuque. Iowa; W. 
II. Patrick. Baltiumro, Md. ; E. Burnett, Bal- 
timore, Md.; H. T. Loomis, Spenceriau 
Business College. Detroit, Mich.; Uriah 
McKee, Obcriin(Obio) College ; F. F. Judd, 
riiicago. 111. 

\\q are very sure that the practical infor- 
iimiion that will be presented in the series of 
lessons to be given by such represenla- 
livf itiR-hirs as are named above will be 
tif M.lid julviiiiUigc to all teachers and pupils 

Note.— AH who have consented to give a 
lesson, are hereby requested to designate the 
tniie at which they prefer to do so. Also, 
to iiuv teacher or author, who has not sig- 
uilied his purpose to give a lesson, and who 
ecntemplaies doing so, au invitation is 
hereby extended. 

Beraembcr that now is the time to sub- 
s<Tibe for the Journal, while you can get 
all the back numbers and begin with the 
year and the volume. Two subscriptions 
will be received for $1.75 with a copy of the 
GiTiDE to each subscriber. Also remember 
that tbeGtriDK alone Is worth ail the money 

made a rather sweeping statement respecting 
the use of the oblique holder. That it pos- 
sesses real advantages over a straight holder 
in the hands of many writers, and probably 
most professionals, cannot he successfully 
denied. A very large portion of all who 
write experience a difficulty in turning the 
hand so that the straight holder will point 
over the right shoulder, which is necessary 
in order thattbepenshouldsquarely face the 
paper, causing both nibs to move under the 
same pressure and thus give a smooth line. 
It is our impression that a large majority of 
our beat writers now use the oblique holder. 

A recent scientific article shows that a 
rapid penman writes thirty words a minute, 
and in doing so draws his pen through six- 
teen feet of space. From this calculation is 
derived the grand truth that "the hand 
travels as fats, if not as far, as the foot," 
The writer neglected some other circum- 
stances which might be adduced in support 
of his proposition. For instance, he ne- 
glected to calculate the distance traveled hy 
thp hand In elevating to the mouth the 

had to wait until they caught up with him 
before he eovild do any work. If the hand 
did not travel as fast as the foot it would be 
very amusing to go to a pedestrian contest, 
and watch the walkers marching bravely 
forward, while their hands were lagging 
behind, and yet doing their best In a vain 
effort to keep up. It seems to be undoubt- 
edly true that the hand really travels as fast 
and as far as the foot, but of course wc feel 
surer about it now that science has proved 
it mathematically. 

Ames's Guide. 

If you desire to have the very best aid to 
self-improvement in practical and artistic 
penmanship, send seventy-five cents for 
Ames's "Guide to Self-Instruction in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship" (in paper 
covers), or $1 for same nicely bound in thick 
covers. It tells you all about writing, flour- 
ishing and lettering, and how to learn. If 
you are not pleased with It you may return it, 
and we will refund the cash by return mall. 

A Few Last Words. 

Juue 8. IS.%. 
Editor Penman's Art Journal : 

Drar Sir. — There ought to be no need of 
a " few last words " to the friends of busi- 
ness education throughout the country on 
behalf of the coming convention. There is 
every reason in the world why that conven- 
tion should touch high water mark in its 
spirit and its outcome. There should be, in 
fact, a cor3ial unanimity of sentiment as to 
the convention itself, as well as to the work 
which lies before it. The Executive Com- 
mittee have done all within their power to 
impress upon the friends that this meeting 
is to be above all things else a meeting of 
edufat&ra, or teachers in the various depart- 
ments of business education. If there is an* 
enthusiastic teacher of penmanship in the 
country, he should make it his business to 
be at the convention. If there is an expert 
in bookkeeping, in commercial arithmetic, 
or in any other branch of business training, 
he owes it to himself to contribute to the in- 
terest and protit of this convention. If there 
is a teacher of shorthand who has a better 
system, or a better method of enforcing his 
system than anybody else, this is the place 
for him to do good and to receive good. If 
there are those who are interested in any of 
the accessories of a practical education — au- 
thors of text-books, inventors or promotors 
of reporting machines or of typewriters, or 
of anything else which makes labor less irk- 
some and more effective, this is the place for 
him to display his wares and to show to the 
world what is being done to promote the 
business interests of the country. We want 
to make this convention such a positive suc- 
cess that there can remain no doubt in the 
public mind that the special work which we 
are trying to do is a work which the highest 
interests of society demands. 

I have no doubt whatever that we shall 
have here in July the largest and most en- 
tliusi;i,siic convention ever held by the Busi- 
iii<.s.i;<Iiit;itors' Association ; not because it 
is ill New York, not because one person or 
imuiher has charge of the details ; but be- 
cause the time has come in our history when 
such results should confidently be expected. 
It should be particularly imderstood that the 
■' Business Educators' Association of Amer- 
ica," is an association of individuals and not 
of schools ; and that no member has any ad- 
vantage over any other member, except such 
advantage as may accrue to him from being 
able to do more throughhis tongue or pen, 
or his kindly nature for the advancement of 
the cause. There will be, I know, a disposi- 
tion to recognize and bring lo the front the 
younger members who show ability in their 
special lines, and for one I can promise to 
any and Oil who can make it convenient to 
lie with us, a cordial reception and a good 

Rewards of Merit. 
Miss Frankie Sleadman, teacher of pen- 
manship in the McConnellsville schools, 
conceived the plan of awarding prizes to the 
scholars who nmdc the mosl progress in 
writing during the ptist school year. So as 
to fully determine who was cnlillcd to these 
prizes. Miss Frankie sent specimens of pen- 
manship executed by different scholars to 
Prof. D. T. Ames, editor of the Penman's 
Art Journal, of New York. Mr. Ames 
not only made the decision in regard to those 
who made the most improvement, but made 
out certificates to that effect to he awarded 
as prizes to the pupils. The cerlilieales jire 
gems and were executed by him entirely 
with the pen, and are on exhibition in Ilal- 
liday's book store — McCoHndlsi'ile {Ohu^) 

The sidary of the President of the United 
Slates is $50,000 per annum. If Adam had 
been elected President the day he and Eve 
quit the garden of Eden, and went into 
politics, and had in the meantime been re- 
elected every four years, and put by half 
his income for a rainy day from then until 
now, he would yet have to serve through 
000 more terms lo save as much as William 
H. Vanderbilt left behind him. You see 
Vauderbilt was rich.— A".r. 

^■-XLMi .Ra2faij 

o-engutped Jmm pen and inA copy and dttigntd an tlu h<*uUttg Jot uui new sOjck Diphimtn The Diplonui Blitnk» wilt ht en l/u- finent paper 18x21 
and wdl be fni ninhed blank oi jUied Send ioc Jen sample ' 

The bchoorn 

At his post In tlie old \og scliooMioiise. 

Where we sat side by side ; 
The place looked lorn iind lonely 

To uie in t)io shadows dim, 
But a bird tn the alder biishoa 

Was singing a eong to him. 

The flow'rs we planted ahove him 

We turned aside tORethe 

Forhh thoughts a 

H if the nngel in Heaven 

The oastoma of foreign lands. 
His face grew white, he trembleu. 

The boMC dropped from his hands ; 
And with a - - " ■ ' -- 

For we knew that he v 

And the Inugher's face was sober. 
Still was the truant's shout : 

And we felt that for the nia8l«i- 
Forever achonl was out. 

I thought of the sohool days jolly. 
Of p&y-groiiDcl, bench and class. 
As I knelt by the grave of the 
' ud purted tbelong, green j. 
1 1 tried to read the Inscrlptli 
e parson wrote for him 
'orda all ran together. 

imy-groiiDd, bench and c 

nelt by the grave of the 

And purted tbelong, green grass. 
' ' .ried to read *' " " '"' 
the parson v 
-■ -allri 
with t. 

The master sleeps where we laid him, 

children, weeping 

When the s 

When h 


lie was kind, the dear old manter,- 
Though souititlm*;^ stem and grim 

And 1 know that the angels of (iea\ 
Opened the gate to bUn I 

the Hands of Fan 


Autliograpb collectors may be roughly 
dividtil into two classes, tbosc who collect 
mere signatures, urged tlieveto by a form of 
tbe ontiuary collecting uiaiiin, and tliose 
who are always glad to secure some inter- 
esting lettef or manuscript possessing ad- 
ditional iutereut from tbe well-known band 
in wbicb it is written. Tbe one is content 
to show to admiring friends u gaudy album 
containing so nniny bundred flignutnres of 
all 8ort« of people, great and small. Tbe 
other dfvotea years lo " inlaying " with per- 
tinent letters some tine edition of a sliindurd 
author, or to acquiriuga collection of manu- 
scripts of interest to all stiidenls of litera- 
ture. To the latter and more worthy (doss 
belonged Janie:! It. Osgood, tbe well known 
publisher, who from bis position -was able 
lo gather together in tbe course of years a 
collection of autographs valuable as well as 
attractive. His brother collectors will re- 
joice and grieve when tlit-y U'jiru that Mr. 

Osgood has placed his treasures in the bsinds 
of W. E. Benjamin, of this city, for sale. 
They will grieve that sucb a well-chosen 
store of precious " letters ■written" should 
be broken up, and rejoice at tbe chance 
which enables them to till in the chinks and 
cramUes of their own accumulations. Even 
to tbe outsider who cares for none of these 
things, a glance over the catalogue shortly 
to be issued will not be labor lost, for it is 
curious to see the estimation in wbicb the 
various living and dead celebritiee are held 
by tbe autograph -hunter. 

Among Americans we find that General 
Quilt's name attached to a request for a 
"box ticket" addressed to Wnllack's Thea- 
tre ia worth $i, while a letter from J. G. 
Holland, in which he makes free with a 
weatlier prophecy of the Tribuixe, is priced 
atJI.??). An autograph letter of Lincoln, 
dated 1830, is worth $10, and one of Aaron 
Burr, dated 1783, is marked |4.50. A title 
deed signed by Governor Clinton, dated 
1788. seems cheap at $3.75, as does a two- 
page letter of our own Barnum which may 
be had for $1. One of the signers of tbe 
Declaration, Robert Morris, is quoted at 
$S.50, while Roscoe Conkliug sells for a 
teulb of that sum, namely 25 cents. Oakey 
Hall is worth Ave cents more. Ktif us C'boate 
briugs $1, and Victoria Woodhull falls to 
50 cents. 

It ia iu the department devoted to literary 
men tbftt tbe choicest treasures are to be 
found. There is, for instance, the original 
autograph manuscript of Emerson's "Re- 
presentative Men " comprised in 790 quarto 
pages. Bound together, these are priced at 
|500. Frequent erasures, alterations and 
corrections occur and, what must have been 
the despair of tbe composing room, Emar- 
son frequently wrote on both stdett of the 
paper. The han<l Is bold, clear and cbaruc- 
tcristic of tbe man. Among tbe many pas- 
sages bodily exercised is tbe following : 

" There is nothing comparable in litera- 
ture to Shakespeare's expression, for 
strength and fordelicaey. Men have existed 
who atlirnicd lluU they heard the language 

of riii'stiiii ^.n-iis ;iiul talked with tbem. 
bui til ii, u hi II ilh \ M turned into tbe natural 
wurli! [liuiijii ii;r\ preserved the memory 

hud leuLiml lliu :<ei id ot n iiun iliilion. and 
when he returned lo this worUi reUuned tbe 
line organ which had been opened above." 
Of De Quincey lliere is a .piantity of 
material coiiM^-iiiij ..i . ,,i (,, i. .1 proof shcetii, 
pagesof niJiiM, _i;q>b letters. 

The greaic I in ■ / Mh i.tu-rs are ad- 
dressed to hU (mlji. iiLi:! ..ijil iire unsigned. 
Written in De tiuinteys small, fine hand- 
writing, they breathe in vvery line the nerv- 
ous, supersensitive nature of the author. 
Appeals for time to linisb copy or correct 
proofs, for money for one thing and another, 
without a ray of hope or enjoyment striking 
through the gloom, form the general tenor 
of tbem. For the lot $50 is asked, or nearly 
half the price of a single letter of Addison 
dated 1708. A letter from Robert Burns to 
his friend Robert Cleghorn contains two 
original songs never published, and ends. 

"Thine in all tbe sincerity of a brace and 
bonest Port. R. B." It is valued at $85. A 
letter from James Feoimore Cooper to J. D. 
P. Ogden is dated 1830, and speaks bitteriy 
of Colonel Webb, editor of The Courier a/id 
Enquirer, who " baa been this day indicted 
for another libel against your bumble ser- 
vant," and mentions his Intention of suing 
for libel Colonel Stowe, editor of 7'he Com- 
mfircinl Advertisf.r and Spectator. "This 
libel is contained in the imputation of an 
attempt to falsify history." Oliver Gold- 
smith, in a postcript to a letter to his uncle 
(valued at $200) in which he discusses his 
tutors at Edinburgh, where he was studying 
medicine, speaks of a trip to the Highlands. 
He says : " I hired a horse of about tbe size 
of a mm, antl he walked away {trot he 
could not) as pensive as his muster." Bret 
Harte contributes tbe manuscript of tbe play 
"Two Men of fitiudy Bar." which nearly 
ruined Stuart Robnon. ,ind is contained in 
two volumes of 123 pages each, priced ut 
$75. Of Hawthorne there is the manuscript 
of "A London Suburb," one of the sketches 
in "Our Old Home," which is priced at $90. 
Two interesting autographs of Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes are those of the "Professor at 
tbe Breakfast Table" and the "Autocrat of 
tbe Breakfast Table," the first complete and 
the latter nearly so. Tbe prices of these 
two treasures are $300 and $025 respectively. 
Some unpublished rhymes by Keats "To 
Miss Reynolds' Cat " are an oddity. A letter 
addressed to " Miss Reynolds, Mrs. Earle's, 
Little Hampton, Essex," ia dated 1817. and 
signed, " Youra truly, John Keats." It is a 
facetious jumble containing tbe following : 
" But let us refresh ourselves from this" 
depth of thinking and turn to some inuoccnl 
Jocularity, tlje Bow cannot always be l*nt 
nor the Gun iilways loaded if yim ever let 

it olT Then you are among 

Sands Stocks Stones Pebbles Beaches Cliffs 
Rocks Deeps Shallows Weeds Ships Boats 
(at a distance) Carrots Turnips Sun Moon 
and Stars and all those tfort of things — here 
am I among Colleges, Halls Stalls plenty of 
Trees thank God— plenty of water thank 
heaven— plenty of Books thank the Muses 
—plenty of Snuff, thank Sir Walter Raleigh 
— plenty of Segurs, ditto— plenty of flat 
Country, thank Tel Ins' rolling pin." 

Tbe rhymes are valued at $00, and ihe 
letler will cost the buyer $50. Extracts 
from a letter of Poe'a to G. W. Eveleth are 
interesting. Tbe letter is postuutrked 
March 12. 1847. and is priced at $40. In it 
he says: "'The scholar and gentleman' 
referred to is Evert A. Duyckinck." , , . 
"My suit against The Mirror has terminated 
by a verdict of ♦225. in my favor." " En- 
glish . . . ran off to .Washington for 
fear of being criminally p»'08e(;uted." " P. 
S. ' Tbe Vuldemar case' was a hoax, of 

Macauley writes under dale of 18-10 (his 
letter being now worth $15) ; " And what I 
bear of tbe form iu which your countrymen 
show their kindness and esteem for men 
whose names are at all known, deters me 
from visiting you. I need not tell you that 
I mean no national redection. Perhaps the 
peculiarity to which I allude is honorable to 
tbe American character ; but it must cause 

annoyance to sensitive and fastidious men. 
Brougham or O'Counell would have liked 
nothing better. But Cowper would have 
died or gone mad ; Byron would have in- 
sulted his admirers, and have been shot or 
tarred and featbered. and, though I have 
stronger nerves than Cowper. and, I hope, 
a better temper than Byron's, I should .suffer 
much pain and give much offense." . . , 

Tbe following passage from a letter of 
Lord Tennyson may be commended to the 
agitators for international copyright : "I am 
not in tbe habit of inserting poems in tbe 
English magazines, and why should I in the 
American 1 particularly as in this unhappy 
condition of international copyright tbe 
English magazines would immediately pirate 
anything of mine in yours." 

Both Artemas and Artemus Ward are re- 
presented, tbe one__b^ ^iri> cogimeutnL 
papers, theotbcrBya characteristic e.ffusion, 
"Am I a nuisance i" or a pestilence or a fam- 
ine, or any kind of a disorder ?" Tweuty- 
one curious letters chiefly addressed to 
Thomas Percey, author of the " Reliques," 
are included iu one lot. They concern 
Johnson, Goldsmith, Mrs. Thrale, Garrick, 
Hannah Moore, Arthur Murphy, dramatist 
and author of a " Life of Garrick ; " Jacob 
Tonson, the publisher, and others. Mention 
of all tbe rare, curious and interesting mat- 
ter cjitalogued would stretcb this article out 
to undue limits. It may fairly be said that 
no more a interesting collection has fur a 
long time been offei'cd to tbe public. — N. T. 

Ames' Compendium of Practical 
and Artistic Penmanship. 

This work, as itn title Implies, ia a com- 
plete cxem pi ideation of tlie penman's art. 
iu every department. It consists of seventy, 
two 11x14 inch platen, giving Instructlim 
and copies for plain writing, flourishing, 
lettering, and designing of every kind of 
artistic pen-work. It has forty two different 
standard and ornate alphabets, and a targe 
variety of engrossed memorials, resolutions, 
certiflcates, diplomas, headings, title pages, 
etc., etc. We are confident that this work 
presents to tbe penman or artist a greater 
and more useful variety of pen-work than 
does any other work upon penmanship 
extant, Price by mail $5.00. It Is the 
cheapest book of its size and character 

Any person who orders it from us, and 
does not tind it all that we claim, is at 
liberty to at once return it to us and have 
his money refunded 

Permanent Subscriptions. 

It should he remembered that while it is 
a rule that the JounNAl, will he discontin- 
ued at the expiration of the term for which 
the subscription is paid, any one who shall 
so request may have their names entered 
upon our permanent list. In which case, a 
bill for their subscription will be sent at the 
beginning of each new term of subscription. 

Aki.l fcpu v., ,s un.^ n,uu:] ChurieS 

might be a good-sizud ni: 
up —PittAuTg Leader. 

i UitMv says be 
whin iic grows 

;" OLLIi; -R 


Bad Writing. 


■ Bad signstiires?" echoed a Chicago 
hank cashier, iis a reporter fired (luestioDs at 
Jiim through (he little golden gate. "Bad 
signatures? Wo don't have any in Cliicago. 
except what come from the East. Every- 
body nut here writis well. In New York 
and the East everybody in Ilic hanking busi- 
ness writes hia aignalure just as awfully as 
he can! How do we account for the style 
in New YorkY It is imported. English, 
yoB know. Bank ofticers down East write 
their signatTircB in such a way that you 
have got to learn them si you do any other 
mysterious sign before you can tell what 
they are. There are uo letters in them. 
Here is one tliat fills the paper from margin 
to margin, you sec. Tiiere doesn't seem to 
lie any letters in it, but on close examine 
linn youll sec there arc lellcrs as plain as 
can lie. This man always makes his name 
(ill from margin to margin, no matter what 
Uie width of the sheet. Here is one that 
Hmlut M if the writer had put his pen on a 
])ivot, and sent it spinning ; winding up 
uitli a shoot off to the right, a good deal 
hie the pin wheels \w*boys used to play 
with on the Fourth of J'uly. Some slingon 
.4(1 much ink that ;heirsignaturcs have to be 
nprcad out in the sun to dry before they 
can he put into an envelope or used in any 

'■ I am happy to say that Ibe use of 
■ blind ' signatures has taken no root in the 
West, though, of course, there is a case 
lure and there. For instance, Peter White, 
in 11 bank at Ularquette. starts it with a spin 
of his pen, circle after circle, each smaller 
ihan Ihc niher, and then n big, broad drop 
,iinKr iriini tiir i-riiirr Of course it doesn't 
loi'k likr :iti\ Diiipj :ii :ill in the shape of n 
rniin i\iiij.ii:ui i..iiik signaturcs are also 
ii.,iih :ill liliihl-, iiMl here in Chicago 1 
, ,11 t iliDik ..I ;insl".,!v Hiatuses blinds, or 

II, .,1 . ^. I, .M,M~ lll.-ihl,. siLMlllturCS, 111 

together safe ■'eriUer.' The latter, how 
ever, is reputed to be about four times as 
Hiischievous as the former, inasmuch as he 
rudely sells another man's property, where- 
as the hull contenU himself with carrying 

The hear occasionally finds himself in a 
"corner," where it is impossible to buy the 
stock of which he is "abort." and which he deliver at a specified time. He growls 
and begs, hut must pay wha't the holders of 
his contracts are willing to accept. Some 
relief is aflforded by a "let up," or the with- 
drawal from the market of the "clique" or 
"pool." or combination operators that 
cornered hira. A "squeal in the pool" is 
the revelation of its secrets by one of its 
members, and a "leak in the pool" is when 
one of the parties sells out bis interest 
without the knowledge of the others. 
Either form of defection yields some miti- 
gation to the bca^■^ t^ulTcvings.— iM;7«7-'« 

Can You Make a Better Invest- 
than to pay |;1 for the .Iguknal one year, and 
the ■ ' Guide to Self -Instruction in Plain and 
Artistic Penmanship" free as a premium ? 

The Qtiide contains sixty-four large pages 
of instruction, and copies for plain writing, 
flourishing, and lettering, and is alone sold 
for 76 cents (in paper coYers), and |1, hand- 
somely bound. 

For Penmen and Bookkeepers. 

A aa-columu monthly, with Lessons In Ornamental 
Penmanehip. by Prof. E. K. ISAACS, ant) Plain 
Penmanship, by S. D- FORBES. Bookkeepintr 
- -' ^M Ij>w articles by Leading 
Year, with a cliotce 

..„ ,— 700-pajje Dictionary, 

Ijest Pens and Patent Oblique 
Uoldt" ' 

ill loIilldS 

that writes 

badly, while in New York it is hard to find 
one that doesn't, so far as his signature is 
concerned. One of the worst autographs in 
(Jhiaigo is that of E. B. Washburne. It is 
remarkable bow well even the hoys write in 
Chicago. Some of our best penmen are 
messenger hoys just from school. Most of 
the poor signatures in Chicago are from eld- 
erly men, whose nerves are shaky. Occa- 
sionally we get a signature which doesn't 
look right, and we compare it with the sig- 
nature book, but 999 times out of a 1,000 
the man was a little drunk, or careless, or 
excited, when he wrote it. L. J. Gage, of 
the First National, writes one of the plain 
est signatures ever seen. Orson Smith 
writes a beautiful signature, and so do Nasb 
Oakley and many others in our banks, 1 
am mighty glad the 'blind ' style never be- 
came popular here. There is no .sense in 
it. The ' blinds' can he counterfeited just 
as easy, if not easier, than ordinary signa- 

Bears and Bulls. 

Brokers and operators arc "bears" when 
they have sold stock, and particularly stock 
that they did not own, contracting to deliv- 
er it at sonu? future time. They are then 
"short of the market," The disposition of 
the bear is to pull things down. The Wall 
street bear is often found "gunning a stock" 
by putting forth all its strength and craft to 
break down the price, and especially when 
aware that a certain house is heavily loaded 
and cjin not resist his attack. He "buys 
in" by purchasing stock to meet a "short" 
contract, or to return borrowed stock , 
"covers," or "covers his shorts," by buying 
stock to fulfill his contract on the day of 
delivery. This is a self- protective measure, 
and is called "covering short sales." A 
"drop" in the price of a stock Is to a hear 
the next best thing to a "break." He re- 
joices in an "off" market when prices fall. 
He "sells" out a man by forcing down the 
price of a stock that the person is carrying 
so low that he is obliged to let it go, and 
perhaps to fail. He groans lustily when 
the bulls get a "twist on the shorts" by arti- 
ficially raising prioes, ruul "squee/.ing." or 
compelling the bears to settle at ruinous 
rates. Neither "bull" Dor "hear" is anal- 


2 1st Annual Session begins 
September 1. 

Sew Masonic Building. 

Course of Study, 



Send for Catalogue with full particular* to 

A. J. RIDER. Principal, 

8-18 MaW)nlo Temple. Trenton, N. J. 


1885, and will be mailed for 50 oeats a year, to aa 
one who Bubscribes before January 1, 168A, 

Tlie American Penman will be a large S-pag 
journal, well filled with everything pertaining t 



The coarse will re(|nire about hIx weeks for its 
lompletton, when taken in connection with other 

A notable feature Ib the larse number of Busl- 
iCM Forms— nearly all the Notes. Draft*, Cbeokn, 
I'ertlfloatesof Deposit. Receipts, etc.. that ooonr 

Negotiable I'.-ii'im [■[■•■-■iiinl m n iii.iuhor nut. 
heretofore ghfii- i'^iiiuLiil. tiia^Jiacuituu and 
Transfer Endorsemenis alteriial Inc tin the back of 
the paper, _ 

A new exposition of the Theory of Closing Ac- 
preatly simplifying the p 

Busiitess Law 

Lawyers, etc, 50c. pi 

of the following Premiii 

or ft W grnas of ' -' ' 




"—A. N. Palmer. Address H. S. 

Box a, KnoxvlUe, Te' 

ALL FOR $1.00. 


-AtL ABorx snoRTnAiVD" 

Biownc, 33 CliuCDn PI, Ncw-^ 

fss- so ~®a 

Lessons by Mail 

B@" Sl-SO.-^a 

BY Mail lias induced the undersigned to arrange 
for self and home learners, and for amateurs or 
those preparing to teach penmanship: 

(DA Course of 50 Lessons in Writing, 

(All copies fresh from the pen.) 

(2) A Course of 50 Lessons in 

(All copies fresh from the pen.) 
The SO-lessnn Conrse In Writing consists of a mul- 
titude of elegantly -uiriCftn copies, embracing all 
kinds of KxEnciBEs. the standard small and capital 
Alphabet*, Word copies. Sentence Copies, Business 

>f Muscular Comblni 



8 Initial 
■imliinations. Fancy Initial Combinations, etc.. 
igetlier with the nawk of the person purchasing 
le Les.-ion in a variety of artistic combinations. 
eP~All of these copies are direct from my own 

In plain and 

, I rniMTED Instruc- 

showing the_ exact position of 

with regard 

ilant cpncing, classj 


■ writing, are iLLusTRATgn Phimted Instruc- 
. with cuts showing the ex 
hand and pen and position 

the prinol- 

irieomireou-LiEssoN ^kiiii':s of writtbn Copies. 
ith iiislriK'llons. sent, in one portfolio package, 

The ^)0-l.e:^son Course in Flourishing consists of 
le Exercises or Prinolples, and a superb collection 
elegant Quill, Scroll and Bird Designs 

» t/u J. 

)rinted Instructions. 

The entire SO-Lbsson Sbries or Execises / 

. with 

In ( 

} portfolio 

B is based c 

package, post-paid, on receipt 

The arrangement of these c<v 

long experience in leaching penmanship, and it Is 
confidently believed that in accuracy, elegance 
variety, and sparkling artistic beauty, the copief 

not hy any other penman doing a mat 

f »8.80 / ^ 

ins in the 

N, Palmer. D. 

> plact 

, A. n. 
iiiuuian. itoury u. ^pencer. 

Three beautiful specimens—one each of Flour- 
ishing. Writing, and set of Capitals— the three 
Kpeotinene, fresh from the pen, for 30 cents. 


Pniman, N.I. .\otmal School. 


We are now prepared to tnnii^b a oenvcnlcnt 
and durntilu liinder for the JotaNxi.. 

II is constructed to ser^-e both as a Ale and hinder. 
Sent post-paid, on receipt of $l.fiO. 

»-tf 205 Broadway, New Ytirk. 

Printer and Stationer, 
8 SPRUCE ax . 

Writing and Measuring Ruler. 

script ali-liabe 

mi c,'.T.'venFeSf'be7o're''th 


in length, mcta 
Seal by mall 

o any address for 30 cents 

It is Invaluable to all who are seeking to Improvi 
their writing. Address. 


30(V Broadway, Hew York. 

. by 
a Order, or Currency by Express 


81 Stnte Street, ClilcRgo, HI. 

The following cour.ies nt stndy can be pursui 


a-EN'EVA, o. 
Phonographio Course and Typewriting, 

e in Plain Penmanship, 

Business Penmanship Cm 
Taachers' Course in I 
Teachers' Coarse in Plain and Ornamental 
Thorough Instruction given in Phonography a 
Penmanship by Mall. 

Specimens of Plain Writing 85c, 

Specimens of Plain and Ornamental 
Penmanship. . 





of four small 

__J AHUjinetic, each hook 

lontaining 1001 practical <i 

'"" ■ "'le only cinesiion 

I single 

)reparing for exam'l nations, or for reviewing pupils 


mtaining H . ,_ _. , . 

These are positively the only i 
ubiished that are oomolete ennu 
>ranch t 



"1001 Questions with Answers on ARITHME- 
TIC,'* including nearly SOo test examples with an- 
swers and solutions. Be>ides trttiMnt; llmroughly 
the entire scope of Arithmptii', tin- lin,,i, crmtalnB 
from ]0 to30 t6stexampl>rs \v itli : 
tlonsnndereaeh subject, itit- -AiU 
In the appendix. In this lumk tli 
riuestions with answers. 

" 1001 Questions with Answers on GRAMMAR," 
with copious illuHtrationa, pursing and analysiii. 
The numerous illustrations, false syntax with cor- 
rections, and Ibe parsing of difTlcult words, are 

PHY."embraclng Do 
matlcal Geography. ' 

abllng the student to ] 

'efresh his mind on an' 
)ut reading over the < 




31 Moffat Buildin 


and Ornamental 1 

durable, lit. They make clei 



. Ind 


Send for a Sample Copy of our .lonmal. and 
li-am of our plan of •' Instructing any p^rmn m any 
Study" by CORItKSPONDENCE and Reading 
Circles. Over 60 College Professors engaged, con- 
rerring Deorbbs. Sample Copy malltjd for postage. 





Shading T Square 

Sent Bflcureiy pack. . 
the United States or i : 
(riving pricea and duM i 

perfectlou of 

■■ •■ i i.inular 

;. July 27. J880. 
. _._ . ._ ereat scope and 
r dosisDa I hnve Imd occasion to put 
and tlntiDg T square to e^ 
1 it tbe moat reliable and 
venient mecliantral aid I have 
purpose for which it is designed. 
Ilesjioclfnlly. i 

Designer and Draftsman, Am. Bank Nolu 

D. T.. 

\-Dtar Sir. 

and tlntiDg T square to every 
■" " tbe moat reliable and con- 
I have ever seen for the 
loclfnlly. C. E. Sicki 


The only Instni- 
that will 
make an exact 
Copy of a picture, 
either Smaller or 
Larger, than the 

A CliUd 12 years of 


i Broudway, Now "i 

SWIFT'S HANDBOOK of 100 valuaWc Ink 
Kei-ipes umiK.1 for 00 cen«, or tree lo all 
aendltn: me Si for tlils papi-r for one year. 
SuhBcriptlons received for all Purlodlt-ala. 

laia WELLS W. SWIFT, MarionviUe. N. Y. 


patented, admits 

of ilsiliKtIiiM" '' 

I!tnurr"lJliM"i' l>enl.. 
one BKOiple Uoitlvr f 

nsroAAT :r:eij^id-^. 





With Two Supplementary Books. 



systematize and teacli writing iu accordance witli tlie usages of tiie ijest 
writers in tbe business world. 

guishing features of " Spencers' New Standard Writing." It effects a saving 
of from 15 to 25 per cent, in tlie labor of writing and a corrosiiouding 
saving of time in learning to write. 

A Sample Set, containing all numbers, sent for examination on receipt 
of $1.00. 

Full Dcscrijitive Circular sent, on request, to any address. 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, & Co. 

753 and 755 Broadway, New York. j 





For Sale hy all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


26 John Street, New York. 



SHORTHAND^^TSf 'p'^SJSti, - 

^1 >od si tiiatlons procured tUl pupil* when competent 
I (irtnoeraphylliorouglily learned, opens the best 
for young people, especially for ednf-ated 
V'>mi« ladles. Send for clr'lar. W. O. OHAFPBE, 
Oswego. N. Y, ,o.tx • 

price 1(1.76 fnrnlshfd free. 

Box 265 Sherman, N. Y. 


The finest floiirislilFiK ever sent out byanyimn- 
man will not i?nual the niarveloiiN specimens I ean 
send you, 3 for 60 cents. Kxeouted by W. K. Den- 
nis, who In this line has uo etiuiil. To be had only 
by addressing L. Madarasz, Box 21 IG, Now York 

To the Readers of the Penman's Art Journal : 

T/if. undfTfif/nrd, wfio hat /{Mowed Ifu prqfution <tf 
card WTititi^JOr the jvut trvm |/c<ir«, and has y«t to 
Uam 0/ th^Jtrtt initaiux whfrtin AU ivork hiu fniUd 
togivf mtire tati^mtion, taku jtUruurt In atUing 
tjouraUrrttion to th$ eompleU lUu t(f wrilUn vMllnff 
canU. which art Qferrd at raits eonMtUnt trUA Uu 
(pialilij of card» and jimtnanehip. Ordsrt promptly 
filled. All pott paid. 

^~ With every 4 paokageBonlerod at one time 
an extra package of Oilt Bevel Edge Cards will be 
sent free, with any name written on. Willi a little 
eCTort you can easily Induce Meveral of your frlcuda 
to order with you. 

Number of Cards in each package : 1 8 36 

Style A.— iYni'n >V7ii7^. good quality 10.38 fO.75 

" n.— Wfl'ling Bristol, very best 40 .77 

" C" - OUC Edge, assorted 4-1 .84 

■' D. -Dufi GUI Edge, tlio finest 50 .98 

■■ IL—ltevtU of Cnamaiid IV/tiln ... .53 1,00 

■' li.—SUi:andSutinSeBe/a 55 l.OTi 

" II.— £i!7Ar7V]/Be);<;&, assorted S7 MO 

'■ }.— Elite, the latest styles tX) 1. ir. 

Address Unit— 6Xtc& IQ .30 

If you oT-der cards you should have a card case 
til keep them clean and neat. 


No. 1— /fMMia Z<aW«T, 4 pockets tO.23 

No. S- ■• 4 " .35 

No. 4— il/orocco. bestquaUty 50 

No. 6— Calf, extra good 80 

"Ho. ^— Alligator SHn^-v&cyfiae 1.60 

No. 9— " very best 2.00 


Assortud designs— birds, scrolls, tjuills, etc., ex- 
ecuted with taste and skill. To students who wish 
good models of Flourishing to practice from, these 
will be found to be "the thing." Price, 85 cents 
per package of 13. 


irpassed speotmeii of bold hn 

name written in assorted styles 
send 51 cents, and the hand- 
possibly write will be sent you. 


Klegant specimens of oft-hund flourishing, snch 
as birds, eagles, swans, etc., on unruled paper. 
which are ajiiceded by tUt to b« the mott ajnrited work 
ever tent nut by any pmman. Price, 25 cent* each ; 
2for 45 cents; Si^.IO per dozen, 


Executed In the highest style of the art, and 
winning the honor of being superior to the work of 
any other penman In the world. Each ^ cents ; 2 


In response to numerous calls for very brilliant 
ilack ink, arrangements have been completed for 
lending, securely packed, quart bottles to any part 
jf the country. Price pcrquart. Si. 30, BydilutUig 
silU some good writing fluid (Arnold's is the best), 
nore than three ijuarts of good Ink may be bad 
rom a single quart of this quality. I use this Ink 
n all my work. See samples. Recipe for Us 


If yuu experience diRiunlty In sccuringa p 
will make a very fine air line combined wit 
elasticity without being scratchy. I tan se 

The Favorite per box, 40cts., pergroi 

Card Writing, No.l... " 50 " 



Aduplril foriiscwith or witiiout Text-Book. 

and lliu only set recomincudcd to 



Bryant & Stratton 
Count ng House Bookkeep ng 



119 4 121 William St., N. Y. 

Penmen's and Artists' Supplies. 

Oq locoipt of the pi-loei annexed, we will fo 
ward by return ol mail, or by express as stated 
any article named in the following list. 
By ordering from uSj patrons can rely not onl; 
p f nga -upe nor article but upon doini 

Prepared Ind a Ink per bottle byexpresi 
Giilott 303 Steel Pons, ner trrosa 
Ames Pen en s Fa\ o 

I per g. 

J rd wide any lengtl per 

loheswde r rjarl slated both sides 

I slatl K the 1 f St i use for walls or 
ideu b arrts per t, lion 

yard slated n 
Li(i Id slatl 

ived All rder 

dera f r mercl 

bo aceompan ed bv oa^h to 
I osial oards ^ Ul 



In Every Town in America, 

1 Flourished Cards. ladesisjiiB. 

agents can. and do, make money, by takltig 
ln-rs for tlie Journal, and selling Uio above 
Send for our Si>ccial liates lo Agents 

The "Guide" is a book of sixty-four large paj,'es, elesanlly printed ou the finest quality oE fim 
crdiiMwly to instruction and copies for Plain Writing, Off-Hand Flourishing, and Lettering. We i 
ucarly equal cost, is now before the public that will render as eflicient aid to either teacher or ' 
the peiiniaus art, as will this. Thirty-two pages are devoted to instruction and copies for plai 
pl fl gSp ph 

P P 

h h 

plate-paper, and is devoted 
that no other work, of 
all the departments of 
Fourteen pages to the 

N for *l ; 

1 nts w b given, 
h ff ban with 

We have e 



has a world-wide reputation for original, artistic designing, and e 
prices are based on time retiuired. We do some t-^'— h-n-i^^,^-, 
guarantee satisfaction for any amount oustomers ci 
monials from customers to fill a good-sized paper. We "give two from c 

"Engrossing received. For a neat piece of work have never seen 
It. I am sure it will be highly appreciated."— C. A. BUSH, Philadelphia, 

'_' Drawing received and gives perfect satisfaction in eyery way As 
are without an equal in this country —JOHN LYNN New York NY 


In Writing Floun hmg Lettenng_ or Card Wilting at 50 cents per lesson 

>uffh voluni 
>nfors of ai 
anything 1 

I rich specimen 

o any address on receipt of ^, 
For circulars, address 

THOS. A. RICE, A.M.. L.L 1 


which \\( ' 
) fully and carefully 

which we are now publishing, 
All departmenM of pen art -■^' 
styles Plain and Omiamentfll, ■ 
•ieina! " - . -. 

will he in slip foi 

ript Alphabets In 

ill be taken to give Original Beautiful and Rapidly E: 
1 bo a work such as all penmen have felt the need of an 
lished as fast as ready at least tne)"" 'n <■ vna>- 'I'li^ 
n the best heavy plate paper The fii 
e may he pieserved ck 
plates Single plati 

Original Beautiful and Rapidh 

.. ... .1\ penmen ■ - ■ ■ 

i ready at least 

-y plate paper T„- , 

srved cIlbu for bii ding. SubsrcrlpUoni 


.=^?i*^^.':I:"';h„'"!? *^,fi' J^?5^.?*J?f!,^^^'P_?"."=?^ Wo niU send 

PlouiKhin^ for 00c I ] 
acknowledged to be tl 

t raoderite prices The rui 
jpy The tinting is free 
oUar Wc respectfully sol 
rocure Address 

J best lapan Ink 

ely illustrated and valuable penman's 


Letter and Paper Heads DIplomL „ 
s in this advertisement are Photo Engravings made 

and furnish Engravings 

ings made from our pen 

itamps for fractional parts of a 




Shorthand Writing 


Thorough Instruction in the best system ; terms 
low ; satisfaction guaranteed. 

Young men have only to master Shorthand to 
make it a sure source of profit. Stenographers 
receive better ealaries than are paid in any oil 

p for spei-iraen of writing and circulars 

1. HUL.TON, 8t«>iogTBpher, 




Extended Movements 
Cards, Flourishing, i 

, addressed in my o 
- of Lessons by M..__. 
g Exercises, Capitals, 

—No postal cards need apply. 

THIS BIXDERls light, strong and handsome, 
and twelve issues of the Joobsai. are held toget' ~- 
by it in the convenient form of a bool<, whlcTi 
he kept lying on tlie reading-table >• '- "■■"■" 

205 Broadtror, New Tor»- 





Author of Nelwm'B Hercauti 
NelBon"« BookkeepliiK, r 
of the Nelson Busfne 

f the _ . _, 

of ClncInnRtl and Sprlngfl 
From ^Tffi. O. jr. Brown, <^ llu JackeonvUU, W.. 

"WUliotil (iiitliHcatlon your work is the most 
«xhauitivo of the whole suttject of acouunUirifrhip 
that I have «ver examined." 

Frmn the PrfMiiUntof the MttroiiolHan BwittMs Col' 
UfftufNfV) lork: - 

" I consider it siiperif^r to any work hitherto pub- 

lie ouisldo. and Ijooks of such showy exterior 
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cUL'iintly addressed 
s ,iiicl iurtfti catMloKuo 
'- Morthsm Indiana Normal 
.nd Business Institute, and 

r Jt Inli riiriimercial 

NEW YORK, JULY, 1886. 

( of CongnM, in the year 1880. by Daniel T. Ames, In the Office of the Librarian qf Congress, Waehinglon, D. ( 

Vol. X.— No. 7. 

Writing Lesson. 
By a. W. Lowe. 

(Scliolileld's Commerelrtl Colleee, Pro\i<1encc, I 

111 ])rcparing this lesson I have considered 
;iii t;ict, that of the mony naders of tlie 
iiM KNAL, some favor onemethod of iastnic- 
lioii Hnd some uiiotlier, and I bavc endeav- 
ored to present a lesson wliicli will meet 
wltJi tbe approval of all. There is uo occu- 
pation in wliieb writing has no j.„~^ more 
or less. Even tlie laborer whose hands are 
hardened by honest toil must nt times wield 
the pen. 

Writing, though it be the mouthpiece of 
every calling in life, has been iustly called 
•'the neglected art." On every hand we 
find poor writers, wiihout number, and I 
wuvdd that this lesson meet the eyes of all 

surely do not wish to send in reply one 
poorly written. 

Send in reply a well written letter and the 
recipient is pleased and may emulate its 

Martin Tupper writes : 

"The pen of a ready writer, whereuuto 
shall it be Hkeucd f If he mean the pen of 
a good writer, all will say: '-Whereunto 
shall it be likened !" 

Through the pen we are enabled to con- 
verse, as it were face to face with those ab- 

Before commencing instruction to the 
student, I wish to make a few remarks 

The teacher should cultivate the acquoint- 
anec of his scholars and endeavor to gauT 
their confidence and respect. If the teacher 
is cold, distant, or arrogant, be fails to gain 

sequently laborious exercise, becomes very 
interesting, and the time of writing is anti- 
cipated with a feeling of pleasure, rather 
than of dread. 

Enthusiasm in the class is the corner stone 
of success. Do not be afraid to use the 

Some claim that the illustrations on the 
board are never fully comprehended by the 
whole class, and that copies for practice 
should not be written on the board. I 
believe in using the board at all times though 
not for the whole lesson. 

If you have but one hour a day for in- 
struction and use copy books, let one half 
hour be given to exercises written on the 
board, and the other half hour to the exer- 
cises in the copy books. 

There 'S^his advantage in the use of the 
board: All the scholars rcc( 

No one sliould be deceived by thinking 
y » )i pcumaushipu " 'mark of genius." though 
ininy men of genius have been miserable 
\N I ii. IS. The writing of siieh famous men 
I ilnnic* Greeley, .ludge Choateand others 
I Mii-btname should be held up. not as a 
' ly forimitatiou. but asa warning of what 
' M,hss and hastily written penmanship 

Thackeray was a beautiful writer and it 
has been said that he could write the Lord's 
prayer legibly on a piece of paper the size of 
» sixpence. 

Dickens was also a good writer and the 
same may be said of other noted authors. 
If you receive a letter poorly written, 
whether on business or from a loved one at 
home, you cannot fail lo notice it and you 

pect of the scholars, and 
them Ihe best service ; mistakes should be 
kindly pointed oul,aud corrected. A teacher 
should occasionally recall the days when he 
was a pupil, and compare his own short- 
comings with those of pupils with whom he 
would be now impatient. 

As regards penmanship in large schools, 
it should he taught in classes with more or 
less blackboard instruction ; such instruc- 
tion to depend on the time allowed for a 

No teacher who is not enthusiastic can 
make a success of teaching penmanship, 
and the same may be said of any other 

Let an enthusiastic teacher take the place 
of a mere automaton in a short time a great 
change will be observed in the class. 

What was formerly a tiresome and con- 

ou the copy at the same lime ; select the 
worst and most genend faults of pupils and 
represent ihem on the board, and do not fail 
to have the attention of all, then make the 
correct letters and compare them with faulty 
ones, explaining to the class all the imper 
feetions and in what manner they may best 
be remedied. If you wish to awaken an in- 
terest in the work place a few letters upon 
the board, then make these letters incor- 

Ask the class to name the imperfect let- 
ters, tell wherein they are imperfect, and if 
possible to give the principles of each letter. 
Let the work be systematic and then it will 
be progressive. Endeavor to anticipate a 
scholar's needs, and do not favor one more 
than another. I have seen in schools more 
scholars who have failed to become good 
writers because they were neglected, while 

others were favored than fro 


If you be teaching children I would re- 
commend the use of the pen from the com- 
mencement. This is much better in many 
respects than first teaching with a pencil. 

Children allowed to use a pencil will nat- 
urally grip it tightly because Ibere are no 
pen points to break or pierce the paper and 
scatter ink. As most writing is done with 
the pen why not first instruct the little ones 
in its use. If this be done, in after years 
there will not be so much grumbling about 
"bad positions" "cramped hands," and 
"death like grips," Tomy brother " ICnight 
of the Quill," who does not believe in black- 
board instruction I will say; You can ex- 
plain more to a class in one half hour with 
the use of the board, than you can explain 
to the individuals separately in one week. 

I will first mention position. Much as 
has been said of it very few sit correctly. 

Good position is as necessary to good pen- 
nuinsi'iip lis movement. There are three 
positions^St the desk, right side, left side and 
front. Whirt-^sittin^ at a narrow desk the 
right position should be used, In^t is, the 
right side should be turned lo the desk, if 
you !..■ sliin.liiiL' n\ :i -U-sk the Icfl side should 
be- iiii mil lu ji ii \Mii he sitting at a wide 
'li ^i> 'In ' : i M.-ii should betaken and 

I-'i 1^' 111 H -r i|n:irelyon the Uoor.and 
by all means wit ircct, otherwise you will 
contract an iniurious and ungniceful habit. 
If you sit while writing, the top of the desk 
should be even with yourelbdwas your arm 
hangs at the side autl the same n'lav bt Miid 
of a desk used when siamlinu 

As a rule pupils, wliili' \\ rKiriL' air apt lo 
incline the spinal column h< mim' sjilr jti uider 
to accommodate tliciiLsrh i s hi Wn^ duhlcs at 
which they are simIcI 'Ihiv is liccause the 
desks are too lii-li umI ..himv tlienunils to 

uproper position 

fici.JIli :ilial>-i--i.| 

pupils, together V 

in silting. So much has been saTd by others 
on penholding that I will pass it 
ever that the arm. hand and fingers should 
not be rigid, for when such is the case, the 
large muscles of those parts are called into 
too intense action. 
This of course requires of till- (itliir muscles 

that produce the laierul iJi .i \- mriiurt 

which they can only mil. i;' . Hn, 
and consequently theic I ' l. nui 
easy movement, Tlir tinn' ,- ■^\ rlr- 

k-L'iliilic III mil ,,..| rapidity. 

, '" ' ' ■' i-- certainly the most 

in'p"i' "I II' I 'iiiiy and rapidity may 
be lie mil h\ ill lo obtain legibility, 
beauty ai>d nipidily. we must first have a 
knowledge of the movements by which we 
may reach them. 

The three movements a 
and combined. 

Muscular movement is described i 
the action of the arm extended and 
tracted while using the muscle near the 
rolling rest. Where rapidity is 

e finger, muscular 


required this 
Finger movement, 

nt is the best. 


of the fingei 

Combined movement is the union of the 
muscular audflnger movements, and for the 
majority of writers this is by far the best 

There is a snying that practice makes i)er- 
fert TfT a fr tiain 'xfent this is true, but 
priHh. • i|.. .., I, , --, ,|i|,ii to perfection, must 
be |ii' .! I I . . . lul study of the forms 
of i' II iiM* heights and slant, 

iig to practice remember 

Educational Notes. 

(CommunU-atlons for tbU Den 

Brief educ-atluoal lUms 
Oliio's public schools cost $10,093,931 last 

Tliree iniilion pupils now attend tlic free 
schools in the Southern Slates. 
There are 150 college graduates in Cou- 

A Chinaman took the prize for English 
composition at Yale. 

Tutors of Harvard receive salaries of frojn 
ifSOO to $1,200 a year, while the trainer in 
athletics gets $2,000 a year. 

It is said that at least 75.000 teachers in 
the United States are reading methodically 
and professionally. 

The University at Camhridge has decided 
to confer upon Oliver Wendell Holmes the 
degree of Doctor of Letters. 

A chair of journalism has been recently 
estublishcd at,*iliirv;irti. and is to be filled by 
J. M. Mt'i;ullnffh. editor of the St. Louis 

Dr. Timothy Dwight has been elected to 
the Presidency of 1 ale College, to succeed 
Dr. Noah Porter, who resigned. 

18S8 and 1»80. 

Since Dr. McCosh has been president. 
$5,000,000 has been donated to Princeton. 

The legacies of Jennie McGraw-FisUe to 
Cornell University, amounting to a million 
and a half dollars, for lil)r;irv purposiis, have 
been unsuccessfully . . ni. -i. .1 m iln rourls. 
The ease has bnn i ' ' ■ ( .hidge 
Lyon for tliree yvM :■! !!■ H' i-^inii in 
favor of Cornell yi^i - ■ ii ,1, . .. imn. 

Educational Fancies. 

tDBtauce where tlie source of any 1 

WD, the proper cr 

courtesj- from otliers will oe ap 

osed In thu departnieut Is 


Minister. — " Now, niy young friend^^ y^^ 
live in the country. Does the Bible^^Jg,,,, 

thing to farmers V Jack Haysej*, .. v 

sir, St. PauL''- ■ ■■ ^ 

alone." ^ 

uooks to Timothy 

Teacher (at a night school). — "Correct 
the following sentence : ' It are wann to- 
night,'" Boy.—" It's darned cold to-night." 

"And how old are you. my little man ? " 
said the school trustee, addressing a little 
five-ycarold. '•I'm not old at all. I'm 
nearly new ! " was the response. 

Tot was receiving bis first lesson in ge- 
ography : " What is that ? " asked the 
professor, placing his finger on the map. 
Tot.—' ■ That is a dirty, tinger-nail, sir ! " 

Little Tommy. — "Can I eat another piece 
or pic ? " Mamma (who is something of a 
purist). — " I suppose you can." Tommy. — 
"Well, may IV" Mamma. — 'No. dear, 
you may not." Tommy. — " Darn grammar, 
anyway ! " — liambkr. 

It was a small boy from Maine and be 
was visiting nt the house of an uncle at Ros- 


i<l 1(1 tell how he ^ 

111].. :! u,.i:i, I :: . ■ I ■: ■! I liavc to thtay at 
iix' I'M, I , !.■;; V.I'. : iLiiijiy, "I've got the 
M;.'l:iiIi III I i^i III..' . l.iiii " — T/ic Morning 

Professor.— " Mr. B., can you tell me 
with what faculty we could most easily 
dispense ?" Student. — " Yes, sir." Pro- 
fessor. — " Good. Now speak up loud ; 
what is it?" Student (soberly). — The col- 
lege faculty."— £^j:. 

There is said to be a fashionable boarding- 
school in New York City where young 
ladies are taught |o enter and get out of a 
carriage. This is a tiinelj' educational 
movement, as young ladies have recently 
manifested a disposition to climb up by the 
side of the coachman. 

Examinations for admission to Harvard 
College are to be held this year in Paris. 
Germans will be examined as heretofore in 
Cincinnati and Chinese in San Francisco. 
The report has been printed, but not con- 
firmed, that an examination committee will 
travel during the summer with Bamum's 
circus. Knowledge is power. Give your 
•ous a chance. — Life. 

Superior Pens. 

Jvat /-crcnvrf— a new lot of " Ames' Pen- 
men's Favorite Pens," made from new dies 
and with extra care. Every effort has bten 
mode to secure a better pen than any now 
in the market, and we believe we have suc- 
ceeded. Sample quarter gross sent for 25 
cenis. regular price, 30 cents. Try them. 

Yes; They Do Reply. 

Editor Penmak's Ajit Jouiinal : 

Since you have kindly given space in the 
May number of your valuable Jouunai. to 
my remarks in behalf of Gaskell's Compen- 
dium, and inasmuch as you "still indulge 
the hope " that I will, at least, try to answer 
certain questions and objections, I accept 
your invitation and present for fair consid- 
eration the following poragraphs : 

Permit rae to preface what I have to say 
on this occasion with an expression of hearty 
appreciation of the admirable work which is 
offered the many readers of the's 
Aht Journal from month to month. I 
cherish the same feeling towards Ames' 
Guide and the Spencerian publications. I 
make this statement because 1 wish it dis- 
tinctly understood that I am friendly to 
these real works of art. 

In your " comments " upon my Jlay ar- 
ticle you only attempt to make two points 
which I care to notice. 1st. You state, in 
substance, that Gaskell's Compendium docs 
not contain "a good, orderly, sensible style 
of copies." If the Spencerian is the Na- 
tional standard, this proposition, perhaps, 
may be admitted. If, by the way, it is a 
fact that for business purposes a style 
of writing not exact, a style of writing 
the freedom of which permits of great 
ajmed is in demand, may not Gaskell's 
Compendium also have a grand place among 
penmanship publications ? It is not my 
business to decide whether it is " without 
an equal or a second." I am not dealing 
with modes of advertising but with the work 
itself. On this basis, honestly, what can be 
said against the writing presented in the 
business forms of Gaskell's Compendium ? 
Certainly they are not highly fiourisb:;!^ - 
they are legible, strong, and as tbi^ygeem to 
me pleasing, except fronvt>^;^^(] point of 
microscopic and^^'athematical analysis 
a kind of^Si^ysis which. I fancy, the ma- 
jority- of (jyj. ijgst business men care noth- 
ing about. 

2d. Your second objection is like unto the 
first. Y'du imply that Gaskell's Compen- 
dium induces the learner " to practice upon 
from five to ten different and crudely made 
forms for each capital letter." I object to 
the word " crudely." It may be that those 
who advocate Spencerian exactness in busi- 
ness writing would be justified in using the 
epithet, but not others. I find it absolutely 
impossible in my teaching to avoid a variety 
of capitals. It does seem plausible to con- 
fine the learner's practice to "one or two 
really good forms. " What teacher who has 
observed his pupils carefully, ever succeeded 
in ruling out variety? Pupils love variety, 
practice variety, and learn from variety. It 
may just as well be admitted without dis- 
cussion. The admirable monthly lessons 
given in the Journal would have become 
monotonous long ago, had not the eminent 
authors advocated, perhaps unconsciously, 
and forcibly illustrated variety. What les 
son will the reader of the Jouiinal practice 
from and learn from V I presume, like my- 
self, he will revel in the beautiful forms and 
select here and there that which delights his 

Even in Ames' Guide I find by actual 
count 8 forms of C; 7 each of H, M, and S; 
6 of D; 5 each of B, G. K. P, T. U. W. X, 
andY; and not less than 2 forms of any cap- 
ital. In this count I exclude the Italian and 
autograph page. True the exercises are ar- 
ranged so as to introduce the pupil to the 
standard forms firet, but the average " self- 
learner" will pay no attention to order but 
will invariably select to please his " fancy. " 
Bear in mind this variety is not an objection 
to the Guide, on the contrary it is a pleasing 
and valuable feature. 

I have now touched the real objections 
brought against Gaskell's Compendium. 
Pardon a word concerning my own work. I 
did not leorn to write from any Compen- 
dium or Journal. I have obtained many 
valuable suggestions from such publications. 
I am self-t4iught. however. My present 
band came to me quite rapidly after I learned 
how to employ the combined movement, 
although I must confess that a master of the 
art would have saved me hours and days of 
time could he have supervised my training. 
One more point. The great lights seem 
to differ very materially concerning the best 
methods of learning to write. They seem to 

differ in regard to the merits of certain pub- 
lications. I will illustrate just what I mean. 
Since you pviblished my "Fair Play." M. D. 
Lulher. an excellent penman, of llerndon, 
Kans., has written me thus: "I was so 
much pleased with your article in the Joun- 
nal of last month, that I wish to express to 
you my thanks, as you have given my idea.s 
to a dot. 

I heartily concur with you in every state- 
ment you have made in defense of the Com- 
pendium ; and I Ibink there are many more 
whose opinions are the same as ours. " 

U. W. Allen, anotherexccllent penman, of 
Huntsville. Texas, writes : " I agree with 
every word you say in the matter. Gaskell's 
Compendium converted my writing from a 
miserable scrawl to a legible and rapid 
hand." W. W. Bennett, of Cleveland. O.. 
one of the stars, referring to my article, 
says: " The Gaskell Compendium has done 
more good to advanc^ pen art than any sim- 
ilar publication out." A. N. Palmer, of 
The WMlern Penman, in a friendly letter, 
June loth, wrote me : " It is well known 
that Gaskell's Compendium with Gaskell 
behind it, has done more than any other one 
thing, and for thatmattermany other things 
combined to create a desire for good writ- 
ing." L. Madarasz, months ago, in answer 
to a question of mine wrote: " Sly skill 
with the pen was all acquired from the in- 
struction given in Gaskell's Compendium 
and faithful practice upon slip one." I am 
sorry, in one sense, to draw upon jijhatta. 
correspondence without the i^erihission of 
each writer, but I am ftK5cious to have you 
and your reaA»Ts' actually' discover that 
Gaskell's- Compendium has some very 
tlJOTough-going friends. 

In conclusion, I take pleasure in honestly 
expressing the opinion that Gaskell's Com- 
pendium is a publication of real merit and 
that its mission will in the future as in the 
past be to constantly increase the number of 
good, rapid, graceful business penmen. 

Big Rapids. Mich., June 31. 1880. 

W. X. Fehuip. 

It is with pleasure that we receive and 
admit to these columns Mr. Ferris' well writ- 
ten and courteous article, and we assume 
that in his ingenious and able effort be has 
presented the best possible defense to the 
numerous objections urged against the Com- 
pendium in question, certainly it is the best 
that has come to our notice. For Mr. Ferris* 
very warm, expression of hearty apprecia- 
tion of the Journal and its work we return 
our thanks. In our reply we shall be as 
brief as is consistent. 

FYrst. — Mr. F. concedes that if the "Spen- 
cerian" is the "National standard." the 
allegation that Gaskell's Compendium does 
not contain "good, orderly, sensible copies 
inay be admitted." What arc we to under- 
stand by a national standard for writing ? 
And to what extent is the Spenceriiin to be 
taken as such V Within a very few 
years nearly all the great publishing bouses 
of the country have prepared and published 
copy books for schools, in alt of which the 
new Spencerian models for letters have been 
so closely followed, that none but the veriest 
expert can distinguish the copies of one from 
the other, and in no instance has there, to 
our knowledge, been a notable departure. 
Hence it comes to be a fact established and 
recognized by the aggregate experience and 
wisdom of the teachers, authors and pub- 
lishers of America that " Spencerian " is the 
National standard for writing. As we have 
8hown in the June number. Gaskell mod- 
eled the copies of his Compendium after the 
old Spencerian copies which have long since 
been as universally discarded as have the 
new been approved. 

Mr. F. says: "I did not learn to write 
from any Compendium," perhaps right here 
lies the whole difficulty with Mr. F. not 
having learned from the Compendium, pro- 
bably he does not fully appreciate its enor- 
mity, let him give it to one of his pupils as 
u copy and watch the result, we think he 
would soon lose his present favorable im- 
pression of its merits, 

H. C. Clark. Normal School of Penman- 
ship. Erie. Pa., and editor of American 
I\:iiman. "What you have published res- 
pecting the ' Gaskell Compendium ' speaks 

for itself, and any one reading your opinion 
of the same, if properly informed, will ad- 

: your frankness in giving to the public 
such evidence of its demerits." 

Does Mr. F. go into any well conducted 
school (public or private), in the land and 
find a Gaskell Compendium there by the ad- 
of a teacher or Board of Education? 
Does he even place them in ^he hands 
of his own pupils ? Does he go into 
a school where he does not find Spen- 

in copies, or those modeled after 
them ? Not one, except where copies are 

'en by the teacher, and even then if the 
teacher is honoring his position the excel- 
lence of bis copies is estimated by the degree 
of their approximation to Spencerian stand 
ards. On the one band we have the Spen- 

an, we do not need to say " Spencerian" 

should say "National" idea of sys- 

atic standard copies for the learner; on 
the other the Gaskell Compendium and its 
friends (that it has friends we do not deny, 
and earnest ones too, but this do^s not prove 
that it ought to have). It has been advertised 
to make friends, and its publishers have 
practicably offered the largest kind of pre- 

ns for friends and commendations, 
through the engraving and wide publication 
of portraits and the alleged improvement of 
autographs of some of its purchasers. By a 
similar plan of vigorous and taking adver- 
tising, nostrums as worthless as coloied 
ater have been made to sell in every nuoJ'. 
id hpiplfi' iu i,i.e land, and to have friends 
■\u untold numbers, who would fairly shout 
their efficacy, but tbeenforced notoriety of 
the nostrum soon subsided, its sham was ap- 
parent, and its gulled patrons sought again 
good standard remedies. 

That the Compendium has been the in- 
strument of good to some. and has enkindled 
interest in writing with many of its pur- 
chasers that has led to their becoming good 
writers, we believe, and have bo said, and 

I it to be judged from a standpoint 
twenty-five years earlier we should say it 
was positively good, just as we would have 
said of a muzzle loading rifle, \\ bich in pn. 
sence of a Winchester, we would now say 
is " played out." The day of the rambling 
style of Compendium copies is simply past. 
But says Mr. F., " Ames' Guide also pre- 
seuts a variety of letters." This is true, but 
by its title it is announced as a "Guide to 
Practical and Artistic Penmanship," and as 
Mr. F. himself states, the variety is given, 
in the form of artistic or professional copies, 
supplemental to a course of plain ones, just 
where they belong and where they are pro- 

■ If." says Mr. F., " it is a fact that, for 
business purposes, a style of writing not 
exact, the freedom of which permits of 
great speed, is in demand, may not Gas- 
kell's Compendium have a grand place 
among penmanship publications ?" We 
utterly repudiate the idea that there is a 
demand anywhere in the world for inexact 

ting. Such writing in business is simply 

unfortunate necessity, resulting from 
necessary haste and the fact that business 

1 geni-nilly are not artists. Perfect writ- 
CM [i in iiiisiiit'ss. is desirable, but 
sinq>l> iiiiin M li. :iM. , mid the departure is in 
all di'-n-r> ;iM iiidiii- to the skill, taste ur 
lack ol utaitj, and ibc circumslances of the 
writer. If we are to have copies, variable, 
to suit the exigencies of business and life, 
where would we end. Even Gaskell's Com- 
pendium will fail to furnish the retiuisitc 
variety. The very idea of shifting copies 
in the present age of graded schools, is an 
absurdity too thoroughly demonstrated by 
public experience and practice to be serious- 
ly discussed — and if such copies were 
desired, the pupil should get the old Spen- 
cerian Compendium of which Gaskell's is a 
very limited and feeble imitation. 

Now, respecting the endorsements of the 
compendium, appended by Mr. F. to his 
article, they are, as we believe. aU from 
members of the so called "Compendium 
Guard of Honor." and so far as we know, 
excepting Mr. F., not teachers of standing. 
Now. as an offset to these, we can fill severol 
columns of the Jouhnax with adverse ones 
from the recognized teachers of the land, 
but space in this short number forbids that 
we do so, and we give only a few. 

Id the same mail that brought Mr. Ferris' 
article came a letter from W. C. Sandy. 
Principal of the Commercial Department of 

the Nuwark (N. J.) Iligb School. He says : 
" I am in perfect harmony with everything 
you have prioled rcspccliog Gaskell's Com- 

ir. W. Flickinger. of the College of Com- 
merce, Philadelphia. Pa., says; "I regard 
this (Giutkell's Compendium) uawortby of 
recogoitioQ. Placed by the side of good 
copies it becomes a most ludicrous carica- 

K. M. Huntsinger, Packard's Business 
College, New York. ■■ I have been exCeed- 
iugly annoyed by the bad habits acquired by 
boys who have used the CompcDdiums. 

Every teacher of wriliDg knows to his sor- 
row the folly of practicing from such mulli- 
tudious forms as are given in the Compi u- 
peudium. The half has not been told." 

A. A. Clark. Superintendent of Writing 
in the Public Schools of Cleveland. Ohio, 
says ; " I fully concur with you in con- 
demning this trashy compendium." 

R. J. Magee, penman at the Metropolitan 
Business College, New York, says: "I 
nlust say I think your criticism of the com- 
pendium is just, and will be endorsed by all 
fair-minded business men and teachers 

J. IT, Bryant, flowe Business College, 
Washington, D. C.says: "Your showing 
up of the Gaskell Compendium was a decid- 
ed hit from the shoulder, and all tbe more 
commendable because it was so richly 

E. 11. Chnpin, teacher of writing. Albany, 
N. Y.. says : " You deserve tbe gratitude of 
the entire profession for the articles you 
have published on * Compendiums.' " 

W. J. Elliott, teacher of penmanship. 
Walkerton. Ontario, says: "I could but 
admire your criticisms of the Gaskell pen- 
manship. I consider them jusl." 


Above are represented tbe alpTiabets and four specimen lines given as copies on the first four slips of the Gaskell Compen 
dium. These copies are a fair sample of what the " Compendium Gazette " announces as " without an equal or a second " as 
copies for learners and what Mr. Ferris thinks are good and commendable copies. In the above appear four of the dozen or mort 
different forms given in the Compendium of the capital H, with about an equal number of each of the other letters. The reader 
should compaie these four H's with each other, and observe how wonderfully alike (?) they are in their form and manner of 
construction, and reflect upon the uniform and consistent practice the learner will get in following those copies. Really wil noi 
the editor of the Gazette publish the above specimens in its columns, that seeing and recognizing their excellence as copies its 
renders may hasten their purchases. The cuts are at their service free of charge, and also the following should they desire t.- 
complete the comparison. 





The above cuta were photo- engraved from a copy written at Ihc office of the .JocnNAL. The alphabets are in close con- 
formily to Spencerian or the National standard for copy writing. The other writing has a few forms somewhat abreviated from 
the st4indard. Readers, teachers, fellow penmen, and men of business, which do you prefer, and which would vou specialtv 
commend as copies for the learner. ' . ■! J 

H. T. Loomis. Spencerian Business Col- 
lege. Detroit. Michi^n. ■' You arc entitled 
to the thanks of nil honest people for show- 
ing up quack compendiums in the Art 

Wilson M. Taylor, Principal of Marshall 
Seminary, Easton, Pa. ""1 not only admire 
your bold and fearless attack upon imper- 
fect copies, set up as standards and labeled 
* best,' but I think that educators of the 
youth throughout the land should rally to 
aid in the promulgation of such sound ideas 
as you present, and give you support. ' No 
model can be too perfect," ought to be self- 
evident, but if not an axiom with the 
teacher surely we can adopt it as a maxim." 
W. F. Roth. M.D., Slanheim, Pa. "I 
hastily write you to express my sincere ap- 
preciation of your bold and vigorous attack 
upon worthless penmanship. 1 agree with 
you in every assertion you have made, and 
sincerely hope that the time will soon come 
when nostrum writing and nostrum drugs 
will cense to impose upgn our people." 

Geo. E. Reed, accountant, Bluffton. Ind. 
"Your articles on ' Compendiums' are just 
the thing. I have often wondered why 
you did not pitch into such trash." 

Edward C. Cockey, storekeeper. General 
Office of the Western Union Telegraph 
Company and ex-I*resident of the New 
York Institute of Accountants. "Asa 
business man I wish to protest against the 
use of such copies as are represented as 
compendium copies in the March number of 
your JotjiiNAL, as a waste of time and 
labor. I deprecate tlie use of all flourishes 
and complicated forms for letters as detri- 
mental to legibility and speed." 

W. H. Shaylor, Teacher of Penmanship 
in Public Schools, Portland, Me. "Respect- 
ing Gaskell's Compendium I agree with 

J. Howard Keelcr, Penman at Troy 
Conference Academy, Poultney. Vt. "Let 
me thank j'ou for your able and timely 
exposition of the compendium luimbug. I 
trust you will continue to push the work, 
and you may rest assured of the support of 
all reputable teachers." 

Clyde Sandford. Rockingham. N. C. 
■ You hit Gasktlls Compendium right." 

Henry .1. Mariin, li)!) Forsyth street, New 
York. "I n .rnj \W , . .]iip,.iHlium rcpre- 
seutedintlir \1 : ■ i. ^^, „9 indeed a 

nuisance. I i. ■ inil for letters 

in the whuk- ■.■ 1 1 ,- mr Gazette says, 

the sales ol iht <...iii|ivi.iluiiii have been 
enormous, it has Littu due to enormous 

H. C. Senn, Oshkosh, Wis. " I am much 
pleased with your determined stand against 
the so-called compendium." 

G. A. Hough, teacher of penmanship. 
Port Scott, Kansas. " You have my hearty 
support in all you say respecting the Gas- 
kell Compendium." 

W. G. Trimble. New Orleans, La. "I 
am glad to see you after Gaskell's Com- 
pendium," it deserves it." 

A. M. Hargis. Grand Island (Neb.) Busi- 
ness College. "If there has been anything 
in the Journal I have appreciated it has 
been what you have said about Gaskell's 

J. F. Burner, teacher of writing, Eureka, 
Neb. "Your exposition of the quack com- 
pendium has done me a heap of good." 

A. E. Prince. Principal of the Bank Street, nri(i-.(n,i, N. J. "Your criticisms 
on (;,i-krtl's ( 'miiju'iidium are just to the 
poiiii, ;irhl ;in :i]t|ii r.ijited by every practical 

< ^\ K.r. i A..!il, Peterburg. Va.. saj's; 
" I li : I 111, lie you on your crit- 

iri-i . Ill copies." 

II I' V . I'liblin, N. H. "1 was 

pfiiiii 111 III , p , I , -I with your showing up 
of the comix-iuiimii nuisance." 

J. P. Mitzger, Jacobs Creek, Pa., says; 
" I believe in exact copies. I would sell my 
Gaskell Compendium for a dime." 

C. H. Robins, Penman at the Iowa City 
Commercial College, says: "I have been 
greatly pleased with your showing up of 
certain compendiums. I have lou"; been 
hoping that some one of note would do so." 

Just for Fun. 

but pumps 
I'hihiddphia Call. 

It i:^ highly improper to call an oleomarg- 
arine joke a chestnut. It is a butternut.— 
Washington Hatcliel. 

AVhen tbe poet sang of something that 
"Ihout hands," he probably 

' I if his board- 
■1 The other 

I subjects for 

I wonder 

referred to bm 

AChicapol !'■-' -'■■■i ■ 

ers for jokiii- ii : 1 1 
boarders will > '. . ■ , 
jokes. — New i.hi ^ /■..■,.;,■•.■ 

Butter, butler, nice and fai 
what you are ; are you really what you 
seem ? Were you made of grease, or cream t 

It makes a (rrooer lilimh and stultei'. 

__ When a''vv')ni'i'ii'liil':'/'',',';i ''.'ii MiiKer. 

A Springtielil -l.mj m.Ki luii.i^liea butter 
foracircuscoiiii.ain. ,ii,.l unni.d to get in 
on the strength of it. The ticket agent ex- 
amined, the butler and granted the request. 

Little c<iw ttmt jrlves llie milk. 

Hide as Hleek ami eitft as silk ; 

An honest cow give bullerlnp. 


Publiihed Monthly at SI i>er Y 


8lngle latertlon, 30 cenU v»r line Doni»rleL 
One coluiuQ ■ ' ^M t^*^ fuw.oo •"^"j 

Ad.ertUomenK for one and Ihrw moDlIu, P^^J^*^ 


and a copy (bound bi paper) ot - Amea's Guide U) PracUcal 
and Artliua FBnmwuLlpi"or,ror$L86,acopf bound \n cIUl 
For SI, ■■ Amo»'i Guide lo BelT-lnatrucaon," In oloth. and 
the 'Standard PmoUoal Peumftnahlp," vrlU both be mailed 

Bub«orlb«r„ romltUng fl, a choice of either of the foUow- 

Boriptiona and $11 we will send a copy o 

irle 8tre«l {Fleet St), 

New York, July, 1886. 

The Journal for August. 

Although the .Journal appears but half 
its usual size for this mouth, our readere 
can be assured that the August number will 
bring them a feast, both in a literary and 
artistic point of view. We have several cuts 
under way that will be gems of the penman's 
art, while the matter furnished by the Con- 
veDtion will be abundant and iDteresting. 

Left Out. 
Owing to . the diminished size of the 
Journal for this month, a large amount of 
mutter designed for this number has been 
omitted, but will appear iu future numbers. 
Several interesting specimens of penman- 
sbip are among the things left. 

The King Club 
for this montli numbers deviii, and was 
sent by J. E. Depue, the accomplished pen- 
man at Ileiild's Business College, San 
Francisco, Cnl. Clubs, as is usual in the 
summer mouths, have not been large, but 
small ones and single subscribers have been 
of more than average numbers. 

A Souvenir. 

We have before us a little pamphlet bear- 
ing the above title. It was issued under the 
auspices of Packard's Husiness College, of 
this city, on the occasion of the twenty- 
tighth anniversary of that institution at the 
Academy of Music, in March last. Pack- 
ard-like, it sparkles with wit and genius. 
After the presentation of several excellent 
addresses, delivered upon that occasion, it 
tells in the most humorous and bappy vein 
how a youth became an alumnus, illustrat- 
ing and describing his advance from the 
foot to the top round of personal fame. If 
you want to make tbe largest possible in- 
vestment of a penny, address a postal card to 
Packard's Business College, 805 Broadway, 
for a " Souvenir." 

Board for B. E. Delegates. 

Membei's of the Convention can secure 
good board and rooms in a pleasant part of 
the city, near the Spencerian and Packard 
Colleges, at it^JiO per day. by calling on, or 
addressing. A. H. Lewis, penman. 206 Bast 
I4th street, New York. 

The Hotel Acme, 55 West 12th street, 
will furnish members of the Convention 
with commutation meal tickets at $4 per 
week, and rooms at 50 cents per day. 

Rooms at tbe St. Stephens. St. Dehis, and 
Grand Centml. $1 per day. 

AH of the places are near llie meeting 
plnces of the Convention. 


"The New Standard Counting House 
Bookkeeping," is the title of a work lately 
published by J. C. Bryant, M.D., President 
of the Bryant & Stratton Business College, 
Buffalo. N.Y. A book of 312 pages. Printed 
in two colors; handsomely bound in cloth. 
Retail price, $2.50. Postage on single copy, 
16 cents. This is a new and thoroughly 
practical work on double entry. It is simple, 
plain and clear, as well as comprehensive 
and complete. The subject is presented in 
a strictly business-like and common sense 
manner, and the work is entirely free from 
perplexing theories and unnecessary work. 
It begins with defining the first principles of 
double entry book keeping in tbe simplest 
and most positive language, and tbe.«e prin- 
ciples lire illustrated and explained by a 
series of simple exercises, by means of which 
every important idea is presented to the eye 
us well as to the mind of the student. Every 
teacher and accountant will find this an in- 
teresting and valuable work. 

'• Sheldon's Supplementary Reading." 
Third Book. This book is intended to fol- 
low the use of any third reader, for which 
purpose it is admirably adapted. Its style 
and subject matter are alike interesting. It 
tells in very simple language about The 
Sunbeams, and what they are. About The 
Work of the Sunbeams; about Water; The 
Effects of Heat and Cold on Water ; The 
Pressure of Water; The Meaning of Weight; 
The Cause of Weight; The Life of a Plant ; 
The Air ; The Wind ; The Dew; The Clouds 
and Rain ; Snow and Ice ; The Power of 
Freezing Water ; What Happens when Fire 
Burns ; What Nature can Teach Us ; What 
Becomes of the Rain ; The Work of Water 
Underground ; How Rivers are Formed ; 
The Work of Rivers ; Snow Fields and 
Glaciers ; The Sea, and why it is Salt ; The 
Waves of the Sea; Inside of the Earth; Vol- 
canoes and Earthquakes. A sample copy 
will be sent to any teacher for examination, 
with a view to introduction, by mail, post- 
paid, on receipt of twenty-five cents, by 
Sheldon & Company, 724 Breadway, New 


The r.ojie S/ar Paimnn. by Frank U. 
Spring. Dallas, Texas another venture in 
the field of penmen's papers, No. 2 of which 
is before us, is creditable, humorous and 
highly interesting. Its editor certainly has 
the genius for cooking things up for a relish. 
The I^ne Star has our best wishes that it 
may ultimately add to its present cognomen 
that of a "Fixed Star." Mailed one year 
for %,\. Send for a copy. 

The Atneriean Penman. Erie. Penn., is 
maintaining a very creditable position among 
our penmen's papers, and is richly worth the 
low price of 60 cents, for which it is mailed 
one year. If you have not seen it send for a 

The name of the "Institute of Account- 
ants and Bookkeepers of the City of New 
York," has been changed to "Institute of 
Accounts." At its last monthly meeting on 
June 15. Captain Henry Metcalf. U. S. A., 
addressed the Institute upon the "mechan- 
ical consolidation of accounts," the address 
was of unusual interest and was highly ap- 
preciated by tbe members. An extended 
report of the address will appear in tbe July 
number of Th^ Office, 

Tbe next regular meeting of the Institute 
will be held on the evening of July 15, to 
attend which, a cordial invitation has been 
extended to the members of the Business 
Educators Association which they can read- 
ily do, as it is so close to the adjournment 
of their convention. 

And School Items. 

The Newark (Ohio). J)itUij A-h-ocat', menthius in 
highly coiiipUraentary Urnis some pen work exe- 
cuted and exhibited at the exposition lately held In 
that city by Q. W. Allison of the Newark Dualneas 

The Fort Worth (Texas) GazttU pays a handsome 
compliment to Messrs. G. W. Ware and E. P. 
Preiittt. of tlie Furt Worth BuslneBS College, for 
resolutions lately engroased by them Tor the City 
Council of that city. The eiiKrosalng was 22x28, 
and was pronounced by the QazetU to be a tieau- 
llful work of art. 

Handsomely engraved ii 

Pelrce College of Business. Philadelphia. 

Fort Worth (Texas) Business College held on 
June 25th. 

The Bryant & Stratton Busiuess College and Col- 
lege of Commerce, Philadelphia. Pa., on .luneaotli. 

Soule Commercial College and Literary Institute. 
New Orleans, La., on June 2Cth. 

column see that the packages contaiiiine 
the same are postage paid in full at Un^r rates. A 
large proportion of tiliese packages come short 


consideration f 

Mill Sanderson, teacher of writing, Shoshone, 
Idaho. "The June Jodrnai. la a 'daisy.' I am 
wondering what next, and to where you will brine 
the devotees of the pen who are so fortunate as to 
rend the Journal." 

F. I, Temple. W. Tlsbury. Mass. 

C. n. Peirce, special teacher of writing In the 
public schools. Keokuk, Iowa. 

E. K. Stevens, Pen Art Hall, Waoseon, Ohio. 
" Onr school Is prospering finely; shall send a good 
club to the Journal soon." 

B. U. Pltklns, Mooresville, Tenn., a letter and 
flourished specimens. 

Elmer E. Laoey, Jones Commercial College, St. 
Louts. Mo. 

H, A. Howard, Rockland. Me., Commerolal Col- 
lege, specimens of writing and flourishlntr In supe- 
rior style. 


James Harvey Bryant of the Spencerian Business 
College. Cleveland, Ohio, to MiSS Jennie Thomas of 
that city, on June 30th. 

A. B. Humphrey, Eureka. 111., to Miss Sadie Gar- 
rett, of Peoria, 111., on June 20th. 

A. M. Hargls, Grand Island, Neb. 

C. W. Jones, Southwestern Business College, 
Wichita, Eans. 

J. A. Cobban. Business College and Training 
School, Springfield. Mo. "The Journal for June 
is worth more than its price for a year." 

W. K. Ferris, Big Rapids (Mich.), ImUiBlrial 

D. A. Grifliths. Capital Busiuess College. Austin, 
Texas, "Our boys are highly pleased with the 

Wm. Kreatz, Parker's Lake, Minn- " I count the 
JoDBNAL a bright star among the penman's papers." 

S. S. MoCrumm. Sulphur Springs, Texas. 

W. L. Parks, Flreman'B Ins. Co., La Salle, IU. 

J. E. Depue, Heald's Business College, San liVan- 
cisco, Cal., and a club of eleven subscribers. 

J. J. Hagin, Newbury. Minn. 

J. A. Weser, Lincoln, Neb. 

J. W. Patton. Alfred University, Alfred Centre, 

F. T. Moore. Phiia. Pa, 

W. J. Kinsley, penman at the Shenandoah (Iowa) 
Commercial Institute. 

H. J. Putman, Archibald Business College. Minne- 
apolis, Minn. " I have used your Compendium for 
tbe past two years and consider It the best work 
on engrosslnE ever published, 

G. W. Allison. Newark (Ohio). Business College. 
A. H. Benier. Brucevllle, lud. 

W. C. Sandy, principal of Commercial Depart- 

W. F. Sims, Storer College, Rlpton. W. Va. 

W. D. Showalter, Bayless Business College, Du- 
buque, Iowa. 

Howard F. Perry, Poultney. Vt. 

J. M. Smith, Guy's Mills. Pa. 

J. C. Blanton, Hardeman, Qa. 

S.E.Bartow. Oberlln, Ohio. "The Joibnal is 
brim full of the best things.' 

E. W. Marquis, Worth, Pa. 
G. W. Shafer. Orrville, Ohio. 

J. H. Crabb, Crabb's Business College. Wlllming- 

H. F. Vogel. pen artist, St. Louis, Mo., a letter 
and flouriijied bird. The latter will probably ap- 
pear In the AuKuat Journal. 

W. H. Palmer, Iowa Commerolal College. Daven- 
port. Iowa, a letter and flourished bird. 

C. H. Klaaaman, Minneapolis. Mlno-, a letter, 
copy slips and a flourished bird. 

J. M. Lnntz, Emmittsburg. Md., a letter and sev- 
eral speiilmens of writing and fiourlshinK- 

R. F- Mooro, teachiT of writing, Kerney. Texas, 
a letter and Hourislied bird- 

F, E. Persons. Rtiahford. N, Y., a letter and set 
of capitals. 

R. W. Ballenline, Balentlne's Mills. N.C., n letter, 
cards, and nourished bird. 

S. C. Malone, pen artist, Baltimore, Md., n highly 
artistic card plate engraved from pen work by Mr. 

J. D. Briant. Houma. La., an original design of 
lilt. Lord's prayer, designed as an lUuBlratiou tothe 
■ sufflctontly 

Editor Penman's Art Journal: 

I have just learned of the death of the 
veteran penman and teacher, B. Musser. lie 
died suddenly a few days ago at Sinithvillc, 
Wayne Co., Ohio, where he had been teach- 
ing for a number of years. 

Mr. Musser was regarded as a skillful 
writer and a very successful teacher. For 
a man well up in the seventies he drew a re- 
markably smooth fine line having boldness 
and grace in his execution. Ilis energy as 
a icacher was also something wonderful for 
a man of his years, and his general tempera- 
ment won for him many friends. 

I regret that I have not sufficient data to 
give a more extended notice of one so prom- 
inent and so worthy. Some friend in the 
fraternity can supply this want at another 
time. The present writing will inform his 
friends and pupils — many of the latter are 
now classed as professional wrilers — of his 
sudden death. In my humble opinion, Mr. 
Editor, items of this nature should appear 
from time to time in the columns ol the 
Jot'RNAi. as a matter of news. As an in- 
stance : I had no knowledge nf Mr. Flickin- 
ger's affliction in the loss of his estimable 
wife until I learned it from Mr. F. when in 
Philadelphia a few days ago, and yet my 
friend's wife had been dead nearly six 

Can't we have a little corner on some page 
of tbe JouiiNAL for noting such events V 
W. II. Duff. 

Yes, certainly, there has always been a 
large corner of the Journal open for items 
relating to the profession, and any one Id 
possession of such intelligence would confer 
favor upon us and our readers by forwarding 
the same. It was through a very disagreeable 
mishap that the proper notice of the decease 
of Mrs. Flickinger failed to appear in the 
Journal. We wrote such a notice, and as 
we suppose sent to the compositor, but from 
being lost or other cause it failed to appear, 
much to our annoyance and regret. 

An Improved Inkstand. 

In another column will be found an ad- 
vertisement by Mr. Ford, of Hartmann's 
Improved Inkstand, which combines the ad- 
vantage of an air tight stopper bottle in pre- 
aerving.the purity of the ink, thus prevent- 
ing evaporation, and of an open inkstand 
for dipping the pen, while the point, of even 
the finest gold pen, is protected. The pen is 
supplied with just the quantity requiretl. 
and on the under side of the nib. 

In the old style of inkstand, the pen must 
pass through any layer gf dust and scum 
that may have accumtdated ; by this inven- 
vention the ink comes from under the sur- 
face clear and bright, and always ready for 

This is an admirable arrangement and will 
preserve for many months, ink in a pure 
liquid state, or until consumed by use. 
Samples of these stands will be sent for $1 
enclosed to S. Ford, General Agent. 8007 
Morgan St., St. Louis. 

Return if not Satisfactory. 

Remember, that if you order eitlier our 
"New Compendium of Practical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship," or the "Guide to Self- 
Instruction," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 
the entire amount paid. 

Lesson in Free-Hand Drawing. 
No. V. 

(CopyriKlited ISSB. by J. U. Barlow.) 

Whatever may be the students inteDtion 
or fancy in liis application of a knowledge 
of art, whether for general designer some 
siwcialty. after he has drilled himself upon 

cultivation of his taste, in the perception 
and appreciation of the heautiful in form, 
curvature and proportion. 

Taking the parts of the face in the order 
of their simplicity, using guiding lines, as 
in the examples, then combining them to 
make a whole face or head. 

Make the features of various sizes, also 
reversing them. 

the rudimentary principles of form ; wheth- 
er he shall wish it for mere ornament, flow, 
ors, fruit, or landscape, it will be best for 
him to acquire some knowledge of the 
Immnn figure, not only for its use and appli- 
cation in ornamental work, but as a dis- 
cipline of the eye and hand, and for the 

For the profile view of the bead, it will be 
useful to him to practice of 
and in variovis directions, the contour 
given on a small scale. 

A scale for the hand, as in example, v 
serve to fix proportions, first blocking it o 
then adding details. 

The ahoN cut mtsjh 

Boston, Maw. 

penman, a 

Quick or Rapid Writing. 

Prof. Geo. J. IJecker. 


The utilitarian and go ahead spirit of the 

times requires that in business everything 

should be done qaicfdy oxiAclieaply. "Slow 

and .sure " does not, therefore, recommend 

itself to public alttlili.^li. :lih] is apt 1() he 

considered deficient in L:riiiii^ I'.ui wlnK 
we would comply Willi till- i,f tlic 

learner to avoid the errors wliich would de- 
prive him of the desired success, and point 
out to him the only means by which a rapid 
and graceful execution can be attained. 

It should uudoul-ttdlv be his aim at start- 
iiiL'. li> becoiiK' 11 quitk and rciidv penman ; 
vet this shuiild not be at the cApensc of ac- 
curary mid UijihaUy. Our experience has 
Itiiiglit usthat.inunlertosecure " Command 
of Hand," in the full and true meaning of 

till- term, the h;irncr should closely follow 
tlie cojiiLS ami directions given, with a 
searcliiiifiVyc aud a carefully moving pen. 
And as the ability to recognize and trace 
form does not exist alike in all persons, he 
should grasp the form and direct the move- 
ment of the hand. By thus educating the 
band and eye. he will secure a correct forma- 
tiou of the letters and will have laid a good 
foimdatidii for rapid execution. Rapidity 
is tinn to hv attained by moving the pen in 
n;i"l<ir tnmmired time from letter to letter. 
All siuiple strokessbould be made with cy««f 
rapidity. Those strokes and letters which 
are complex require, of course, more time 
for their correct formation. 

Thus practicing at first slowly, until the 
forms and proportions are fully impressed 
on the mind, the learner may, from time to 
time, increase his speed to any degree that 
may be desirable ; but he should never let it 
exceed his ability for accurate execution. 

It is of primary importance to the ulti- 

1 the method here recommended ; for it 



The course will require about six weeks for Its 
completion, when taken tn coimectloa with other 

A notable feature Is the large number of Busi- 
ness Forms— nearly all the Notes, Drafts, Checks, 
Certificates of Deposit, Receipts, etc., that occur 
In the Seta, are plven In full, with easy reference 

A variety of Trial Balances are given from 
which to make Statements of Resources and Li- 
abilities, aad Losses and Gains. Examples in In- 
terest and Partial Payments for testing the stu- 
^-""s ablUtyto perform the computations ocour- 

V and Svste 
Negotiable Paper presented" 

I Trade Proats. or taltinR oflf Trade Discounts. 

Negotiable Paner ■- ' ' 

heretofore givi 
Transfer Er ' - 
the paper. 

Transfer Endotaements alternating 

Endorsements and 

the Theory of Closing Ao- 


V simplifying the process. 

By the hundred.. 
Remit bv Draft on Chicago or New York. 
Postal or Lxpress Order, or Curreuoy by Expn 
or Registered Letter. 


1M-: 81 Stato Street, Cliicrtgo, lU 


o any address on receipt of $S. 

323 Chestnut S 


Writing and IVIeasuring Ruler. 

It glvea 

script alp&abeta: also life figure8"r"thurkeepii 
ever present and conv""' — ' "■-' — ■> - ■- 

In length, metal edged. 
Sent by mail " 
It Is invalual 
their writing. 


a05 Broadway, New York. 




We have a most elaborate and artistic rustic bor- 
der, transferred direct from the original pen-and- 
ink, printed on the finest quality of Bristol board 
and Whatman's liot-presaea drawing paper, 22x88. 
Boards or sheets of paper having these borders will 
be sent to engrossers und peamen at $8. Hy using 
these sheets anyepeelmeu or piece of eng 
will be enhanced in value and artistio eflec 
than $ao. Sent, rolled around a large strong ti 
by return of mail, on receipt of tho price, 

S. T. AUE8, ArtlBt PeDsiis tnd Pntlliher, 

We are now prepared to fumisli a convenient 
and dunit)le lilnder for the .Toirnal. 

It is tonstnn-ted to serve both as a file and binder. 
Sent poBt-puiil, on receipt of $1,50. 

9-tf 206 Broadway, New York. 




««" SO -®a 

Lessons by Mail 

«®~ S1.50.-©tt 

Continued inquiry with regard to iNSTnucrioas 
BT Mail has induced the undersigned to arrange 
for self and homo learners, and for nmatears or 
those preparing to leach penmanship: 

(DA Course of 50 Lessons in Writing. 

(All copies frc.^h from ttie pen.) 

(2) A Course of 50 Lessons in 

(All copies fresh from the pen.) 
The 60-Ieason Coarse in Writing consists of a mul- 
titude of elegantly MiriKtn copies, embracing all 
kinds of Ezeboibeb. the standard small and capital 
Alphabets, Word copies. Sentence Copies, Busmesa 
Forms, Page Writing. Letter Writing, variety of 

of Muscular Combination Exercises, series of 
Wholearm Combination Exercises, Busini - ■ ■ 

Combinations, Fancy Initial Combinations, et^. 
together with the nauk of the person purohosiu] 
the Lessoa in a variety of artistic combluHtlona. 

^F*A11 of these copies are direct frommj/ <!_.. 
pen, not engraved. 

Accompaning each 60- Lesson Course In plain and 
fancy writing, are Illustrated Pbintkb Instruc- 
tions, with cuta showing the exact position of 
arm. hand and pen and position at desk. Also 

a otiart showing the e 

analysis of all the standard letters and figures. 

The entire BO-Less 
" I instmctlons. e 

J portfolio package, 

from any one pei ^. _. 

^•nm tlu pen. Also printed Instruollons. 

The entire BO-Lessi^n Series or Execisbs i 
Designs, with instructions, sent In one portfc 
package, post-paid, on receipt of SI. 00, 

The arrangement of these c " — ' ' 


variety, an(_ _^ ^ __ 

and specimens embraced 

faflfAfn? penmanship, and i 

variety, and sparkling s 

beauty, the copies 
fquaUid by any other penman doing a mail 
^"On receipt <tf •2.B0 I wiU tend both counet. 

club together If desirable. 

_ . Palmer, D. T. j 

.Henry C. Rpeni 
ueautfful specli: 

Writing, and f,. _. ,.. 

specimens, fresh from the pen, for 3i 


Ptnman, N. I N(rrmai Schooi. 


2 1st Annual Session beijins 
September I. 

New Masonic Building. 

Course of Study, 


other schools, 


Send for Catalogue with full partloulara to 


mailed for 5< 

jes before J 

The American Penman will be a large 8 

joui-nal, well filled with everything pe " ' ' 

the subject of Penmanship. Subscribf n 

ALL FOR $1.00. 


lUege, Pittsburg, Pa. 

For Penmen and Bookkeepers. 

Illy, 1 

hip, by Prof. E. K, ISAAl;^. and Tin 
., _by S. D. FORBES liunkkeepli 

-- - - 50c. per Year, with 11 uhulf 

of the following PremTums-TOUimv-e Dlctlunar 
- ■' - - ' ' - Pens and Pat " """ 

I'r, Subscribe now, and receive back n 

' best Pens 

tA, Pa. 


Rrinter and Stationer, 
e SPRUCE ex . 

Opp. Tribune Bulldiog. tJew York:. 


Shading T Square 

mrect from v 

perfect liiit- 11 
made five lia 
varied by tu 

r desit'ns I have }ia3 occasion to put 

ling and tlnf'" "" - - 

it, and and U the 

t ruling and tinilDgTsi 

purpose for which it is desired. 

Hespectfully. C. E. Sickei^, 

Designer and Draftsman, Am. Bauk Note Co.,N.T. 

applied ii. 
Dealgnur an : n 

D. T. AuEs, Est 
to hand safely; 

of the work ioiii 
cau be ex 
be used b 

Mooru's ijusiueiss L 


Oilld 12 

.smaller or larf;er 
the orlBinal of a 

Map, iir design of any 
description by follow- 
ins the printed 
1I0118. Specially adapt- 
ed for CopyliiK 
Tho uliiiveiiamed 


1 irize them highly; 

; I -.lit for 20c. each: 

i liroadway. New \'ork. 

aWlFT'S HAND-BOOK 0/ 100 vahiab 
" ^ReoipeB m!,tl.'.I tur 50 tents, or free 
Bending me 91 fur this pnpt-r fur one year 
Subscriptions received lor ali IVriudknls 
" Catalogues, etc., free. 
12-14 WELLS W. SWIFT, MarionvlMe, 


TheD'-ii ! 

of usint: til. ; 

1TOA7V I^EA-TD"^. 





With Two Supplementary Books. 



systematize and teach writing in accordance witli tlie usages of tlie best 
writers in the business world. 

guisliiiig features of ** Spencers* New Standard Writing." It effects a saving 
of from 15 to 25 per cent, in tlio labor of writing and a corresponding 
saving of time in learning to write. 

A Sample Set, containing all numbci's, sent for examination on receipt 
of $1.00. 

Full Descriptive Circular scut, on request, to any addiess. 

Ivison, Blakeman, Tavlor, & Co., 

753 and 755 Broadway, New York. 4-12 





For Sale by all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


26 John Street, New York. 



SHORTHAND thoroiiRhly tausht by 
"**'* " ■■•-•■■•* ,^,i_ or, perKooally ; 

■ouffhly learned, 

Seiiple. especially for educated 
foroir'lar. W.O.OHAJVEE, 

a blanks price M.75 furnished free. 
. Box SOS Sherman, N. T. 


The finest flouriahtnf; ever sent out by any pen- 
man will not equal the marTelous specimens I can 
send you, 3 for 60 cents. Executed by W. E. Den- 
nis, who In this line has do equal. To be had only 
by addresslnfT L. Mudarasz, Box :^116, New York 

To the Readers of the Penman's Art Journal : 

7'Af undertifjn'd, wfio hatfiiltotPtd the prQfts»{on (^f 
card writing for (he pmt sevm j/ean, and hfu yet to 
tram of thfflrst intlanee wherein Mi iiwk bos faiUd 
to give entire tatl^aetion, taJu* pUanre in catting 
j/our attention to the complete line of written visiting 
cardt. which are offered at ratf* consiatent with the 
gvrUiltj of mrdt and penmnne/iip. Ordara promplly 
fillad. All pott paid. 

0f~ With every 4 paokaces ordered at one time 
an extra package of Gilt BeYcl Edge Cards will be 
sent free, with any name written on. With a little 
effort you can easily induce several of your Irleuda 
to order with you. 

Number of Cards in each package : 18 36 

Style A.— Plain \Vhite. good quality J0.B8 $0.75 

" B.— Wedding Brietol, vers beat 40 .77 

" C.—Oitt Edge, assorted 44 .84 

■■ D.—B(ftc/ Ci/f £"d(re, the finest 50 .98 

" E.-Bevel9 of Crtam and W/iiti ... .52 1.00 

" Q.-SUk and Satin BevfU 65 1.05 

" U.— Eight-ply Bevels, assorted 57 1. 10 

" I.— f/fte, the latest styles 00 1.15 

Addreu Linet—exttBt 10 ,30 

If you order cards you should have a card case 


No. l—ItuesUi Leather, 4 pockets $0.23 

No.a— " 4 " ^ 

No. A— Morocco, best quality ,. ,60 

No. ^-Caif. extra good 80 

No. 8— .d//'(7o/or SXrin, very tine 1.60 

No. 9— " verybeat 2.00 


deslRD^ liji-d-, -iiiiil-'. i|i[ills, e 
ecuted with taste ftmi -kill 'l'i.>iiiilui]ts wli 
good models of FlourislmiK to practice from 
will be found to be " the "thliin." Price, 8! 
per package of 13. 


If you wish your name written in assorted styles 
and combinations send 51 cents, and the band- 
lomest cards I can possibly vn-ite will be sent you. 


mt^ded by alt to be the mott spirited work 
it by any penman. Price, 25 cents each ; 
its 82 10 per dozen. 




numerous calls fur very brilliant 
black Ink, arrangements have been completed for 
aendliiK, securely packed, quart bottles to any part 
of the country. Price per quart, 81.30. By diluting 
with some good ftTitliig fiuid (Arnold's Is the best), 
more than three quarts of good Ink may be bad 
from a single quart of this Quality. 1 use this Ink 
in all my work. See samples. Recipe for Its 


If you experience difliculty in seouringa 
will make a very fine air lim 
elasticity without being scratchy, I 
just what you want. 

The Favorite per box, 40 c(^., 

CardWrilIng, No,l... " 50 " 

Remember t< 

d address 

your full name £ 
In every letter you send. Make your t 
by PontalNotea or Reglittored Lett«r, and see 
that nil letters are carefully .sculcd and addressed 
plainly. If you don't hear from me in 
due time, drop me a postal and 1 will see what la 

Now Yoi'k Citv. 




AtlupUd fur iisf with t-r witbout Text Book, 

and tlif Huly «tt ri'comniendcd to 



Bryant & Stratton 
Counting- House-Bookkeeping." 




Favorable Brran^omenta made with Buslne^ 
-Ollegrcs and Public and Private Schouls for Intro- 
duction and use. Descriptive List now ready 

Collegrcs and Public and P 
ductlon and uf 

The beat Pen iu the U.S., and best penmen use them, 



»i=i- 119 4 121 William St., N.Y. 

Penmen's and Artists' Supplies. 

On receipt of the pricea annexed, we will for 
ward by return of nmll, or by express as stated- 
anv article named In the following list. , 

By ordering from us. patrons can rely not only 
upon recelviDR a superior artlule, but upon doing 
BO promptly. 

Ames' New Compendium of Om"l Penmanship $5 00 
Ames' Guide to Self-instruction in Practical 

and Arfistio Penmanship 1 00 

Ames" Book of Alphabets 160 

Bryant's Bookkeeping. Coimting-HouBO Ed . , 2 50 
Ames' Copy-slips, for instruction and practice 
In wrtting.persneet.contHlning 40 exercises ]0 

Fifty sheets 150 full sets of copies) 3 00 

One hundred sheets (100 full sets of conies). 5 0(1 

Bristol Board, 3-sheet thick, 22x28, per stieet. 5U 

" 22x28, per sheet, by express... 30 

Prenoh B._ B., MxM. '^ ;| ... 75 

Black Card-board, aSx28. for white ink. ...'.'.'. 60 

Black Cards, perlOO 25 

Black Cards, per 1000, by express 2 Oit 

Drawing paper, bot-press. 16x30..$ l.i $"i ji) 
\\ ;; 17x22.. .;;ii 2 U) 

Bliiiik Bristol Board Cards, per 100 25 

;; \\ \\ 1000, bj;ex... 2 00 

Winsor A Newton's Sup'r Sup.IndU Ink Stlc^ l 00 
Ornamental Cards, 12 designs, per pack of 25 

curds, bymall 20 

Four paoks, 100 cards 60 

1000 " "."".'.".'.'.'.'.■.'.'.■'.'.'.■■"."...'.■*.■*■'.■■..;'.■.;■. 4 50 

1000 " by express 4 00 

Prepared India Ink, per bottle, by express. . . 65 

Giilott's 303 Steel Pens, per pross 123 

Ames' Penmen's Favorite No, 1, per gross. , . i 00 

, " " " Mgrtissbxs. 30 

^peucerian No. 1, extra for flounsnmg l 25 

The New Spencerlau Compendium, Part I, 2, 

Engrossing Pens for lettering, per doz 25 

Crow-quill Pen, very line, for drawing, doz.. 7S 

Paysnii, i> , ' ■ I ,s Mantiai" '.!!!!." I 2B 
Spyiip' I- ■ '> superior 60 

N'- - ."^v""^'" 175 

No .. 250 

btoiie ( lyii., \ 1 .1 V, lii,.. any length, per 

■16 iiK'iir- w idi- 111 vii.i, >i;it«d bothsides. 2 i:. 

Lltiulil M iiiii;.- III. I . -1 Ml use, for walls or 


Deaooompauiein>v ..M-ii iiiiifM h,ui..t ii^cstimated 

pSai S;d^i^H.J::v;^:;,';:;!::' ''^ "'"'■'''• "p''" 


20S Broadway, N.V. 


■ A thousand years as a day. No sirithnictic 
teaches It. A short, simple, practical moihod by 
K. c. ATKINSON, Principal of Sacramental Busi- 
noBs College, Sacramento, Cal. By mail, fiO cents 
Address as above. o j^ 


In Every Town in America, 

»i L, and to sell popular publications upon practical 
and artistic penmanship. 

The following Is a list of the works which we 
offer for sale, with the publishers' prices : 
Ames' Compendium of Practical and Orna- 

montal Penmanship to in 

New Spencerian Compendium, complete In H 

parts, per part iu 

Ames' Uulde to Practiinl and AniViir ppn. 

miiuship. In pnppr. 75c : l.i.-lntl, , i n,, 

Standard Praettcal 'i'<'tjpi >i:-!ii, i . ih, ^\>^:n, " 

ccr Brotliers 10, 

Ames' Copy-slips, ji. i -i , , r ,,■ ..., i„ 

Family Record. is\\r' l ,„ 

Marriage Certiflcatn. Lsvi; . , 1 m, 

Gar6eld Memorial, lOxdi. 50 

Lord's Prayer, ]Hx24 50 

Bounding St'ig. 2'IX'')2 . 50 

Flourished Eiurle, 24x32. 50 

Centennial Iloiure of I'mgreas, SSsKS .."'...'. 50 

Ornamental and Flourished Cards. iSdosiirn's 

.^ "ow. original and artistic, per pack of 50. so 

lOO.bymaU so 

1000. •' W 60; by exprcM.'.'"."'. ■.'.■■.■. ;. 4 00 

Live agent* can, and do, make money, by taking 

subs-ribcra for Uie Joprnai, and seUlng the above 

works. Send for our Siwclal Itat«s to Agents 

D. T. AMES, * 

''"'f 305 Broadway, New York. 

Tiie "Guide" is a book «f .sixty-four large pages, elegantly printed on Ihe finest quality of fine plate-paper, aud is devoted 
exclusively to instruction and copies for Plain Writing, Off-Hand Flourisliing. and Lettering. We arc .sure llint no other work, of 
nearly equal cost, is now before the public that will render as eflicieot aid to either teacher or learner, in all the departments of 
the penman's art. as will this. Thirty-two pages are devoted to instruction and copies for plain writing. Fourlcou pages to the 
principles and examples for flourishing. Siicteen pages to alphabets, package-marking, and monogram.^. Price, by mail, in paper 
covers. 75 cents; handsomely bound in stiff covers, $1. Grven free (in paper), as a premium with the Journal, one year, for |l ; 
full bound (in stiff covers) for $1.25. Live agents wanted in every town in America, to whom liberal discounts will be given. 
Both the Journal and book are things that take everywhere. With them agents can make more money with less effort than with 
any other ]Jublication they handle. 



'■ l-'nio SO 00 




A JUvi 


31 Mofr.1 Bi/ 


1-13) Ofttroit, Mich. 




Author of Nelson'B Mercantile Arlthmetio and 

Nelson's Bookkeeping. Part I ; and President 

(if the Nelson Wuslneaa College Company 

of Cincinnati and Sprlngfleld, Obfo. 

F\rmn Prts. G. H'. Brovm,of Uu JacksonvUU^ W., 

Butin'tt CoUfge: 

" I uonidder It mipertur to any work bltherto pub- 
Ihhed for aoconnlants, 11. A. SrBKCKB." 

JFVWB Tbpeka Business and Normni CoUtge, Kantas : 

" Wo piirohiwed a copy of yournew bookkeepliij; 
at the BuHlneu CoUet^e " ■' - 

AfUr uWiv it/or lao tnonths Cfif Pr<ifat«or v>rtUs : 

■*I know what your b"okkeepmg U and can 
reoommend it as being ahead of anything I have 
ever seen on Ilio subject." Chas. L, ItATi-rFF. 
Prln, Uus. Dept. of Marian Bus. and Normal College. 
Fnm Jenninq't BuHmss CkiUtge NasfivUU. Tann..- 

" I am an old bookkeeper of thirty years' experi- 
ence and have always opposed the use of the text 
book* heretofore employed In oommerolal colleges, 
hut this one of yours Is the best I have ever seen, 
and should I decide to adopt any other In place of 

From the Bry 

The flashy style in which 
yoar binder has done nis work, in my opinion, does 
you great injustice. The inside is far better than 
Uie outside, and bookN of siic-b showy exterior 
generally fall as regards their contents, but It Is 

lirom Pruf. L. F. Stvlibf, Santa Rosa, Col.: 
" Please send me one dozen Nelson's Ni 

[The second order from this teacher.] 

From Notre Dame CoUtije^ Sovth Bend, Ind. 

et been published, 
the ezplaoatloMS 
rsufBolent to give 

feature which I c 


t and ready 
'Commercial GaMttV, OinctnTuUi. 

"It Is so complete 
LOcountant, no matter _ .. _ , 
vUl find it valuable Cor ready refsreuoe for the 

% lucid Instructor to the student." 


■ detail that every 
position or ability, 
. refsrenoe for f 
of any difBoult propositi' 

keeping we have examined. Thi 

) laws and method^ of 

) ranst Important oootrlbutlons 

orks on book 

complete reference book i 

From C/U EleciTic City College, Butler. Mo.: 

"Your new buokKeeping is with' ' ' 

work on the subject it has t 

desired, as iu my oplnioi 


commercial forms and 

_ the merits of tbe book when I 

adopted it, I have to say that by its use my stud- 
ents make more thorough, rapid and satlsfaetory 
progress, with less help from the teacher than 
with any of the different '>ooks heretofor- ' 

amount of information relating to banking, cor- 
porate company business, merchandising and 
manufacturiug, that 1 could not otherwise hope to 
obtain In a life time- The article on corporat« 
company is certainly worth "' ■ - 

the book to the average bookkeeper. 

e furniabud 

The book is sold at our office and by 

at S3 i>er copy, sohoobt and oolleires bein 

on Iho usual tenriB. AGENTS WANTED. 


Nurihweftt cor. Walnat and -Ilk Sts,, 

, OHIO. 10-12 




pal of the Steuo^i 

"lok will 


IMnoipals and Assiatanls; also several for Art, 
Muslu, Ac. AiipUoation-form and Information 



For oxpetls and careful Writers. Samples for trial on application. Ask for Card No, 1. 
IVISON, BLAKEMAN, TAYLOR & CO., 753 & 755 Broadway, New York- 



/(* Its-ithiiti four years. 'Adopted us a Text Booh 
// of t hi- principal cities and towns in every State 
fiiid territory of tin- I nited States. 

Some of the Causes which have Led to its Universal Commendation and General Introduction. 


inplifies the subject. It reduces tbe labor of the teacher to a minimum. It encourages 

CH on the oart of the onoil. It fascinates the student. It contains forty pages of engraved 

nent In writing. It Is accompanied by a Itt-ference Book and Key 

. )c introduced, at any lime, without inconvenience. Itadvertises 

only the school using it. It increases the patronage of the school liy making the study easy and interest- 
lug for the pupil. It is sold at a very b-w price. It is accomp-'-^ _-.> _ .._l,_ 

It contains more solid work for the pupil than any ottier book 

(Introductive Editi___, „__, ,_. 

"pTI>Tr^"pPa 1 Bookkeeping Edition, loo Pages. $; 
-^ J-V.-i-'*^j-^»^5 (Complete Bookkeeping Edition, 20 
A copy of either edition mailert to teachers at one -half the 

forty pages of engraved 
If a itfference Book and K 
ithout inconvenience. Itadvertis 

, and intere— 

)mpanied with suitable blanks, when desired, 
--'- -' '-lice the number of 
I Pages, $1.25. 

circulars 1 

enty Lessons in SpelliuK, Busiui 


L Hooks. 

208 Pages, $2.50. 
irice named al>ove. Adilress for 
wholesale prices of Hookkeepln^, 

WILLIAMS & ROGERS, Rochester, N. Y. 

" One of the most practical and most useful textbooks ever placed in the hands 
of students," 



5-12 WOOD i VAN i'A'lTEN,DaTonport,lowtt. 












Exercises in Capital Letters, 

Exercises in Abbreviations, 

Exercises in Forming Sentences, 

Exercises in Punctuation, 

Exercises in Spelling, 

Exercises in English, 

Exercises inWritingTelegraph Messages 

Exercises in Writing Advertisements, 

Exercises in Writing Business Papers, 

Exercises in Writing Circulars, 

The Form and Structure of Letters, 

Sample Letter Headings, 

Sample Envelope Addresses, 

Sample Social Letters, 

Numerous Sample Business Letters, 

Numerous Full page Engraved Specimens 

Numerous Hints and Helps, 

Many Valuable Suggestions, 

Exercises in Social Correspondence, 

Exercises in Business Correspondence, 

Photo-Engraved Samples of Business 

Letters from New York B 


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Vol. X.— No. 8. 

Movement Exercises. 

Muscular movement, tbe foundation of 
all flood pnicticiil writing, can best be ac- 
ijuired through exercises systematicatly 
practiced. " Practice upon movement exer- 
cises is to the learner of writing what pnic- 
ticc upon tbe scales is to the learner of 
music." And movement is the key which 
imloeks the door to all future successful 
practice. Movement without form may be 
worth but little, yet form without move- 
ment is the same, so it is evident that they 
must go together, although when practicing 
for movement wc must sacrifice form more 
or less and vice nerna. 

While I may not be able to give exercises 
which all penmen will indorse, I give to all 
advanced pupils an exercise with every les- 
son occupying one half the time of each 
lesson. If this is truo the (juestion naturally 
arisL's uli ii I I 1. i . - iM ihe best. I believe 
I III my others that llie 

ant) I 


this it i 

Hl: lUn-i- iMti-taiilly will SOOn be- 
[noiioloiiyus and dry, so to avoid 
s necessary to give and practice other 
,nd for that reason I give this 

Were every one lo notice the similarity 
they will not find them very difficult. 

Some will say: " Do they not have a ten- 
dency to lead to that flourishing or Mark 
Checkup style of writing V" No, not if 
properly carried out and that for an object 
in view movement. It pupils practice sys- 
tematically and understand what the exer- 
cises are for, they will put them to that use 
and no other. 

This lesson is presented on the supposition 
that all understand pen-holding, position of 
llic l»)dy, arms, baud and feet. 

Kii'Ni practice this exercise wituout mak- 
ing the small letters. 

Too nmch streHs cannot be laid upou Ibis 
oval exercise either direct or indirect. The 
circular extended motion of tbe hand and 
arm from the rest just forward of the elbow 
develops a good movement in all directions 
uud lays the foundation for a great many 
other letters. 

Study it carefully and make it with a full 
swinging motion of the arm from the rest. 

Make them just as regular as you can 
with a full muscular movement and about 
three-eighths of an inch high, or the distance 
belweeu ordinary ruled practice paper. 

Clo just as far as you can every lime in 
all movement exercises without crowding 
the baud and arm, and then shift the arm 
and contiuue flnisbiug a line every time be- 
fore beginning the next. If you can make 
tbe cutii-e line with ease so much the better. 

Muse four or live o» ur rfs couuected with 
a straight line, then ojqc line in oval, then 
two lines as in copy before stopping and 
remember to practice systematically. 

for acquiring free- 
dom in moving from right to left, so avoid 
making tliem too near together. 

Other letters as v, w, and c, con be taken 
up in the same way. 

This exercise should receive a great deal 
of practice, because upon tliis depend tbe 

t. d. p, 1. b. h, k and f, which can all be 
made by simply making the letter and then 
passing around the same as in o. 

but after on 
can be made 

may be a little bardatflrst, 
acquiring it, q. j. y and z, 
the same way, so you will 
only two forms to learn and 
with every small letter 

Make all capital exercises with as vigor- 
ous a movement as possible, shading as 
heavy as the most eljistic pens will shade. 
Shades cannot be made too bold for practice 

The pupil who 
shades heaviest i 

Notice the form carefully and try to get 
that as well as you can and keep the move- 

Connect luis the same as yuu uu the O, 
but avoid bringing the shade too low down. 

Drop the shade inside the oval, or before 
you cross tbe line at the bottom. 

O bserve in this letter that you drop below 
the line in coming around. By doing this 
you will get the letter much better. 

W may also be taken up in the same way. 

Be careful in all capiUil letters coming be- 
low the line that you make both parts (above 
and below) the same slant. After once ac- 
complishing this, J, I and Y can be made 
iu the same way 

Tbe hardest part of the stem will be to 
get tbe shade in ils proper place, which 
should be made down on the oval turn, and 
thi'^ can only be accomplished by a great 
deal of practice. Some seem to find it al- 
most impossible to get the shade in its 
proper place, but if you have patience and 
stick to it, it will come by practice. 

While a great many other aud more 
difficult exercises might be given, they will 
not serve any better purpose. 

Now, in conclusion, remember that what- 
ever you do is worth doing well, so in these 
exercises practice and study but one at a 
time, and let me again impress upon tbe 
learner the necessity of practicing syste- 
matically, connecting a certain number 
every time, and filling one line before be- 
ginning the next, so continue page after 

Report of the Proceedings of tht 

Eighth Annual Convention of 

tho Business Educators 

and Penmen of 


The association met at the rooms of Pack- 
ard's Business College, on July 7tb, and 
was called to order by the president, A. 
J. Rider. Ueports were read by the 
executive committee, secretary and treas- 
urer. After which the annual address 
by the president was delivered. The address 
was an able and comprehensive exposition 
of the purposes of the association, and the 
present condition of business education in 
this country. 

"It ia, he said, about forty years since our 
venerable co-laborer ■ Bartlett ' discovered 
that anomaly in commercial science, where- 
by the young man had to know how before 
be could get in, and he must get in before he 
could know how. 

Great advancements have been made in 
the methods of commercial and business 

We have not passed a point where the 
young man must know how in order to get 
in. But we have passed to a point where he 
can learn bow before he gets in. 

Whatever may be said in this respect of 
the 'American Business College,' it must 
be acknowledged, and stands to its credit, 
that it has forged a key that unlocks a door 
to the avenues of commercial science, 
whereby ambitious young men may enter, 
and that they do enter, is evidenced by the 
thousands of yoving men and women, too, 
who patronize these schools from year to 
year, and by the large number of men now 
engaged in commercial pursuits in this 
country, as compared with the number in 
other countries where there has been a tardier 
recognition of the importance of commer- 
cial trade. 

Prom a small beginning and precarious 
existence the business college system of this 
country has come to constitute an impor- 
tant factor in the educational plan of this 
country, having annually in attendance be- 
tween a,OUU and 4,000 pupUsof both sexes." 

The address was well worthy of being here 
given in full. But space forbids that we 

should do so at this time, but will probably 
in a future number of the JouimAi.. 
After the president's address it was de- 
cided that the verbalim report of the pro- 
ceedings of the convention should be taken 
and published in pamphlet form. 

Propositions for taking such a report were 
made by Messrs. Kimball tbe (rondvictor of 
the phonographic and typewriting depart- 
ment of Packard's College, and M. M. 
Bartholomew, inventor of the stenograph. 
Mr. Bartholomew subsequently withdraw- 
ing his proposition, that of Mr. Kimball was 

Mr. Morris, vice-president of tbe " Pack- 
ai'd Alumni Association," presented on 
behalf of his association to the "B. E. As- 
sociation " a very handsome gavel bearing 
the following inscription. " Presented to tbe 
Business Educators Association of America, 
by the Packard Alumni Association, July 
7th, 1886." 

In presenting the gavel, Mr. Wise said : 

" I need hardly suggest that in the hands 
of an energetic presiding officer a gavel has 
been known to accomplish some very re- 
markable results in the cause of legislation. 
The Alumni Association of Packard's also 
recognizes tbe truth of the old adage that, 
• All work and no play makes Jack a dull 

The executive committee of our association 
thought it might be pleasant to you aud to 
those of your friends who accompany you 
on this occasion, if a Ijttle recreation from 
the care, the excitement and work, should 
attend the labors of the convention. I there- 
fore take pleasure in extending to you and 
the members of this convention tbe hos- 
pitality of our association, which with your 
permission will take the shape of a river 
excursion on Friday nest. We have taken 
the liberty to assume in advance that our 
invitation will not come amiss. I have 
already made such preliminary arrange- 
ments as are necessary to give you a good 
day's entertainment. 

The programme brieliy will be a sail up 
tbe Hudson to lona Island, where the day 
will be spent in such reasonable recreation 
as will he there afforded, and in return land 
you in this city at a reasonable hour in the 

The gavel as well as the invitation to the 
excursion was accepted by the association 
and other members of the convention, with 
an appropriate addressof thanks liy President 
Rider. Also an invitation was extcniied by 
of New York," to the members of ilic con- 
vention, to a dinner at Brighton Beach 
Hotel, Coney Island, on the Thursday even- 
ing following, which was also accepted. 

Mr. Packard, chairman of the executive 
committee, then read the programme for 
Thursday, when the convention adjourned 
to miM-l at Cbickering Hall in ihe evening. 
The meeting at the Hall was not a.s largely 
attended us bad been aiilicipated owing to 

from the city. 

The meeting was called io order by Mr. 
PackanI, chairman of the executive com- 
mittee, who said : 

Ladies and Gentlemen. — Everybody is 
out of town excepting ourselves, and we are 
here to do honor to abody of educators, who 
in the plenlilude of their wisdom know 
where tu go in the hot weather. This as- 
semblage of schoolmasters whom you see 
scattered about this audience have ('ome to 
New York on business, like the country 
merchants and women who find it necessary 
at stated occasions to repair to the metrop- 
olis for the purpose of keeping up their sup- 
ply of goods, so thefe gentlemen propose to 

use a part of their summer vacation and 
come here for tlie purpose of laying in a 
stock of new ideas for tbe fall trade. In 
this enterprise they represent tbat principal 
in economics which I have never seen laid 
down in any work on bookkeeping or polit- 
ical economy, the story of the boys who un- 
dertook to get rich iiy swapping jackets— 
the boys you remember came out of the 
trade with the same number of jackets as 
they bad in the beginning, ratiier the worse 
for wear but neitlier of them being much 
richcr-tbe story is told for the purpose of 
sbutlingtho mouths of the false teachers 
of the theory of accumulation. Here is a 
case, however, where the sacred and long 
established principles of exchange seem to 
be set at naught — a case where the person 
who gives Ihe most gets the most by the 
very act of giving. The man who, having 
ideas gives theiu away, so to speak, does 
not by that net part with them. lie lets 
others have them, to be sure, but the more 
he lets them have them the tighter the grip 
by which he holds them for himself. If we 
appreciated this proposiliou morefully, how 
much richer the world would be in ideas 
These, gentlemen and Indies, are the teachers 
and proprielors of business colleges, some of 
them have been long in the work and have 
not grown tired of it, others have come in 
more recently and have come in to stay 
They have come here for the purpose of ex- 
changing views in reference lo the processes 
of teaching, and we have come here to do 
them honor in extending to them the bos- 
piialiiii s of this city, and to cheer them by 
words of eucouragement. The gentlemen 
who speak on behalf of the city arc its best 
representatives. They come from its fields 
of thought, of enterprise, and of admiration. 
They represent the city government, the 
judiciary, the educational interests, thelegal 
brotherhood, the pulpit and the press, and 
to ihera 1 propose to commit this meeting. 
The Mayor of this city, in the person of the 
President of the Board of Aldermen -will 
preside. The following letter which I have 
received from the Mayor will explain this 
matter more fully than I could otherwise 

Mr. Packard then read a letter from 
Mayor Grace, expressing regret at his in 
ability to preside at the meeiing as per his 
promise, naming as his substitue the Presi- 
dent of the Hoard of Aldermen and Acting 
Mayor of the city, Mr. Nooney. 

MArou'9 Office. Nkw York, Jitlt 6, iSSfi, 

Z/sar Sir.— I desire to express to you my regrets 
ttiat absence from the city tomorrow evening will 
prevent my boin? present upon the occasion of tlie 
reunion of so lar^e a numbor of gentlemen Inter- 
ested in the cause of business ednoation. The 
number of 8vich institutions throughout the coun- 
try has. I am informed, larttely locreast- d, and the 
evidence which such iiu'veiise trives of th6 growine 
interest taken lo this very pniutical depnrlment of 



Inn, Teehnicjil education and business education 
Btiniild KO iinnd in band. 1 take it that it mattL-rs 
not wliat II boy studies so long as he be taughl to 
eiu|ilny liU fiionltk-s to the best advantage in any 
■walk of life in wbicli lie may clioose to enjf&ge. If 
he bo bilglit, he may learn this art In college or In 
life, in the schools or In dally contact wlih his fel- 
low menj The great lcs«on which needn to be In- 
culcateiTls that of self command and self concen- 
tration. Thiit li'-son may be learned aa well In 
Liu i ,'-.', it M-liools as elsewhere, and, 

U ' ' ">U have gained a sum of 

k' . ill ral student will have yet. 

! ■ - . ins general education will 

li-i.^- !i:Liiict and Invaluable advan- 

tage (lyi'v \-'-?. fiirliinate competitors. 

Inmyab-ence the Acting Mayor, Mr. Nooney, 
wUlreprcsentme.Budl beg to express the hope 
that your reunion niny result In the improvement 
of the motbiida emplnyrd in the department of 
business education. 

I renmin, respectfully. 

W. R. On ACE. 

Mr. Nooney, who being present, was in- 
troduced by Mr. Packard as the presiding 
officer, as follows : 

This is a graceful act and an net of grace 
as well (laughter). For while it does not 
deprive us of the Mayor in fact, and of his 
kindly personal greeting it also gives us the 
best part of the Board of Aldermen. The 
Mayor is here, however, and I present to you 
President Nooney, thcActingMayorof New 

On taking the chair Mr. Nooney said in 
Bubstance : 

I am proud to occupy the favorable posi- 
tion that I do here to-night, and to welcome 
in the name of the City of New York, the 

Business Ediicalors of America. The cause 
of education is at any time one of supreme 
interest. But really at this time and at this 
period, and at this particular juncture every 
man not only in this city, but throughout 
the entire country who has a soul, and ap- 
preciation of the situation regarding educa- 
tion in the United States, should feel that 
his calling is a sacred one. Great problems 
now occupy the public mind. Recent 
events demonstrate that vast responsibilities 
rest upon the educators, both secular and 
business in this United States. And if we 
would have ai)preciated all the blessings 
that should come from foundations laid by 
our fathers in the last century, if we would 
have those blessings fall to our posterity as 
they came to us, it behooves every man 
whose business it is to educate, to have the 
most elevated thoughts, and the most noble 
impulses in guiding the young idea, and the 
idea of more mature years aright. If any 
word of mine representing the City of New 
York as I think, if any word of mine should 
impress the educators and gentlemen whose 
convention is commenced today, to be more 
earnest if possible, and more elevated in 
their thoughts of duty in the future and lay 
better foundations for their successors, I 
shall feel amply paid. 

Knowing as I do that gentlemen will fol- 
low me who can entertain you with that elo- 
quence that I do not possess, I shall not take 
your time unnecessarily, but bid the "Con- 
vention of Educators " a cordial and hearty 
welcome to the City of New York, 

The "American Glee Club" here enter- 
tained the meeting with choice selection of 
music. The president of "Business Edu 
cators Association," then introduced the 
president of the association (A. J. Rider), of 
Trenton, N. J. He spoke in substance, as 
follows : 

Permit me on behalf of the Business Edu- 
cators Association of America, to express 
lo you my high appreciation of your gener- 
ous words of welcome. In coming to the 
great commercial metropolis of the country, 
we were aware that we were coming to the 
metropolis of intelligence, of enterprise, of 
wealth and of corresponding liberality. 
And while it is expected that the spirit 
which controls a people, will find expression 
in individuals, I confess sir, that the cordial 
reception that has been given in your hearty 
words of welcome, exceeds my most san- 
guine expectation. You have, sir, the most 
liearty thanks not only of the Business Edu- 
cators here assembled, but of thousands of 
your co-laborers all over Ihe land for the 
noble recognition you have given them and 
their work here to-night. 

We expect sir, during our short stay in 
your city, and after our return to our res- 
pective fields of labor, lo deport ourselves in 
such a manner as will show that the gener- 
ous sentiments you have so kindly expressed 
have not been unworthily bestowed. 

Ex-Gov. Chamberlain, of South Carolina, 
was then introd\iced, who delivered a very 
able and inlcresling address. 

Its length precludes its admission in full 
here. The Governor paid a high tribute to 
the work being wrought by the business 
colleges of the country. There was no 
form of modern education with which be 
was in more genuine sympathy than that 
represented by the convention. "While the 
phrase — busiuess education— as ordinarily 
used, in a restricted sense was, as compared 
with the learned professions so called, in- 
complete, it seemed to him that in its 
fitting of men and women for business life 
in the highest and best sense education, 
that is education which has not only ad- 
vanced the world to its present standing, 
but holds out its best hopes for the future 

At the close of the Governor's address. 
Professor J. L. N. Hunt, of New York, 
made a somewhat extended and able ad- 
dress. Mr. Hunt was for many years one 
of the best known educators of New York 
City, and is now a successful member of 
Ihe New York Bar. 

"Tweuty years ago this month," said 
Mr. Hunt, "I came from the State Normal 
School in Ohio to work in the traces with 
my friend here on the right (Mr. Packard) 
in the institution of which he is now as well 
as then was President. That institution 
then had. and during the years intervening, 
in that president one supreme guiding siar 
in the front. No matter through what 

form it is wrought, no matter by what 
genius it has been brought about, no matter 
what means it has employed, in the institu- 
tion there has been but one aim and object, 
first and last and all the time, and that is to 
advance to the highest possible standard 
business education and the interests of the 
thousands who have sought the advantages 
of the institution. I have been near by and 
have seen its workings, witnessed its 
troubles and its success." 

Speaking generally of the business educa- 
tion throughout the United States, Mr. 
Hunt said that we have had the verdict of 
the highest court of resort that business 
education is not a failure but a success. It 
has been vindicated by the beads of depart- 
ments of the government of the United 
States, and by the business community at 
large. He emphasized the high estimate 
placed upon business education by Governor 
Chamberlain as a direct aid to business 
success, as compared with the courses of 
study pursued at the Colleges and Universi- 
ties of the country. We regret that we are 
unable to give the address in full. After 
the Governor had closed, the Rev. Dr. 
Buckley, of New York, delivered an 
able, interesting and instructive address. 
After welcoming the convention to the city 
of New York, in view of the lateness of the 
hour and the extreme heat, he likened his 
position to a minister in the West who said 
to his host, "I will take another piece of 
steak because I have got to speak ; " and. 
said his host, " I will also take another piece 
of steak because I have got to listen to you.'- 
He believed in business education, and be- 
lieved that many failures in life were due 
to the want of such education as these insti- 
tutions give. Ajtply the knowledge of 
bookkeeping to his own profession ; it is 
very necessary in church matters. And he 
described a church in the city which was 
going to destruction through the misunder- 
standing of its business relations. He 
instanced an old firm in New York in 
which were kept two sets of books. The 
old man of the firm not understanding 
double entry insisted upon having a set of 
books kept by single entry, which he could 
understand; while the younger heads of 
the firm kept another set by double entry. 
He related the story of an old farmer who 
bad spent two thousand dollars upon the 
education of his son in one of our literary 
colleges, who thought he would ascertain 
when his son came home how much he 
knew about Latin. He asked him, " John, 
what is the Latin for fork ? " " Forkihus^ 
air." "And what is the Latin for cartV" 
■' Cartibus, sir." "Well sir," said the old 
man, "you take the forkibus and fill the 
cartibus, or it will be the worse for you." 
The old gentleman then sought in his Bible 
some consolation for the waste of time and 
money he had thrown away upon the boy, 
and he could only find it in the phrase, 
" I have poured iu gold and there came out 
this calf." Institutions should be judged by 
their results. 

Some time since I went to the head of one 
of our large business houses in this city and 
asked him. Have you any of the graduates 
of the various business colleges in your em. 
ploy, and he said yes. What is the result of 
their training. They counted but 13, and 
said 11 are first-class, one is a fizzle whom 
we keep for bis fathers sake, and one is on 
probation. Where cim you find any institu- 
tions that are doing better than that ? 

Thtjusday Morning. 10 a. m. 
The convention assembled at the room of 
Packard's College. The exercises were 
opened by the readitig of a paper on " How 
to introduce the theory of accounts," by 
Dr. J. C. Bryant. The pajjcr was listened 
to with marked attention and evinced much 
thought and a thorough mastery of the sub- 
ject by the speaker. 

"Bookkeeping was capable of being pre- 
sented in a variety of ways, and each author 
thought his way the best. It should not be 
the aim of a teacher to relieve pupils from 
mental exertion, but rather to interest and 
encourage them to master for themselves the 
principles of bookkeeping, many pupils mas- 
tered the routine of books and were yet ig 
norant of the fundamental principles of ac- 
counts; he believed that the principles of 
bookkeeping could best be taught by the use 
, of a skeleton ledger, in this way instruction 

can be centralized, and all the essential facts 
brought out, eliminated from the perplexing 
and confusing details that have too often 
surrounded and mystified the instruction 
of bookkeeping. The ledger is the great 
central receptacle in which each account is 
placi'd according to its classification. The 
day book and journal are only the mediums 
through which accounts pass to the ledger, 
they arc no more essential than are the cash 
book, sales book, bill book. The tendency 
has been, 'and still is, to shorten and 
simplify the labor of bookkeeping, and 
much has been gained by the discarding of 
useless theories. Once get a pupil interested 
in bookkeeping and there will be enkindled 
within him a iove for the study and a desire 
to excel that will enable him to surmount 
all obstacles. 

G. W. Brown, of .Jacksonville opened the 
debate upon the paper read by Mr. Bryant. 
Though he agreed with Mr. Bryant respect- 
ing the use of text books, he thought that 
the former works upon bookkeeping bad 
been built too much upon the plan of atitb- 
metic. First, giving definitions then exam- 
plea. He thought that ideaa bad been dark- 
ened by words. That definitions should be 
learned in the practical application of a 
science. We have compelled pupils to wade 
after words through high sounding phrases, 
tmtil he has come to regard bookkeeping 
as something lerribly double-aud-twisted, 
and that unless you be one of the elect, and 
receive instruction from heaven you could 

Now, I believe in beginning bookkeeping 
with a definition of bookkeeping. What is 
bookkeeping ? It is a record of the trans- 
action of business. 

Those transactions in a business that a 
sane individual would desire to have re- 
corded. And right here, the teacher ought 
to read between the lines. (It need not ap- 
pear in the book.) 

I don't care whether records are kept in a 
day book, journal, or a memorandum book 
carried in the vest pocket. It is good, bad 
or indifferent bonkkeepiog in a degree, that 
it serves the purpose for whick bonk keeping 
is intended. He believed that if a nimble 
teacher would start off with the idea that 
bookkeeping is a record of business, and 
that it must be classified in order to be use- 
ful he would succeed. He would begin with 
personal accounts. There was where book- 
keeping commenced. He would impress 
upon the mind of the pupil that a personal 
nceount was founded upon a personal prom- 
ise to pay. You can begin personal accounts 
with cash if you like, but that does not 
seem to be the most natural way. He would 
go ou from subject to subject forging link 
after link in the chain of the idea of ac- 
counts, never mentioning single or double 
entry, never saying anything about day 
books, ledgers, or entries. These ought 
never to be mentioned in connection with 
the intellectual idea for the philosophy of 

P. R. Spencer of Cleveland, Ohio, dif- 
fered with Messrs. Bryant and Brown 
respecting the use of the skeleton ledger. 
He believed it best to illustrate accounts 
singly. Taking up personal accounts and 
illustrating each account separately, dis- 
tinctly and fully. 

Richard Nelson, of Cincinnati, began 
teaching bookkeeping with the thought 
that the pupil should do nothing that he 
did not thoroughly and completely under- 
stand, and the entire theory of bookkeeping 
should be taught in one set of books. He 
now believed a pupil should not bo taught 
anything that he could readily discover for 
himself. He believed that tlie main error in 
bookkeeping lay in the effort to make it 
too intellectual; that too much utteniion was 
given to theory; that it should be first 
I)ractice then theory. The natural method 
is to do the work and take theories from it. 
You need no rules, the theory is the prin- 
ciple involved. 


After the close of Mr, Nelson's ad- 
dress, which was somewhat extended 
and practical, T. C. Smith, of Jacksonville, 
opened the discussion upon the " hett method 
of (eacMng bmineaa toriting." Speiikiug 
from bis standpoint a.s a teacher in a busi- 
ness college, having to do with advanced 
pupils, those who had already pursued a 

Am- Joi'i>-\Ar 

course of wriliog in tlie public schools, he 
might present the subject differently than 
he would were bo teaching beginners. He 
believed that for beginners copies could not 
be too perfect, or the method of instruction 
too exnct. While with young men whose 
course of study was near completion, there 
might be allowed to some extent license in 
their practice. AVe nil know tbiit it is im- 
practical to write perfectly and strictly 
according to the standard in business. He 
did not believe in holding a pupil, well ad- 
vanced to such of business college work, 
strictly to standards. That he should be 
permitted to exercise much the same license 
that be would practice in a counting-room, 
subject constantly to criticisms and sugges- 
tions of the teacher. And that in this way 
a pupil would be better prepared to, enter at 
once upon the work of the counting-room 
than if he bad continued the practice of 
exact writing up to the time of his gradua- 
ation. He believed that great attention 
should be given to drill in the movements 
for the acquisition of speed and ease in 
writing. It had been said that he was not 
believer in systematic copies and instruction, 
ilrii lie practiced what was termed the 
hi III I -skelter plan. Nothing could be 
i]ii>ii> erroneous, as he believed the remarks 
he liad just made would show. 

Mr, Becker, of Worcester, Mass.: The 
grciit (lilBcnlty experienced by myself and 
1 liflieve by most teachers is writing on the 
finger movement, which in almost every in- 
stance, has been previously practiced by the 
pupil. lie had known teachers who advo- 
cated purely the muscular movement in 
which he did not believe. Forearm and 
finger movement was very much the best 
for good rapid writing. 
He believed that the 
fingers should be em- 
ployed in assisting the 
niiifloular motion in 
iM iKiny,- the extended 
1' N, IS ;iml giving l'.\- 
prrsMiin to writing. 
!!'■ i.iiiru'.Jiinililjernl 


man intimate that be did not wish abso- 
lutely, perfect writing, but we all know that 
the environments and demands of business 
arc such that it could not be produced. Men 
have sometimes been shaved with dull razors. 
They do not prefer them but submit under 
the circumstances. So with imperfect writ- 
ing. It is used in business because perfect 
writing cannot there be obtained. Hut it 
did not follow from this that imperfect 
writing should be held up by ibe teacher as 
an example; such an idea was an absurdity 
that no sensible teacher in the land would 
tolerate. I believe that the higher and the 
more uniform the standard the belter will 

facility that he would write imperfect writ- 
ing, if there would be any objection to the 
perfect writing. Mr. Brown : I don't 
think that there would be. But commercial 
writing is not microscopically accurate 
handwriting. And if a clerk is tracing it 
with very great care and exactness I think 
the business man would say "We want 
you to get up and write." 

H. C. Spencer, Washington. I believe it 
was at my suggestion that Mr. Smith was 
called to lead this discussion. I had reason 
for making that suggestion. We visited 
Jacksonville College last year, and saw very 
Tiling. We had previously 


and liugcr;^, and en- 
abling them to execute 
writing with rapidity 
and reasonable accu- 
racy. He had seen ad- The alon nt. 
voeated the use of the 
whole arm movements 

for writing. This be 

did not believe to be practical, as it required 
too much practice and discipline to enable 
one to sufticienlly control the motion of the 
whole arm to produce reasonably accurate 
forms for good writing. In selecting copies 
for learners he lielieved it best to give a 
single style of a letter, and that a pupil be re- 
quired to limit his practice strictly to those 
forms until they were mastered. The forms 
should be the simplest and plainest possible. 
He believed that much injury resulted to the 
pupil where careless practice was permitted. 
\U !>tlicved in being positively severe if 
11 '-^.iry to enforce the pupils to follow 

' 1 1 ilv the copy given him by the teacher. 
II' liii not believe in covering quire after 
M"iK (.f pHperwiih careless and well nigh 

Hiiilissprnctice. He also believed in a lib- 
' I il list- of the blackboard in the way of il- 
1" 1 1 filing correct forms and criticising faults 
in piij)ils" writing. 

K C. Spencer here said he would like to 
)i^K Mr. Smith of Jacksonville, if he under. 
Mmu,! him correctly in saying that business 
1111 lulid not wish accurate writing. And if so, 
li"H '^■xtcneive his experience had been with 

'ill iiM-vsrac-n in that respect? Mr. Smith 
11 i I I'll ibat whatever he might have said he 
'liil 'lui believe that business men did desire 

" ' male writing, and if they did they could 
'•'I -I I it. Mr, Spencer asked if it was be- 
• N-i iliey did not want it or because they 
^^"||^i notgetit? Mr. Smith said he thought 
'111 ini'iiness men were thoroughly satisfied 
^^!lll writing that was perfectly legible and 
Mi't'il.N written. 

^ii Williams of Hochester, said if they 

I i:et accurate writing at the same price 

Ih same effort, and the same espendi- 

1 lime he Ihovight that business men 

"I'uul be glad to have perfectly accurate 


Mr. Ames, I never yet heard a business 

were plwtoengraved from pen and ink copy 
loa/ncd to t/ie Journal by tfie the pi'oprieUrra 

executed at tlie Rockfm-d {III.) Buaijiess Collet/r, and -, 
of tlie College, Messrs. WiTians <6 Stodda/rd. 

be the result to the pupil. And that no 
business man will ever say to bis clerk 
"John, your writing is too perfect; we 
don't want such .perfect writing in this 
office." I doubt if any such thing has ever 
occurred or ever will occur in this world. 
The difficulty is a young man may be so 
trained in school as to write a given num- 
ber of words in a minute handsomely ; but, 
in leaving, he is employed iu business 
where, from necessity, he is required to 
write a much greater number of words, 
possibly two or three times as many in a 
given time. He can write so manj' words 
well but be has never tried to write thirty. 
The consequence is that the standard of 
motion with him is not up to the stJiudard 
of the demand. And in the extraordinary 
effort to perform the unusual task bis writ- 
ing at once degenerates into scrawls and 
illegibility. I believe that o pupil in prac- 
tice should be held to a high standard of 
perfection in his copy, and also carried to as 
high a rate of speed as possible. But it 
will ever be the fact that any one attempt- 
ing to write beyond a speed in which they 
are practiced or disciplined will of necessity 
write badly. But the very idea of any one 
in the world ever desiring imperfect writing 
in preference to perfect, seems to me to he 
the height of absurdity. 

Mr. Brown, of Jacksonville, thought this 
to be threshing old straw. He did not 
believe business men knew what they did 
want iu the way of handwriting. They did 
not want an inaccurate handwriting so called 
simple as an inaccurate handwriting. They 
want a handwriting that will be written 
legibly and meet the exigencies of business. 

(Mr. Ames) : I would like to ask Mr. 
Brown, if he believed that a pupil going 
into a business office and writing perfectly 
at just as high a rate of speed with just the 

seen samples of writing of the pupils from 
that institution. We also saw Mr. Smith's 
business writing. The specimens were evi- 
dently written with great speed and were 
fair samples of copies. Now while good 
results are obtained in a school, it is desir- 
able for us to ascertain how they have been 
produced. We are investigators. If we are 
progressive, there is no man who can rise 
and say, I know all about this subject of 
business writing, or of business arithmetic, 
or of bookkeeping, or any other branch. 
All come 'liere to give and receive. And I 
for one feel very anxious to know how they 
produce that excellent writing at Jackson- 
ville. I charge nothing for this as a free ad- 
vertisement of the school. The methods 
have been set forth by Mr. Smith to some 
extent in our presence. And they are profit- 
able lessons. One thing you will perhaps 
observe. The teacher makes AVs hand the 
standard, the absolute standard of that 

Now this does not matter ao much in a 
single school, it does not matter particularly 
whether those standards correspond with 
the standards adopted by teachers in other 
similar institutions. That they are standards 
there for advanced pupils, that are under 
the tuition of the teacher is sufficient, if 
thoroughly and efficiently taught as they 
appear to be. But suppose a teacher is 
writing a copy not for his school only, but a 
copy that is to be reproduced, and scattered 
the world over. Now that becomes a stand- 
ard for many. For teachers who are unable 
to set up a standard fully as good, or tbatis 
good enough for their pupils and the public, 
What I wish to say is this. There should 
be a staJidard toward which men work in 
their schools, that standard should be defin- 
ite, it should be dcscribable, it should be 
something they can point to as the same 

from day to day in oi-der that good results 
may be produced. 

I read this morning of a man sitting down 
upon a log to fix his gun, and in some way 
the gun was discharged, and a squirrel was 
killed off at his right. Now I never heard of 
such a thing as that before. There was o 
gun that went off at random ; it is seldom 
anything is hit, and it is so with teaching ; 
teaching at random seldom produces any- 
thing. But in this case there is no random 
work, there is a standard of teaching that 
gains good results. (Applause.) 

Mr. Roth, of San Francisco : A business 
advertisement reads : Apply in your own 
handwriting. What does that mean 1 Why 
the proprietor wants to see the writing of 
the party seeking employment. And if it is 
not accurate he will have nothing to do with 
it. If it is not good he throws it in the waste 
basket. If it is good he says, that shows 
style, that shows character, and I want to 
see the man who wrote it. It was my good 
handwriting that helped me to a good busi- 
ness, and it will be the handwriting of many 
young men and women that will help them 
to good places and to promotion. lie 
thought that good and accurate writing was 
a correct school. In bookkeeping there 
need not be great speed. He did not believe 
in birds and flourishes and all that sort of 
thing in business writing, and says, what 
would you think of a business man Mr. 
Ames, for instance, who went waltzing all 
the way down Broadway to his office at 305 
Broadway. That would be in a business 
point of view what flourishing would be to 
writing. It would be no more ridiculous 
for a man to go waltzing down Broadway 
to his business, than it is for business col- 
leges to deal with flour- 
ishes and fancy writ- 
ing. He believed in 
artistic and fancy writ- 
ing in its proper place. 
If he went to have 
a testimonial or mar- 
riage certificule filled 
which he bad not yet 
had, be would want 
nice artistic writing, 
possibly with flour- 
ishes. But tliat was 
not business writing. 

Mr. Robbius depre- 
cated this talk about 
flourishing birds and 
the like in connection 

with business writ- 

ing. He knew of no 
business college that taught flourishing in 
connection with their business course. If 
they taught flourishing it was outside and in 
a special department, to which he saw no 

Mr. Becker thought that if a course in 
flourishing were taken in connection with 
the practical writing at a business college, 
the graduates would connect the two in 
spite of advice or reason, in such a manner 
as to give a bad effect to the business writ- 

Mr. Riithbuu thought there was no con- 
flict among the gentlemen present, with res- 
pect to what should constitute the basis for 
good business writing, that no one would 
advocate superfluities and flourishes in a 
business band and that all agreed that the 
muscular movement or the forearm move- 
ment combined with the fingers presented 
the best movement and that good forms rap- 
idly executed constituted good writing. lie 
believed the movement exercises should he 
extensively practiced if we were to devote 
but an hour to writing he would use one- 
half of it iu drilling upon movement exer- 
cises. But we should bear in mind that we 
have all sorts of persons to instruct, those 
rbo are conatitu- 

tionally slow, nnl ili.-. wli 

.11. indifferent. 

and that diil- i i 

AMuId be re- 

quired with ilni !■ ■ 

1 L.iiod teacher 

would exeni-* i 1 n -. ii 

. iTliun in that 

respect. He also belicvet 

in movement 

drills in which the time "t 

vas marked by 

Fridav Afternoon 


The ses.'«ion was opened by the reading of 
H paper upon "school management " by 8. 
S. Packard. This was really one of tho 
most interesting ond valuable papers read 
before the convention. It elicited marked 

atlenlion and warm coinmeDdaliou. Wc 
regret that our limited space prevents giving 
it in full. ■■Commercial schools, he said, 
were a neccRsity from the existing necessity 
of bettt-r informiag men for conducting 
business. The first commercial schoolswerc 
in the nature of special and individual in- 
fliruclion. He mentioned niauyof the early 
founders of InisinesN college* and described 
the work that ihcy perfonned. and com- 
pared these early efforts with (hose now in 
vogue in business colleges, as the course hat' 
been extended and the patronage increased, 
The instruction had now become more ol 
the class system. He believed that the man 
agoment should be such ns to appeal to 11k 
better sense !ind lo the ambition of the 

pupil. Tll.-lr vliMiil,! 1„ n -Ul:ilinli~ mill, i 


that the pupil and the teacher arc striviui; 
for n common end, and whatever the regu- 
lations, they are only for the purpose of se- 
curing this end. The teacher expects lo do 
his duty as laid down and the pupil is re 
quired to do his. The only thing lo be 
observed by regulations is the defining of 
these duties. This is the beginning and the 
end of school government. The best of 
good management in a school as in a family 
id Ihat kind of action growing out of a 
sympathetic feeling. No student is in a 
proper relation to its school who is not 
under all circumstances its warm and un- 
flinching champion. It should be for him 
outside of his own family, the dearest spot 
on earth, and should live in his memory 
among the truest blessings that have come to 
bis life, and he should be able to carry from 
it the best impuises and noble purposes. 
The speaker believed that every institution 
should have an Alumni Association. If 
schools were true to their duty and gave to 
pupils all the good that was within their 
power, they deserved the assistance of their 
students, and the Alumni Association was 
the best means for securing it. The pa- 
per was discussed by Messrs. Sadler, 
Brown, Wilson, H. C. Spencer and Laus- 
Icy. This discussion closed the exercises 
for the day 

Friday morning at 9 A. M., the members 
of the convention agreeably to the invitation 
extended by the Packard Alumni Associa- 
tion assembled with oihcr invited guests at 
the foot of Twenty Urst street where they 
embarked upon a specially chartered steamer 
for an excursion up the Hudson to lona 
Island which proved to be a most delightful 
and enjoyable excursion. Every preparation 
had been made for the comfort and pleasure 
of the party. They arrived about noon at the 
Island, which is delightfully situated in the 
Hudson, presenting a flue variety of scenery 
and provided with every preparation for 
the amusement and entertainment of vis- 
itors. In a spacious hall near the (-entre 
of the building, tables were set with boun- 
tiful refreshments which proved most ac- 
ceptable to the hungry excursionists. 
After dinner speeches were made by Pro 
fessor Packard, who presided, and others. 

Mr. Packard after congratulating the as- 
sembly upon the pluasures of the occasion, 
said he was too happy to be eloquent, he bad 
enjoyed the society of those present beyond 
the power of expression. The guests would 
never know how much he thought of them 
and the occasion. He said we have with us 
gentlemen who have been waiting to be 
called upon to speak for two or three days. 
and they ought now to be ready. I have at 
my right the president of the Business Edu- 
cators Association, and I am going to call 
upon him for his speech. 

Mr. Uider : I am not one of those of whom 
Mr. Packanl has spoken as having many 
thoughts and an eloquent manner of ex- 
pressing them. I should be specially uu- 
gr.iteful if I did not express the gratitude I 
feel to the Alumni Association for the plea- 
sure and eujoyment we have had this day. 
It is due from me to the Alumni Association 
oil behalf of the IJusiness Educators, and I 
thank you for this very kind hospitality and 
pleasant eulertaiumcut. 

H. C. Spencer, of Slilwaukee, >^iid ; \Vc 
have been endeavoring to bury his griefsand 
disappointments with due fortitude while 
waiting for a time when Uomight be afforded 
an opportunity to say his little word. This 

was Ihc choicest of times. After piiying a 
high compliment to the "Packard Alumni 
Association," he said : I know of no worth- 
ier way in which people may give expression 
to the appreciation of services which have 
been rendered by faithful and capable in- 
structors, than by uniting thenvselves lo fos- 
tci that kind of education which Ihcy have 
received at the hands of those iuslniclors. I 
am glad to see in thegreatCity of New York 
men and women who have received the pre- 
paration for busine.'is in Packard's Business 
Colleges, and I wish to express my deep ap- 
prcriiitidii of iIk- wannlli. llic sincerity of the 
.si'iitiniini- I '. [«■ -111 ii,\ iin lu'iidier Packard 
yr-.', Ill i\ !.. :.■■■ ii. I ■'.. ; iijnii in relatloii 
In 111. -. \ :ii:i. \ ■ I ' :.- .IS a fcalurc of 

1 life 

I [],. iM, h..|,.li- iiikI the influence whsch is 
Im I. >iiit fmiii iiiiv association is to beagrcat 
one, not only in Nl-w York, but upon all Ibe 
inlcrcsis ihal are affected l)y the influences 
Ihiit eminalcs fiom this gi-eal metropolis of 
buMiiiss, of Rnaiirc, of .social life, and of in- 
icIligi.iHc. On behalf of the bu.sincss leach 
ciMif ihr West. 1 desire to express Ihc ap- 
precialion which we have of the example 
which Ibis association has so nobly set before 

Mr. Wise, President of the Alumni Asso- 

No matter what ihoy may say to Ibe con. 
trary, and delivered an acidres^s that woidd 
have literally paraly/xd you. The greatest 
harm about the impromptu speech is this : 
Ladies and gentlemen. — I regret to say the 
word is illegible. (Laughter) Sailing up 
the Hudson a few short hoursago, and viow- 
inc; Ibe beautiful scenery (gesture), (laughter). 
The following beiuitiful thought occurred to 
me, that ovir Mr. Bowman shot off rm Friday 
morning and the shot found lodgment here. 
(Another gesture.) it is neither birlh, nor 
wealtli, nor rank nor slate, it is get up and 
get Ihat makes man great. Now, I never 
could get up early in llic morning. When I 
get rich and go away for the siimmer to rest 
and spare brain, the place that will lake my 
patronage is the place where the attraction, 
that is the principal attntction outside of the 
table will be to see the sun set. No sunrise 
for me. 

We regret we cannot give Mr. Deyo'a ad- 
dress entirely. It was read amidst the wild 
est applause and laughter, and \v<»uld cer- 
tainly have done honor to the best of our 
after dinner speakers. Afler Mr. Dcyo 
closed Mr. Packard said : We have hcanl 
frum the cducaiore in the West, we would 
like to hear from members nearer home. 

The City of Poughkeepsie is near New 
York. Let us hear from Mr. Gaines. 

expressions of their delight with the excur- 
sion. Our Western friends especially were 
extravagant in their expressions of gratitude 
to the Alumni Association for a day of such 
deliglufut enjoyment. 


! SiiCTioN, Sat 

Da. m., iuwemblfd at the rooms of the "Spen- 
cerian Business College," 36 East Fourteenth 
Street. Tlie exercises were opened by H. C. 
Clark, editor of the American Paimaii. 
Buffalo, N. Y. At his flrat lesson in pen- 
manship he set the pupil at work upon the 
whoicarm movement. No finger movement, 
which he continued until the pupil tired of 
the whoicarm movement. When he sug- 
gested that the movement be continued, al- 
lowing the arm to rest upon the table, which 
at once brought him to the forearm move- 
ment, which he practiced and taught, using 
the fingers to a very limited extent. In this 
manner the student was easily brought lo 
use the eombined movement in writing. He 
did not believe in ornamental or fancy writ- 
ing for business. 

H. C Spencer: In teaching willing 
correct forms should be aimed at. There 
should be something definite about vhat 
you teach both as respects the forms of 
writing and movement. I remember that 
my father used to have a stage which he 

I oyTiED'TOE E. Little ^ 

The iiboir nit moj* pJioto-engrated from pen-and-ink copy, executed at the office of tie Jouhnai., afid 
of Denigning and Jittering. Tlie cut w for a cover to Prof. Little'a new book on Drawing, 
&>pie» of which will be for bale at this office, we canjiot how give the price. 

ciation, who said that no effort which the 
Alumni Association or officers could perform 
TvouJd appropriately express their thanksand 
liappincss at having been honored by so au- 
gust and repressnljilive a body as the Busi- 
ness Educators of America as their guests. 

He was one of the founders of the assoeia- 
lion, and he betieveil it lo be a good prin- 
ciple of life that no man should be ashamed 
of his parentage. And that he felt he was 
favoring himself in as-sisting to create such 
an association, and he w&s proud to witness 
the good fruit that sprung from it. In con- 
<'^usion he could only wish with Shakes- 
peare "That good dige*-tion wait on appe- 
tite, imd good health on both." (Applause.) 

Mr. Packard : I don't know whether any 
one knows our friend Deyo. Whatever you 
do gentlemen, don't get in his debt.. 

Mr. Deyo arose and standing for some 
minutes pulled from his vest pocket and let 
fall a roll of paper six feet in length and 
began to read, "Taken so eniirely by sur- 
prise you must n<it expect a speech from me 
no matter how simple the subject. I f I had 
even the faintest idea that I should be called 
on, I would have prepared myself as the 
other* have done, (Applause and laughter.) 

Mr. Gaines : I am in exactly the position 
referred to by Mr. Deyo, although I might 
have brought manuscript written by some 
one else. I am one of the newest members 
of the convention and have enjoyed beyond 
comparison the exercises of the day. I hope 
Ihe influence started in these Alumni Asso- 
ciations will go on. He looked forward to 
the time when a similar institution would be 
formed from the graduates of the institution 
over which he presided. 

After dinner there was played a uuilchcd 
game of base ball between the students of 
■Pacltard's Business College" and of the 
(Trenton, N. J.). Business College, also 
swimming and rowing malclies. Anil those 
of Ihe party who were so inclined retired to a 
large pavillion, where many couples " tripped 
the light fantastic toe " to excellent music 
discoursed by the band which accompanied 
the excursion, and a piano belonging to the 

About five o'clock the boat started upon 
its return trip. Songs by the "Alumni Glee 
Club." and music from the band rendered 
the trip homeward lo the highest degree en- 

All returned with the most enthusiastic 

called the corrective stage. First, there was 
the movement stage for drill. Then Iliu 
principles would be applied to correct form, 
of those stages he managed to introduce, one 
into almost every writing les.son. What I 
am about to present refers to the second stayc, 
^that is. teaching according to principle. (A 
printed scale showing the proper proportions 
of writing was presented to each one present. 1 
This scale of writuig has, of courcc. been 
used to measure proportions of height and 
breadth. The speaker then illustrated the 
making of letters by the use of the rhomboid. 
This is sometimes used as a corrective means. 
Mr. Becker remembered a teacher who was 
not a penman well up in general education 
al matters, who advocated the practice "i 
teachers a I the blackboard upon the teller- 
that he might be able to better present Ihom 
to his class. 

But the dittlcully of most of our unprofc^ 
sional teachers of writing is in fact that they 
have not a clear and correct idea of form in 
their own mind. It was useless for audi 
teachers to attempt the use of the blackboard 
In teaching writing, except by way of cor 
rections and criticisms of class work, 

Mr. Vincent, of South America, had been 

for some years past i-iigiigcd entirely iutoach- 
IngSpanlsIi pupih.willi whomhewasobliged 
to employ different methods ihnn he liad 
commonly used by lenching in this country. 
They hnd previously written »hal wejermed 
lilt; old English "Hound band," and, of 
course, very slowly. lie introduced theSpen- 
certAD system, in which he was a believer. He 
asked one of his oldest pupils if he wished to 
change bis hand and showed him by com- 
parison how laborious his writing wa*; com- 
pared with the more running Spencerian 
band. In this and in most cases which was 
inxtanced only half an hour was devoted to 
writing. The resulia attained werevery sat- 

The regular session of the convention was 
called to order by the president at 10 o'clock, 
A. M, in the "Packard College" rooms. 
The subject of a publication of the verbatim 
report of the proceedings of the convention 
in pamphlet form was taken up and after 
considerable discussion it was decided that 
such a report should be published. After 
which n paper was read by Mr. Saddler, of 
Baltimore, on the subject of " how to teach 
arithmetic wiib the best possible results." 
In l.achiiig arilhnietic Ihe pupil should be 

lii- knowledge of the principles involved and 
iln ii application to problems as tbeyaresuc- 
(vively solved, until he has mastered the 
\ II JMiis subjects which we leach. The re- 
mits atiained from rules and arbitrary pro- 
1 1 s^i'-. are not lasting, from the fact thai the 
l<liJIi>sopby of the operation is not under- 
sinn.t, Mr. Saddler's exercises were iolcr- 
i-^ting and practical Ibrougbout. A niem- 

rious kinds of business ?" Shall we teach 
the method of bookkeeping as ajtplied to 
bunking, to commercial business, to that re- 
quired by steamboat lines, manufacturing, 
mining, etc., etc. The speaker believed that 
it should be the puri'oeo of the course to 
deal with the science or principles underly- 
ing accounts, that ia, instructing in the gen- 
eral principles of bookkeeping, and not to 
go extensively into itp detailed application 
to various kinds of business. The principles 
of bookkeeping are the same whatever 
may be tbe business to which_ it is ap- 
plied, lie believed that special stress 
should be laid in ibis direction. This was 
endorsed by Mr. Burdett. Mr.- Brown also 
agreed with Mr. Williams, but believed gen- 
erally that too much attention in busine'w col- 
leges had been given to bookkeeping ; he 
believed many other subjects were entitled 
to nearly ^qual consideration as bookkeeping, 
that it should be the purpose of a business 
college to turn out graduates strong in all 
branches pertaining to business, and that too 
much time had been wasted upou unimpor- 
tant details. Mr. Sbackleton, a business 
man of New York, said : Tbe public have 
been invited to attend these meetings. He 
hud accepted Ihe invitation and bad been u 
delighted listener to the discussion upon the 
topic before tbe convention. He related his 
experience many years ago when he entered 
as a young man in a store seeking to become 
a business man. And also his experience 
since with business college men, and business 
college work, and paid a high compliment 
to both. He too would emphasize what bad 
been .said with reference to dealing with tbe 

be says it is a bills payable. He is naturally 
puzzled but the principal says no, I will keep 
it as bills receivable, make an entry in tbe 
cash book covering the case, and any time 
before maturity you can take it out of your 
safe and get it discounted at a bank. Thus 
you perceive you have bills payable and 
bills receivable in one piece of paper. Now 
this is a puzzling thing, but I presume you 
enlighten your pupils on these points so that 
when they go down to business they will not 
be surprised by an entry of that kind. 

Mr. Packard : I would like to ask the 
gentleman if he lias taken out a patent for 
this transaction. I think it is one that will 
not be found in any of the text books. I 
think that no teacher would ever have 
thought of bills payable becoming bills re- 
ceivable. Mr, Nelson : This problem is 
something that strikes me as unusual. I 
never heard it thus presented before. 

This closed tbe session for the day, when 
tbe members adjourned to visit Manhattan 

Monday, 9 a, m. — The Penmen's Section 
assembled at the Spencerian Business 

Mr. Collins, of Knoxville, Tcnu., illus- 
trated his method of training the muscles 
for acquiring a rapid movement in writing. 
He placed great stress upon movement ex- 
Mr. Rathbun, of Omaha, found the 
greatest difbculty in his teaching to be the 
finger movement, which had in most all 
cases been previously acquired, and which 
was the prevailing movement in Ihe public 
schools and by unprofessional teachers of 

t ])Aotv-enffraved from copy writUn at the office of the Journal, ami is given an a specimen of wliokarm capitals, 
the small letters being written with the combined fo7varm and finger movement. 

ber asks how far we would have pupils ad- 
vance in arithmclie before beginning book- 
keeping. I don't care to receive pupils that 
an- not familiar with the subject as far as 
tliroui-li fractions, at that point they are 
reaiiy to enter upon the bookkeeping course 
When pupils are not sufficiently advanced 
i"i I'i'okkeeping, mc frequently retain them 
III itiiliinetic and peumansbi|) classes until 
I ii lime as they may be sufficiently profi- 
MMii ia arithmetic to commence bookkeep- 
ing. Mr. Ibilbbun thought tlmt all pupils 
slioiild be examined critically when entering 
iipmi their course to aseerlaiu their special 
ijicilitieatitms. This was endorsed also by 
It ('. Spencer, who believed it very neces- 
Naiy thai the present qualifications of a pupil 
'-liiiuld be thoroughly understood in order that 
Uii ( .mrse of instruction might be gauged to 
MiLi ilic pupil's requirements and capabilities 
nil . iiterint,' upon his new course of study. 
Till ,i,->ii Ion was continued by Messrs. 
^1' '■■'■ -'"ol. Nelson, Brown, Rider, 

I' 'I ^ Uallibun, Spencer of Louis- 

^ 111' lli'iii'iii-^ (iiid Horlon. This closed the 

Was opened by a paper read by L. L.Wil- 
li "us. "How far and in what direction 
iiiiil we go in applying the science of book- 
i.ct ping to business specialties." Mr Wil- 
li un-. said : Tbe subject for discussion at 
iiii- hour, stated in another form, is " How 
fur and in what direction shall the instruc- 
tion ill accounts aHorded by out schools be 
iidapted to bookkeeping required by the va- 

principle of accounts and business rather 
than with details He emphasized tbe neces- 
sity that n young man should write rapidly 
and well, be correct in figures, correct in his 
autography in order that he might be re- 
tained and advanced in a position that he 
might secure through good writing. Mr. 
Spencer, of Louisville, believed that he 
would teach bookkeeping more successfully 
and in a shorter lime by using practical 
business forms than by theoretical work. 

The topic wasfurlherdiscussed by Messrs. 
Brown. 11. C. Spencer, Clark, Spencer, of 
Louisville, Gaines and Rider. 

Mr. Sbackleton believed in actual practice, 
he said. ' 'That students needed to have their 
knowledge tested by experience. Experience 
is a hard but good schoolmaster. He drew 
his first draft with fear and trembling. He 
now drew a check for !^300,000 with as little 
thought as he had formerly drawn one for 
$30. He said there are cases arising in keep- 
ing books which you don't find in text books. 
For instance, when bills payable become 
bills receivable. He instanced a commis- 
sion house which was drawn upon for $5,000 
at four months ; it is presented to the drawee 
for acceptance, and perhaps it is sold in Wall 
Street, the drawer looks over the broker's 
pocket book and discover there your accept- 
ance, and you have money be wants to in- 
vest and save interest for a time say 30 or CO 
days, and he buys his own acceptance. Now 
he don't want to extinguish tbe acceptance, 
he wants to keep it alive where he can have 
it discounted or sell it again ; he brings it to 
bis bookkeeper to draw a check for it, and 

writing. He imprcssd upon tbe minds of 
his pupils the absolute necessity of acquir- 
ing a free muscular movement for business 
writing. In his drill he often had recourse 
to mechanical means for forcing the pen 
into the proper position, and tbe use of the 
muscles for the forearm movement. This 
was sometimes accomplished by slipping a 
luler up the sleeve and fastening it to the 
hand, and sometimes by passing a stick 
through the fingers so that when the hand 
would turn out too far, the end of the stick 
would strike the paper and give warning to 
tbe pupil of his bad position. 

Mr. Hinman, of Worcester. Mass,, believ- 
ed that position and movement went beyond 
the mere position of the pen and hand while 
writing, and comprehended that of the 
whole body. A pupil sitting with crossed 
legs and leaning heavily upon one side, or 
sitting in an unbalanced position could not 
practice or write to the best advantage. 
His conception of the movement compre- 
hcnded a firm and well balanced position. 
He believed iu light gymnastic exercises, 
the use of dumb-bells and tbe like for dis- 
ciplining and strengthening the muscles. 
One of the beet writing teachers that he 
ever knew took daily exercise iu this way. 

II. A. Spencer did not wish to speak so 
much respecting the training for muscular 
movement, as of mind training. He be- 
lieved that no degree of movement 
would alone develop good forms, ex- 
cept such first existed iu the pupil's 
mind. The pupil should not on laying 
down his pen cease to think of his alphabet 

and writing. It was through mental direc- 
tion that thelawsof action become indelibly 
impressed upou tbe student. It was a re- 
mark of bis father's that when a young 
man had acquired an excellent style of 
signature, he was in a fair way to excel us a 
business writer. One of the first things be 
taught was the mastering of a good signa- 
ture He believed that a pupil should be- 
come so eutbused with bis work as to think 
writing while walking the street. The 
pupil becoming thus enthused was sure to 
become a good writer. 

Mr. Huntsioger, of New York ; I have 
made it a point to teach thoroughly the mus- 
cular movement, and the greater the " driv- 
ing " the better. One of his employers had 
told him that in "driving" the boys too 
bard, he drove them out. The result was 
by driving some out he drove more in. He 
believed that students generally come to a 
business college with a sufficient knowledge 
of forms in writing acquired during their 
public school course. But what they lacked 
was Ihe movement and proper idea of busi- 
ness writing. Hence he dealt largely and 
chiefly with movement in his classes. At 
ten o'clock the meeting adjourned to meet 
at the general session in Packard's rooms. 

Monday morning. 10 a. m —The exercises 
opened by the reading of a very able and 
excellent article upon business ethics by the 
Honorable Thomas C. Hill, of Chicago. 

He says the controlling law of mankind is 
that of self-interest, which induces him to 
put forth mental and physical effort and lo 
expend money where could be had the 
largest return for the investment. He re- 
ferred to the tendency through machinery 
to lesson labor in production, thereby de- 
priving large numbers of tbe advantage of 
employment which he thought shoidd be 
counteracted by tbe lessoning of tbe number 
of hours for labor. Thus continuing to give 
all who desire work profitable employment. 
Promptness to f ultill obligations, and fo meet 
engagements united with strict integrity 
were indispensable to business success. If 
you borrow return promptly. If you make 
a promise fulfil it. and iu conclusion bo 
said: The whole law of business ethics is 
summed up in the golden rule. Thestrictob- 
sei'vance of that supplemented by industry, 
temperance, intelligence and courage in 
whatever sphere the individual is called to 
act will certainly make a successful business 

A discussion upon the paper followed, 
participated iu by R. C. Spencer, who re- 
plied iu a humorous way, saying that he 
differed from brother Hill in the payment of 
obligations as an element of wealth as he 
bad found that that had been the chief difR- 
culty in tbe way of his becoming rich. 

Tbe discussion was continued by Messrs. 
Lansley and Packard. At the close of this 
discussion a superbly written article by 
Mrs. Sarah Spencer, of Washington, upon 
"women in business" was read by Mr. 
Packard the article elicited the warmest ap- 
plause. On motion of Mr. Williams, of 
Rochester, a unanimous vote of thanks was 
extended to Mrs. Speucer. At some fviture 
lime we hope to give this paper in full in the 

Mr. Nelson here read a paper on business 
practice, setting forth the method pracliceil 
in his institution. He believed this was 
the true method of teaching the scieuccr of 
accounts. The paper was discussed by R. 
C. Spencer. Mr. Brown was glad to see that 
Mr. Nelson believed that tbe best way to 
learn a thing was in doing it. If a man is to 
leain to plane a board, or. drive a nail, or 
turn a furrow, he learned by doing it. It 
should be thesame in business. The discvie- 
sion was ably continued by Messrs. Stowell, 
Rathbun, Goldsmith, Spencer, of Louis- 
ville, Rider and Packard. This was followed 
by a humorous and highly. interesting enter- 
tainment by Mr. Frank Lincoln, after which 
a paper was read by Mr. Felix Adier upon 
the moral aspects of business. Tbe address 
was a plain, sensible exposition of moral 
ethics and their importance as elements of 
true business success. Tbe paper was list- 
^ed to throughout with the closest atten- 
tion. At the close of Mr. Adler's address G. 
W. Brown addressed tbe convention upon 
the subject of bookkeeping as applied to Ihu 
retail business. He had visited several of 

I 10 

lA^^M^::. *- ' .xiijrLe jjiust iityfiVj i.. :^ - 

Ibf large mercaDtile bouses of Chicago, iiud 
lie Imd been surprised at the simplicity of 
Iheir bookkeeping. It was his belief that 
bookkeeping as generally taught in business 
colleges was much more complicated than 
that practiced in liusiiu-ss. That the course 
of instruction in that respect needed refor- 
nialion. A business man to be 8uccessfu| 
needs to have a clear comprehension of all 
the departments of his business. One of the 
most successful railroad men and financiers 
of New York and the wealthiest man in tlie 
world reciulred that clerks at the heads of 
the various points upon his railroad and tel- 
egraph lines send daily at n fixed time to 
ceriiiin headqunrlers the result of their husi- 
nes-i during the day. These are telegraphed 
to his head bookkeeper, and in the course of 
an hour the result is laid upon his desk. The 
entire receipts and expenditures of the day 
are before him. This plan has. no doubt, 
contributed largely to his success. 

Following Mr. Brown, Mr. Rathbun 
presented his method of teaching writing 
by music— that is the drill in movemeut 
exercises was practiced in lime marked by 
music. This method he had employed in 
his school with considerable success. After 
which Mr. Warriner, of Woodstock, Ont., 
read a paper upon the moral tone of busi- 
ness colleges. The paper was well written, 
and presented many valuable thoughts for 
the consideration of the principals of col- 
leges in the conduct of their work. His 
impression was, that the moral tone of 
business colleges should be elevated above 
their present plane. Mr. Packard followed, 
commenting on the paper read by Mr. War- 
riner, although differing as regards the moral 
tone of business colleges. 

An interesting discussion followed by 
Messrs. Nelson, Gaines, Williams, and R. 

C. Speucer. After which Prof. George E. 
Little, the celebrated artist, of Washington^ 

D. C. 10 whom the readers of the Journai. 
need no introduction, gave an interesting 
exhibitiou of what he termed " Chalk 
Talks." It is quite impossible to do any- 
thing like justice to Mr. Little's exhibi- 
tion in these columns, it can only be 
appreciated by eye witnesses. The 
faiilitv with which different and very 
numerous subjects were represented upon 
the blackboard in striking perfection was 
literally astolli^llin^^ 

Tliefollowin^i cuts will represent a few 
of Mr. Little's skt'khes : 

. Tuic 



The meeting was called to order by Mr. 
.\nies, the Chairman. 

11. C. Spencer moved that each speaker 
make the programme for himself and strike 
out for himself, and that the first speaker be 
allowed ten minutes and those who follow 
him five minutes each. 

The motion seconded and carried. 

Mr. ShattucU : A suggestion occurs to 
me that may perhaps be of advantage to 
those who follow me. A teacher once said 
to me " I wish you would teach how to get 
boys and girls to make capitals so that we 
CMii tell them from small letters." Now I 
think the commercial teachers do uot give 
stress enough to that particular point. The 
gentleman I refer to says " I find scholars 
show me letters that are perhaps a little 
larger than the rest, and I have to accept 
them as capitals." I have pursued that 
line of investigation with considerable vigor 
imd in talking to principals in New York 
City and elsewlicre they tell me they have 
trouble with that very thing. They say 
that the scholars will always try to cheat 
by using some letter that may be used for a 
capital or small letter. Now it seems to mo 
that there should be some established 
method by which a capital could be recog- 
nized every time. I am simply getting at 
that plan that we should make a capital so 
tli:it it will be always a capital, even ihough 
1 1 is no larger than a small letter. In talk- 

iuL' with a principal of a New York school 
a shoi't time ago, he said auy letter that was 
larger than a small letter he should call a 
capital. I said from my standpoint " sup- 
posing you make your capitals out of small 
letters, you make your capitals by increas- 
ing the size of your small letters, don't 
youV" Now I simply throw out this sug- 
gestion for what it is worth. When it 
comes to business, I say use anything that 
seems feasible to use, make capitals by 
enlarging the small letters ; but. I think 
that the capitals used in the public schools 
should be such that they never need be mis- 
taken for any other letter for representing 
just what they are and nothing else. The 
business college penmen have very little to 
do with the preliminary school, in facta 
great many of the teachers who come out of 
the commercial colleges to teach in public 
schools meet with a great many dilllcultics. 
It seems to me that teachers in commercial 
colleges know too little about what is going 
on in the public s'chools. If they knew 
more a great deal of V'od could be done by 
extending their work into the public 

Mr. II. C. Spencer : I am glad brother 
Shattuck has brought this matter so plainly 
before you, and of course there are differeut 
views of this matter when you come to the 
corporation of forms, and you can carry that 
to auy extent you choose. There has been 
in the last few years very great progress 
made in writing. That progress has been 
made in spite of those who sit still and let 
the world move on and leave them. You 
will find when there is any progress made in 
theological matters there are men who got 
up and tell you what God thinks, and when 
there is any progress made in educational 
matters they will stand as interpreters of 
what teachers believe. Now, there is no one 
mon on earth that can stand as interpreter 
between God and man or between the busi- 
ness and educational world. We concede 
much to certain things in use ; for instance, 
we find that this form of capital A,c?ilarging 
the small A is more iu use than iiny ctlhrr. 
I procured at great pains specimens from all 
classes of writers in every department of 
business and I find that A enlarged from 
small a to be the favoiite. Now would you 
exclude also these Ws which develop from 
the small letters ? It would exclude this 
other useful capital O and much valuable 
material that has been used so long. It 
would exclude many correct styles of letters. 
We would have to forego the use of practi- 
cal simple forms because somebody fancies 
they conflict with the small letters. I. for 
one, am not prepared to accept any such 
doubtful interpretation of business and edu- 
cational demands. I believe that our watch- 
word is Excelsior, Upward and Onward. 

Mr. Lausley : I have been taught by expe- 
liencc that it is a delicate thingto talk about 
penmanship before the present company and 
I shall have to be very wary of what I shall 
say. My oj)iuion is that we want to be very 
careful of what copy we give young chil- 
dren You may give them the highest bless- 
ing in the way of a letter and they will take 
it and make is look like something you never 
saw before. I think if we come down to a 
stereotype style of one plain letter and insist 
upon their making that and nothing else, 
they will never forget it. The public school 
certainly needs to have a fouudation laid in 
the way of penmanship that will prepare a 
boy for the business college, or will prepare 
a boy for business without the college. 

Jlr. H. C: Spencer : I think not enough is 
credited to the business college teachers who 
go into the public schools. They help to 
introduce free movements and other things 
which are very much needed. They want 
to be able to render such efficient service in 
the teaching of forms of letters, but they 
certainly do help them very much in regard 
to position, and they teach free movement 
I think the business college teachers of this 
covmtry should have credit for that wherever 
they render their assistance to the public 
and private schools, 

Mr, Jones: Mr. Spencer ha.s said that 
the business colleges have the credit of 
establishing good teaching of free movement 
in the business colleges. It seems -to me 
that it might be taught in the public schools 
to a certain extent and less in the business 
colleges, then when the pupil leaves the 
public schools and goes to the business 

college he would have some idea of move- 
ment that would help him very much in his 
work there. This is a thing I should like 
to hear talked upon by those who have 
more experience than I have, and tell us. 
how we Sin teach children to write in the 
public schools. 

Mr- Goldsmith : The subject of penman- 
ship to me has a very peculiar infiuence. I 
ride a bobby. I think, and that is practical 
penmanship. I do not think it necessary 
to make any apologies for tliat. I think all 
the dtflerent lines of teaching that we arc 
engaged in ought to be worked up to that 
matter of practical work, and if I have a 
hobby it is practical writing. Now I am 
glad to see the Spencerian people coming 
down to a practical standard. It is ac- 
knowledged that the Spencerian copy books 
have taken the lead in beauty of form, and 
now they are trying to odapt themselves to 
tnc requirements of business, and in order 
to do that, they very wisely give up a great 
many of the unnecessary strokes in pen- 
manship, I have frequently been thrown 
upon the practical market, I have come iu 
contact with business men. and find that the 
business men are very peculiar, inasmuch 
as they are practical and devote all their 
lime and energy to making a living, and in 
order to do that with facility, they throw 
off all superfluous forms. I have noticed 
that they are more thorough in the North. 
In the North you are more influenced by 
the education you have received. Educa- 
tion is of a very much higher standard here 
than in the South, and that among the busi- 
ness men, they base all work upon the 
practicnl. Now that ^ is a practical A. 
(small fi. n and m enlarged) and that iVund 
Mdvc practical, you will see nine-tenths of 
the business men in the Southern States will 
adopt them, they say simply because it 
facilitates easy motion and it is plain. 
Agi'in, instead of a TF made in this form, 
they would use this style of w (giving form 
for small v>). Now, if business men tliouglifc 
that the best style of ?r they would use il. 
Thi.'; can lie miide very quickly and without 
taking the pen off the paper. It is easily 
read if properly made, and it is never mis- 
taken for any other letter. Then, again, 
there is another peculiar feature of this 
country. (Time called by the Chairman 
and extended by the House.) There is only 
one thing that I wish to say and that is iu 
reference to teaching practical penmanship. 
There seems lo be a difference of opinion as 
to how it should be taught. Some claim 
that it should be taken rapidly and others 
say slowly. Another would claim that a 
pupil should be started to write rapidly 
from the beginning. Now I would like to 
know from older and more experienced 
men who have applied these dilTereut prin- 
ciples ; I woidd like to find out which is 
the better. We, as business educators, 
should coine down to the standard of busi- 
ness. 1 do not believe in adopling any new 
code of laws and trying to bring business 
men up to that standard. I believe in find- 
ing out what fbe reqiurements of business 
are and adapting our teaching to those re- 
quirements, I have never yet seen a busi- 
ness man adopt any fancy notion that a 
business college would teach. If j'ou give 
them something that is practical, something 
they would understand, yon will find that 
they will adopt it readily and accept it every 
time. I would like to find out from this 
section of the Convention which is best, 
teaching writing slowly or teaching the 
pupil to write rapidly from the start. 

Mr. Itobbins; I have not much to say on 
the subject of penmanship. There seem to 
be so many different ideas about the 
specialty that everybody is going to teach 
to suit himself anyhow. I do not see 
much use in wasting words. I think the 
secret of teaching anything is in gelling 
the pupil interested in that subject. Now 
by what method you interest him is the 
question, I think if we do away with all 
beauty in writing we will lose inspiration at 
once. I am not in sympathy at all with 
this kind of writing that does away with 
those curves of beauty. I think that wo 
ought lo combine plainness with beouty, 
and that is what the business man wants if 
he can get it. Any first class firm will em- 
ploy the man that writes a plain hand and 
at the same time a beautiful hand. Every- 
body loves beauty if he can get it. It 

Iii-hoovt's him who can enjoy bcauly to do 
so. and a business man who can get a pen- 
iniiu who writes a beautiful band, and at 
ilic- same time a rapid hand and phiin. will 
tilway* lake him. I have seen penmen who 
wrote very rapidly with the forearm move- 
jiitnt. We have a man in our post-olllce 
u hois 8 rapid writer and uses the forearm 
iiiiivement. I believe we should teach the 
imiscular movement for business writiiig. 
What we commonly find is muscular move 
ment combined with finger movement. 
Tuesday Fohenoon. 
In Packard College, the subject an- 
nounced was " Class Instruction in Pen- 
manflhip," led by Mr. A. H. llinman, of 
Worcesler. Mass. 

Mr. Uinman : I have jotted down a few 
points that I have found useful in teuebing, 
and will refresh my mind from the schedule. 
The first requirement is that you command 
the attention of the pupil and nil necessary 
means at band should be used for this pur- 
pose. Even Dr. Talmage would donee In 
the pulpit if it were necessary to secure the 
attention of bis audience. The teacher 
cannot Ic^id if the minds of his pupil arc 
upon something else. The attention of the 
pupil must be insisted upon first, last, and 
all the time. After the attention has been 
secured. I believe the nest step is the secur- 
ing? of a good foundation for writing, or in 
other words, a correct position. All move- 
ment is the result of correct position, at 
least all good movement. The lower muscles 
of the body must be put in use in order to 
sit correctly. Without correct position we 
cannot do correct writing — the correct posi- 
tion of the hands, and feet and body, all are 
necessary to success. When I get a pupil to 
write well with the correct position and 
motion, I place him among those who are 
not good writers, whom I am trying to train 
correctly and I insist upon the otbera look- 
ing lit bim and watching bis po.sit.ion — his 
MKuiiuTof bukiing the pen. for by pbning 
iIk'Sc mudelpupUs with the others they teach 
Iiy example. 

Movement will come next. Correct writ- 
ing is partially the result of correct move- 
ment. Movemeut and form should pull to- 
gether like a team of good horses. The 
other day in Boston I was riding in a street 
car and one horse pushed abend and did the 
pulling while the other held back. That 
was like form in writing going ahead with- 
out movement, but when both pulled to- 
gether we went along nicely — that M-as like 
form and movement going along together. 
Driving either movement or form to excess 
will interfere with progress. The teacher 
should be constantly on the watch to see 
that both move along evenly. Too much 
form will injure writing by destroying move- 
ment and too much movement will also in- 
jure writing by destroying form. You can- 
not produce good results without uniformity 
nf action. If a person steps quickly ut one 
lime and slowly at another, the steps will he 
of diflfcrent lengths — but when he moves 
wiih a regular step, one, two, three, four, 
the steps will be equal in length Uni- 
formity of outline, of form, are largely the 
result of uniformity of action. You see a 
dissipated man goiug home early in the 
morning, and the irregularity of movement 
causes him to reach out now in short steps 
and now in long ones — he takes various 
ways ; and if you let a pupil write with a 
jerky, drunken movement, and there will 
be no uniformity of outline or form. To 
secure rapid writing (and I do noi mean by 
that a jerky, rapid action) the movemeut 
Hbould not be slow at one time and rapid at 
others— but the pen should move asin walk 
ing, with regular steps. If a person moves 
bis pen regularly as rapidly as he can write 
well, and produces a good form aud keeps 
it up through that page he will gel through 
that page much quicker than he who writes 
spasmodically— ciuick at one time aud slow 
at another. It is unifonniiy of action that 
produces good writing and a swiftly written 
page. Among the pupils the poorest writer 
should be the one aimed at by the teacher — 
let the teacher keep upsufticient enthusiasm 
to interest the poorest pupil and let the others 
take in what be is doing. Qough used to 
look around for nn apparently sleepy man, 
and used his best efforts to thoroughly in- 
terest bim, feeling sure that others would 
be interested. Ju ejtplainiug a copy I take 

a single letter of a word, perhaps the letter 
M. explain it to the pupil and let him write 
one letter, not a whole word — then perhaps 

and then combine the two. and then ex- 
plain another and let them unite all three, 
and so on, practicing each letter separately, 
and finally uniting them all in a word. 
Sometimes we practice on signatures— it 
might be .1. B. Smith, and we would practice 
on Ihe.r. aud then on the B, nnd then the S. 
iiiid then combine the whole, and then after 
IIk- impil has become tired of that I would 
rcjirriiiii,^' the copy, making it perhaps S. J. 
Brnwn, giving the same letters but a differ- 
ent combination, and it would be like a new 
lesson, thus keeping them for a whole hour 
on the same capitals but changing the order. 

1 believe also in having the pupil write on 
legal cap paper, say a dozen sheets fastened 
together at the top— writing the first lesson 
on the first leaf, or perhaps more, nnd theu 
the next, or lesson No. 2, and then after they 
have used up these packages I take them as 
my property. I have in that a record of 
whether they have scribbled or not. and 
every time they get through these pages or 
books thf-y belong to me aud I have good 
evidence of how they are progressing, and 
the result is approval, or otherwise. I also 
believe in writing on ledger paper. Much 
of our writing is done on widely ruled paper. 
I believe we sometimes use closely ruled 
paper in the writing class to enable the 
pupils to get accustomed to the paper used 
in the journal or the ledger, aud that a style 
may be taught suitable to ledger writing. I 
believe in keeping these packages and the 
pupil knows as be writes that he is going on 
record. Then again if I pass down the class 
and notice one who is out of position, and 
say " position," and he must think of him- 
self all over and find out in what respect he 
is out of position, nud be recalls the neces- 
sary points — if, for instance, be finds be is 
not holding his pen as the model pupil is 
holding his, he will see that he isoutof pos- 
ition ill that piirticulur, and a suflicicul num- 
ber of these marks affect his standing upon 
the weekly report sent to his parents. If 
the pupil "scribbles" I sometimes preserve 
it to show to the parent — atany time during 
school time if he is found scribbling I put 
that in the record if I can get hold of it. In 
writing figures I believe in taking legal cap 
paper and instead of using it in regular pos- 
ition with the lines running horizontally, I 
turn it so that the lines are perpendicularly, 
and use three figures between the lines — 
that will produce figures the size I want. I 
find this training in figures an excellent 
practice to secure uniformity in their books. 

Owing to the gi-eat amount of conventi i 
matter which we deem of interest to the 
readers of the Journal, we have decided 
to occupy a portion of two numbers rather 
than abridge it so greatly as to bring it 
within the space that can be appropriated in 
one number. The report will therefore he 
continued and concluded in the September 

The following are the names of thosewho 
attended the convention : 
J. K. Gustus, Liudsburg, Kan. 
A. II. llinman, Worcester, Mass. 
Mrs. A. II. Hiumau. 

C. L. Free, Easton, Pa. 

S. S, Packard, New York. 

Mrs. S. S. Packard. 

L. L, WillianiB. Uochestcr, N. Y. 

Mrs. L. I. Williams. 

A. S. Osboru, Rochester, N, Y. 

L. A. Gray, Portland, Me. 

II. C. Spencer, Washington, D. C. 

J. M. Frasber, Wheeling, W. Va. 

F. E Wood. Scranton, Pa. 
W. n. Sadler. Baltimore, Md. 
Mrs. W. H. Sadler. 

D. T. Ames, New York. 
Mrs. D. T Ames. 

II. C. Clark, Erie. Pa. 
.1. C. Bryant, Buffalo. N. Y. 
It, C. Spencer, Milwaukee, Wis. 
C. W. Robbins, Sedalia, Mo. 

G. A. Wiuans, Roekford. 111. 
II. A. Spencer. New York. 
C. E. Cady. New York. 

W. H. Covert. Fairfield, N. Y. 
Richard Nelson, Cincinnati. O. 
C. T. Miller, Newark N. .1. 
Mrs. C. T. Miller. 

Enos Spencer, Louisville. Ky. 

E. L. Burnett, Providence. R. I. 
W. A. Warriuer, Woodstock. Out. 
R. S. Collins. Knoxville, Tcnu. 

C. Claghom. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

n. C. Roth. San Francisco. Cal. 

A. J. Rider, Trenton. N. J. 

T. B. Stowell, Providence, R. I. 

G. R. Rathbun, Omaha. Neb. 

L. F. Gardner, Pougbkeepsie. N. Y. 

F. Schneider. Wilke.sbarre, Pa. 

F. IT. Burdetl, Boston. Mass. 
P. C. Sbattuck. Boston, Mass. 

R. E. Gallagher, Hamilton. Ontario. 

Mrs. R. E. Gallagher. 

W. R. and E. W. Smith, Lexington, Ky. 

E. M. Iluntsinger, New York. 

Mrs. E. M. Huntsinger. 

L. Doit E, Kimball. Lowell. Mass. 

L. Madarasz, New York. 

W. P. Gregory, Allentown, Pa. 

Wm. Bartholomew. New York. 

G. B. Jones, Bergen, N. Y. 

W. A. Barton, Kent's Hill. N.Y. 
E. J. Hub, Indianapolis, Ind. 
J. D. Odell. New York. 
Mrs. J. D. Odell. 

A. W, Rundell, New York. 

W. E. McCord. Jacksonville, 111. 
P. R. Spencer. Cleveland, O. 
ByKin Horton. New York, 
Mrs. Byron Horton. 
C. C. Curtis. Minneapolis, Minn. 
G. W. Brown, Jacksonville, HI. 
J. II. Lansley. Elizabeth. N. J. 
Mrs. J. H Lansley. 
C. C. Gaines, Pougbkeepsie, N. Y. 
E. C. A. Becker, Worcester. Mass. 
C. T. Smith, Jacksonville, 111. 
J. M. Vincent, New York. 
Wm. Allen Miller. New York. 
W. E. Drake, Jersey City. 
Thos. E. Hill. Chicago, 111. 
Mrs. Thos. E. Hill. 

B. F. Kelley, New York. 
Mrs. B, F. Kelley. 

Besides the above there were a large num- 
ber of visitors whose names were not en- 


W. H. Sadler, Baltimore, President , R. E. 
Gallagher, Hamilton, Ont,, Vice-President; 
L. F. Gardner, of Pougbkeepsie, Vice- 
President ; Mrs. S. S. Packard, New York, 
Vice-President ; A. S. Osborne, Rochester, 
Secretary and Treasurer ; R. C. Spencer, 
G. W. Brown and L. L. Williams, Execu- 
tive Committee. 

The next meeting will be at Milwaukee. 

The Muscular Bugaboo. 

1 can't wait for some one to answer my 
first article but will dive again and again 
until I touch bottom. 

I don't want any upstart to simply deny 
what I have said and then strut around and 
say that any fool should know better. There 
are too many superficial statements going 
the rounds, and sooner or later we nmst ac- 
knowledge that the ranks nre full of incom- 
petent suckers who simply work their 
mouths like a parrot and whose utteninces 
amuse rather than instnict. 

The individual who writes a purely mus- 
cular movement, i. e., purely forearm does 

He who claims that there is no action of 
the fingers in the best writing of to-day is 
either an ignoramus and therefore unworthy 
of audience, or a willful liar who hopes to 
develop through intelligent obstinacy the 
truth which must prevail. 

I can't understand why there is no au- 
thority in our profession. The amateur 
parades his opinions and grows irritable if 
they are not countenanced. The would-be 
professional says that the diagonal penholder 
is a fraud, etc. I am out of patience with 
such nonsense. He who disclaims the merits 
of the oblique holder cannot prove one single 
assertion. Writing done purely forearm be- 
comes careless and eventually degenerates 
into illegible scrawls. There is no denying 
but that very much of our business writing 
of to day is done purely forearm, and in ad- 
mitting this, we wish to produce evidence of 
poor writing that continued, will grow 
poorer as the speed is increased. 

Systematic speed dors not produce degen- 
eration. Where writing has Viecu taught 
properly with a development that will even- 
tually bring it to meet the demands of busi- 
ness there cannot be any just complaint. 
But where the student is made to believe that 
the limits of the forearm contain all the 
available power necessory to good business 
writing. I for one decry such fallacious 
treatment. I know belter and can prove to 
the entire satisfaction of any one open to 
honest convictions that the fingers not only 
perform a fair share of the work in all kinds 
of good writing, but that their part in the 
play is susceptible of demonstration. 'Tis 
not enough to sny they move a little and not 
define their action. It is the wishy-washy 
treatment that places our profession at times 
in disrepute. It is this bungling that places 
us in disfavor with the intelligent of other 

The relation of the fingers to the forearm 
is the same as the forearm bears to the whole 
arm. We do not execute in the strictest 
sense of the word (from an artistic stand- 
point), with ony one set of muscles. Writing 
that displays life, force, energy, expression 
is traceable to causes which are ever present 
whether the writer is cognizant of them cr 
not. The very best results come from her- 
culean efforts, and call forth the tensioning 
of every muscle and fibre in the whole man. 

Skillful Reporting. 
Prof. James N. Kimball, who has charge 
of the Shorthand Department of Packard's 
College, performed the remarkable feat of 
taking in short-hand a verbatim report of 
the proceedings of the convention, and de- 
livering it in excellent style of type-writing 
to the publishers within a few hours after 
the convention adjourned ; a feat never 
before accomplished at any convention of 
which we have knowledge. 

Whet-e all Sorts of Diplomas are 
Now that the commencement season is at 
its height the expert penmen and litho- 
graphers who combine each year to stock 
the diploma market are in the hayday of 
prosperity. There seems no end to the de- 
mand for these interesting documents, tied 
in red. blue or orange ribbons, written in 
remarkable English or still more remark- 
able Latin, and announcing in the most tlat- 
tering terms that Jones or Smith has passed 
certain courses with disHnctiou, and is grad- 
uated with an indefinite amount of praise. 
More than a hundred forms of sheepskins 
can be found any day this month completed 
or awaiting completion in the office of D. T. 
Ames, the well known penman of No. 205 
Broadway. To one who has seen a diploma 
but once in his life— on some College Com- 
mencement Day — the process of making 
them is au Interesting oi e. The blank sheets 
are filled out with the required formulas by 
careful pen work. The blank diplomas are 
printed from designs that nre first made with 
a pen on paper, and then transferred by pho- 
tography to stone, when they are printed by 
lithography. The advantages of pen work 
and photo-Iithogruphiug is in the reduced 
cost and the celerity with which orders can 
be filled. Mr. Ames ibus furnishes 100 di- 
plomas lithographed at from $25 to $50, ac 
cording to the artistic display of design. 
The walls of his olTlce are covered with a 
multitude of original and artistic designs 
for all sorts of purposes, especially of memo- 
rial and testimonial resolutions. The de- 
mand for these is constant throughout the 
year and they with general penman's work 
and the editing of the Penman's Journal, 
occupy most of Mr. Ames' and his six as- 
sistant's lime. Mr. .\mes' spacious rooms 
constitute au extensive and interesting 
gala.\y of the penman's art —A'. T. Tribune. 

Ames's Guide. 

If you desire to have the very best aid to 
self-improvement in practical and artistic 
penmanship, send seventy-five cents for 
Ames's "Guide to Self- Instruction in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship" (in paper 
covers), or $1 for same nicely bound in thick 
covers. It tells you all about writing, flour- 
ishing and lettering, and how to leam. If 
you are not pleased with it you may return It, 
and we will refund the cash by return mail. 

Business Educators 
Warren H. Sadler. 

The business teacbers of this country 
have become an important division of tbe 
grand army of educators in whose bauds 
are the destinies of Ibe race. 

Teacbers of business have since 1803, 
under different forms and names for tbeir 
i'uprovement and tbe advancement of busi- 
ness education Itcpt up an organization and 
have met annually with considerable regu- 

These meetings have tended to benefit 
irreatly tbe cause of business education, and 
to eive business teacbers a recognized pro- 
fessional standing. They have also afforded 
opportunity for pleasant social intercourse 
that has been much enjoyed and drawn busi- 
ness teachers into closer fellowship with one 
another. From year to year interest in 
Ibese meetings has grown among those who 
b;ive attended them, and also with those 
who were absent. The -recent meeting in 
New York City will be remembered as 
among tbe most profitable and delightful of 
the past. Tbe feeling that pervaded the 
Ne%v York meeting was excellent through- 
out. It concluded its labors by choosing offi- 
cers for tbe ensuing year with entire unan- 
imity according to a slate which the writer 
of this had prepared for tbe occasion. This 
is about the only thing I have seen achieved 
without opposition. But my success is due 
to the individual merit of the candidates on 
my slate, and to the harmonious feeling that 
.so thoroughly united Ihe association and 
which will, I hope, always remain. I ought 
to acknowledge my obligation to tbe good 
nature of the association in allowing me to 
name its oificers this year ; and the associa- 
tion will, I doubt not, be thankful to me for 
relieving it so entirely of the trouble of 
picking out four among so many good and 
competent people those who are to be its 
servants for tbe year to come. 

I told the association that I wanted War- 
ren H. Sadler for president because I love 
him and he loves me. In that I spoke sin- 
cerely. The reasons for which I love Sad- 
ler are tbe reasons why every one loves him 
who knows him well, and these reasons 
qualify him for the position of president of 
the Business Educators Association of 
America, or any other position that he will 
consent to accept. But Sadler would have 
been as well qualified for and worthy of the 
presidency of tbe association if he had hated 
me, and I hope I should have been suffi- 
ciently impartial and devoted to tbe best 
interests of the association to have put him 
on my slate, but I am not quite sure that 
bad I known him to be my enemy I should 
have had the grace to ask permission to pre- 
sent his name. 

I am thus frank about my part in Mr. 
Sadler's election to the presidency of the 
association because I wish to make a cleixn 
breast of it, because I like to be open and 
above board in all that I do, and think that 
I was doing just the right thing for the asso- 
ciation at this particular time. 

I know Sadler. He is one of uiy boys. I 
bad the honor of teaching him in tbe Buffalo 
College in 1859, and have watched his career 
with a sort of fatherly interest and pride 
from that time to the present. He is true 
blue. Not a drop of mean blood flows in 
his veins. He is a square man. He is an 
honor to the profession which he loves. He 
has a warm and loyal heart and is as tender 
iu every fibre of his soul as a woman and as 
brave as be is tender. I expect that he will 
make the best presiding officer the associa- 
tion has ever had. He has a fine presence, 
but is very diffident and shrinks from pub- 
lic position, He imagines that he cannot 
speak in public and avoids it if possible. 
But he is really a good speaker both in mat- 
ter and manner. When be speaks occasion- 
ally he shuts his eyes with a nervous quiver 
in the lids. He does this. I presume, because 
he thinks nobody will see him if he sees 
nobody, which relieves this feeling of em- 
barrassment from which he suffers so much. 

Let us all gather around Sadler next sum- 
mer at the ann\ial meeting in Milwaukee, 
and in fuH sympathy with his earnest, warm, 
nijmly nature unite our heads, hearts, and 
hands on behalf of the grand cause of busi- 

ness education, and become more closely 
bound together fraternally for all time to 

Robert C. Spencek. 

Milwaukee, Wis., July 28, 1886. 

A few points in relation to Mr. Sadler 
which would be of interest to our readers 
Mr, Spencer seems to have omitted. Mr. 
Sadler was born at Lockport, this State, and 
completed the course of study at the high 
school in bis native city, when he entered 
and completed a course of study at tbe Bry- 
ant & Stratton Business College, at Buffalo, 
when he returned to Lockport and accepted 
the position of principal of the commercial 
department of the Lockport Union School. 
This place he held wilh honor for three 
years, when he fell under the scrutiny of Mr. 
Stratton. who was ever on the lookout for 
"coming men" in his profession. Stratton 
saw in Mr. Sadler the eminent qualities 
which he has since displayed with such sig- 
nal effect, and at once engaged him for im- 
portant duties in his great work. He was 
first placed, for a brief term, in tbe Buffalo 
and Cleveland Colleges, but finally trans- 
ferred to Rochester, where in connection 
with J. V. R. Chapman, he established the 
Bryant «fc Stratton College, now known as 
the Rochester Business University, o^ that 

here was immedi 
assured, as he laid ihefoundationof what li 
since been one of the most marked and pri 

cators Association, is simply a fitting recog- 
nition of his ability and his 25 years of able 
and successful work in the field of business 

His remarks upon being conducted to the 
chair after his election, although informal 
and entirely off hand were among the most 
happy and taking efforts made during the 

After expressing his thanks for so unani- 
mous an election, he said: "It was my 
pleasure to attend the first meeting of busi- 
ness educators held in this city during the 
holidays of '64, and with but two exceptions 
I have been present at every succeeding 

In my opinion there has never been any 
such soul-inspiring meeting as this. From 
the opening day to the present, we have 
had inspiring thoughts from inspiring teacb- 
ers and the lessons that have been here 
tavight will be productive of great good. This 
session has given to business education an 
impetus that could not have been acquired 
in any other way. and I feel that each of us 
will return to our respective homes better 
prepared to do our work, to be better teach- 
ers and better men. For the many pleasures 
that have been arranged for us by Bro. 
Packard and Bro. Spencer we shall ever be 
under the deepest obligations, and I can 
joiagiue in future years when some of our 
younger members rise in the experience 


perous of business schools. In December, 
1863, he was married to Miss Letitia H. 
Ellicott, daughter of the late Andrew EUi- 
cott, of Orleans County, N. Y., whose 
ancestors were among tbe first settlers of 
Ellicott Mills. Maryland. In tbe summer of 
1864 he established, in connection with Bry- 
ant & Stratton, the Baltimore Business Col- 
lege, of which he has ever since been the 

One would suppose that in a work so ex- 
tended and well performed, one man would 
find all tliat his hands and head could do ; 
but there has been no time within the past 
fifteen years when Mr. Sadler has not been 
interested in a more general way in business 
education. First, as co author and pub- 
lisher of Orton & Sadler's Business Calcula- 
tor, and, more recently, as senior author and 
publisher of Sadler's Counting House Arith- 
metic, he has shown marked ability and 
achieved marked success. Of the Calculator 
over 40,000 copies were sold within six 
months, and the Arithmetic has been a real 
success — having won golden opinions from 
the best and most critical teachers of the 
country, in whose schools it is now the text- 

As an educator, Mr. Sadler's specialty is 
commercial calculations — in the teaching of 
which he is almost unrivalled. 

Mr. Sadler is now in bis forty-fifth year, 
having been born September 30th, 1841. He 
is a man of fine presence and most genial 
manners, and impresses every one with 
whom he comes in contact with his earnest- 
ness and honesty. He is as simple-hearted 
as a child and as true as steel. His election 
as the executive officer of Ibe Business Edu- 

mcetings and recall tbe many remiuiscenses 
of what was done iu 1886, how interesting 
will be their description of tbe entertainment 
at the Twilight Club— the sail up the Hud- 
son — the pleasures of lona Island, and Ihe 
impromptu dinner provided by the Dromios 
Spencer at Manhattan Beach, which called 
forth the maiden speech of " ' Robby Spencer, 
Dicky Nelson, " and oi hers, with what pathos 
will be described the ride of yesterday 
through Central and Riverside Parks — the 
visit to the tomb of Genrral Grant under 
the guidance of Bro. Packard. They 
will picture him as he rode up and down the 
line on his mettled steed, pointing out the 
places of interest and making hapful 
his many guests. If ever we had an 
opportunity to make a general of a business 
educator it was yesterday. They will tell of 
our efforts last night to make a general of 
this great and good man, and how he with 
tears in his eyes declined the honor, saying. 
"Don't call me General, call me Silas." 
(Great applause.) I trust that every member 
here present will make the resolution to 
meet us in Milwaukee in 1887. and con- 
tinue the good work in the cause of business 
education. (Applause.) 


The force by which the pen is carried in 
different directions must work through some 
instrumentality. The action which results, 
is termed a movement. 

In writing, the instruments used are the 
pen-fingers, the forearm and the wholearm, 
giving rise to the three principal movements 
Q^med respectively, th^ flQg^f movement, 

the forearm or muscular movement, and the 
wholearm movement. 

Tbe finger movement is made by the ex- 
tension and retraction of the pen-fingers by 
flexion at the second joint of the first and 
second fingers, and at the first joint of the 
thumb, which also moves as far as its origin 
at the wrist. 

To teach this to your darlings, hold a pen 
in your hand so that all can see. Call their 
attention to the fact that the fingers are bent 
down at the second joint, and the thumb out 
at the first ; thus holding the pen in a me- 
dium position capable of being moved up- 
wards or downwards. Show them, that if 
the fingers and thumb were straight, the pen 
would be fully extended, and an up stroke 
could not be made; if they were bent as 
much as possible, the pen would be fully 
retracted, and no downward stroke could be 
made. Hence the convenience of the me- 
dium position. 

Next show that by straightening tbe 
thumb, the pen is pushed upwards ; and 
that when the thumb pushes, the fingers 
yield at the second joint. In this way an 
up stroke is made. 

Then show, that by bending the fingers at 
the second joint, the pen is pushed down- 
wards, and that the thumb in turn yields by 
bending at the first joint, and giving way as 
far as the wrist. In this way the down 
stroke is made. 

The forearm or muscular movement con- 
sists of the forward and backward and of 
the lateral movement of the forearm on the 
arm rest — that is, the muscle below the 
elbow — as the centre of motion. The com- 
bination of these two produces the oblique 

Tbe wholearm movement is used mainly 
for striking large capitals and for flourish- 
ing. In this, the hands, steadied on its rest, 
is moved as required by the action of the 
wholearm from the shoulder as the centre 
of motion. 

Combined movements result from the 
union of any two or all of the mo\emen(«. 
In tbe execution of work, two things are to 
be accomplished, the up strokes and down 
strokes of the letters, and the keeping of the 
hand in the same relative position for each 
succeeding part by moving it to the right 
across the column. The finger movement 
secures the former, and the lateral part of 
the forearm movement iu the latter. 

The pen being correctly held, and the 
hand rightly placed, whenever the pen-fin- 
gers move up obliquely to make the up- 
strokes, the hand rest, and in consequence 
the whole hand is moved sideways by the 
action of the forearm. When the pen fin- 
gers move down, the forward movement of 
the hand and its rest is stopped, because the 
down siroke is towards the left, and no ad- 
vance of the hand is needed. The fingers 
make the up strokes and down strokes of 
the letter, the rest slides forward upon gen- 
eral principles on a straight horizontal line 
for each up stroke, and stops whilst each 
down stroke is made. See class 1 of the 
Peircerian System of Penmanship. 

It is very difficult for pupils to acquire this 
combined movement. Care should be taken 
therefore, that in writing they do not lift 
the point of the pen from the paper till the 
group of letters or the word is written, ex 
cept in the introductory lines of a, d, g, ij, 
c, I, and first part of p. 

In the execution of work under Class 2, 
the hand rest should be made to participate 
in the movements of the fingers. As they 
move oblitmely up and down, it {the hand 
rest) should do the same, describing a letter 
of the same form, but making it of less 
height, because part of the movement is 
made by the finpers. 

In the third class where the fulcrum of 
the baud is movable and stationary, in Ihe 
same letter the execution partakes of the 


The f II 1 ^f I I 


quired bj pi isi'-t( n 
experience teaches 
thoroughly drilled in the 

AI3 molhert 
that if pupilb an 
: accurate execution 
of the forms of Ihe letters as soon as thcv 
ha%e sufficient practice and proper training 
they run at once into a business hand. 

The most superlative movement without 
accurate and trraceful forms is absolutely 
worthless, while on the other hand, real 
gi-ace and finish can only be secured by free 
aud practiced movement. 

Our Business College Friends. 


A Bomcwiiat comprehensive record of \he 
.ii>ing8 of the Biisiness Educators of Ameri- 
ca at tlicir recent meeting in New York is 
presented clsewbere in tbcac pages. The 
ctiuses tlmt brought tliem togeilicr, the 
results of lliat intermingling, the sccdo tbey 
sowed, the luirvest they cxpecl to reap, tbe 
wise tilings tbey said and did. and tbe wine 
tbiugs tbey thought tbey did, are presented 
in detail, ao far as tbe .Iouknai/p resources 
of time and space would permit. Tbe 
atudenl of commercial science is referred to 
that record. lie will Ilnd in it much to 
interest and instruct. He will see how full 
of caruestuess and enthusiasm are tbe men 
and women whose life work is training 
hoys anil girls to handle tbe machinery of 
practical alTnirs ; showing them how to 
earn their living, to become good citizens, 
and tbe makers of civilization. 

The observations which follow are born 
of another purpose. Tbey are neither phil- 
osnpbiciil nor historic ; lis much as anything 
a sort of smoked-glass view of the less 
weighty incidents of the convention. If 
the outlines appear a little misty, the indul- 
gent reader is requested to charge tbe delin- 
quency to tbe erratic properties of tbe glass 
or of tbe unolHcial optic behind it. 

That was a very happy hit of Dr. Buck- 
ley's in attributing to Mr. Packard "a sort 
of ghostly ubiquity." Tbe words fit each 
other and they fit tbe man — at least wbeu be 
has bis hands full of convention. For two 

man. who niagnilied his office and stood 
upon iU dignity. He was courteous in bis 
rulings and gave intelligent direction to tbe 
business, tiray, of Portland, an old timer. 
was grave and sagacious, and had a way of 
looking at a subject on all sides, which gave 
bis opinions great weight. He looks more 
like a country judge than a teacher of com- 
mercial subjects. Stowell, of Providence, 
is a Sflf-asscrtive and self-contained indi- 
vidual. What be knows he knows, and is 
not averse to telling it. lie can parrj' an 
inquiry with tbe skill and grace of a scien- 
tific boxer, and gets in a blow on the smeller 
quite as frequently as the fellow pitted 
against him. Gaines, of Pojighkeepsie. boa 
a boyish appearance, but speaks likea man, 
and made a good impression. His plan of 
alternating prayer meetings with round 
dances as the readiest means of promoting 
knowledge and morality took the Educators 
by storm. It seems likely that the business 
colleges will hereafter profit by the Gaines 
method. Bro. Smith, of Lexington, bung 
about the edges of tbe Convention during 
the first day or two, when be mysteriously 
disappeared ; but not until the Graphic man 
bad captured his photograph. The Educa- 
tors are at a loss to know where Bro. Smith 
comes in, and why Bro. Ilinman was left 
out. But Bro. Ilinman don't need a keeper. 
He seems to know enough to go in when it 
rains, which is more than everybody knows. 
The twin Spencers, Henry and Harvey, 
posed well as the "two Dromios " at tbe 
Manhattan Beach dinner and were generally 
on hand when there was anything going on. 
The opening meeting at Chickering Hall 
came near being a success, though the night 

presence of the Great Electric Light of the 
West, who is supposed to have been detained 
by the preparation of article 99 of a short 
series on "Letter Writing." Bro. Isaacs, 
of Valparaiso, sent regrets and a paper on 
commercial correspondence, which was 
kindly relegated to Ibe sacred precincts of 
the published proceedings. Not so with 
Mrs. Spencer's paper on ** Women in Busi- 
ness," which was read with proper unction 
and evoked tbe inevitable applause. Mrs. 
Spencer's bodily absence from tbe Conven- 
tion was a matter of regretful comment. 
The brothers didn't feel quite happy over it, 
and " Bob " lacked the quickening influence 
of her ready repartee. He got in a few 
good-natured licks, however, in aebaracter 
istic speech against a vote of thanks for the 
paper. He failed to see why the men should 
be continuously assailed for the limited op- 
portunities and general shortcomings of 
women. On tbe other hand, he felt that 
for the shortcomings of men women were 
quite as much to blame as tbe men them- 
selves. He thought the apple tree transac- 
tion in Eden didn't reflect any great credit 
on either party, and was particularly dis- 
creditable to Adam, who couldn't keep the 
secret. Packard wouldn't have been so un- 
gallant, nor did he think any member of 
this Convention would. 

The Educators were well cared for in the 
way of recreation, and in this regard bad 
abundant opportunities for testing tbe facil- 
ities of tbe metropolis, and the fertility of 
tbe Packard brain. First tbe Packard 
Alumni took tbe body on a day's trip up the 
Hudson, spending four hours at loua Island, 
where a bountiful dinner was spread. They 


mony between form and movement ; neither 
Sadler. Stowell, nor indeed Bro. Kelson 
himself could figure out the slightest mar- 
gin of discount ; Bro. Miller, of Newark, 
wept feelingly between snatcbesof " I want 
to be an Angel ;" Gainee took notes with a 
view to introducing a uniform for slate oc- 
casions among his faculty ; while tbe as- 
tounding apparition threw Bro. Brown into 
such a spasm of nervousexcitementtbat the 
combined muscular eloquence of bis neigh- 
bors was required to prevent bis plunging 
through the glass panel of his Victoria, and 
fleeing precipitately to the nearest woods. 
Long after, when tbe danger was over, be 
explained that they don't have such "con- 
traptions " in Jacksonville. 

As tbe Mikado people say. ''It was a 
touching sight to see." 

weeks before tlu- Educators came, Mr. Pack- 
ard scarcely knew where to look for him- 
self. Now chartering a steamer, now hiring 
a hall; revising "souvenir" copy for the 
printers, mapping out a plan of work for 
the Convention, buttonholing newspaper 
men. bearding hotel clerks in their dens, and 
torturing bis brains with a thousand and 
one inventions, all pointing in tbe direction 
of comfort and pleasure for the Educators. 
Some of tbe wires may possibly have failed 
to work, but enough of them did respond to 
make tbe visitore very joyful over their 
cnming, nor did this restless activity dimin- 
ish with tbe lathering of the clans. It 

I fed upon. Tbe 
I {.'(iinmitlee ap- 
' - of bis position; 

■emed to iri 
Chairman -t 
predated Dm 
and what tm 
when one's n-piuatiou is .it sudic ? Surely 
of slight consequence to such as Packard. 

Prom the start, the Convention was an 
assured success. It couldn't have failed 
under any circumstances. It contained the 
wiseacres and spout ers and camp followers 
of the Association, men not only witty in 
themselves, but the occasion of wit in others. 
"Bob" Speucerwas there with his genial 
face, bis ready guffaw, and his rare faculty 
of saying serious things in a humorous way. 
Brown, of Jacksonville, with his goggles 
set at the proper angle, ever on the alert for 
!i chance to strike out from the shoulder. 
He bad one rule — never to let a subject pass 
without discussion, and rather than suffer 
such u mistake be would discuss it himself, 
whether he understood it or not. The Presi- 
dent, Mr, Hider, was n solemn, punctual 

was blistering hot and the assembly room 
simply the worst ventilated in the city. The 
Mayor presided in tbe person of the Presi- 
dent of the Board of Aldermen, who took 
occaaion to exalt his own position, while be 
bestowed becoming praise on the Educators. 
Ex-Gov. Chamberlain contributed an excel- 
lent address, filling the Educators full of 
self appreciation. Prof. Hunt who was in- 
troduced as a teacher, but who claims to be 
a lawyer, attempted in a thirty minutes 
speech to exhibit the wit there is in brevity, 
but so far as his hearers were concerned, 
seemed to fall short of making his point. 
He was to be succeeded by Rev. Dr. Buck- 
ley of the Chrintian Advocate, wbo had a well 
thought out speech in the pulpit and press 
as coadjutors of education, but refused to 
inflict it upon the audience under such cir- 
cumstances Packard's ready resources 
wore, however, equal to the occasion. He 
rung iu a little coup d' etat that evoked from 
Bro. Buckley an off band speech which kept 
the audience in a slate of hilarious humor. 
The Arcadian Club relieved tbe eutertain- 
ment with appropriate songs, and altogether 
the welcome boom passed off with eclat, 
more or less punctured with thermometer, 
which stood at ninety degrees in the shade. 
Mr. Packard s paper on "Tbe Manage- 
ment of Schools," turned out to be a sort of 
bible for the faithful, laying down the prin- 
ciples of education in general and business 
education in particular. The brethren very 
graciously awarded their thanks, and Pack- 
aixl scored the first run. Tbe penmen held 
their morning sessions at tbe Speucerian 
College, but they lacked the illuminating 

had the stenn:cr and the Ii^Iand to them- 
selves and their frietds, heard speeches 
from all the funny members and witnessed 
various athletic games between the Packard- 
ites and Ridcritcs of Trenton. President 
Rider bad his boys trained for tbe occasion, 
and took great pleasure in seeing them 
gobble up tbe cream of tbe prizes. On 
Thursday they were tbe guests of the Twi- 
light Club at Brighton Beach, where four 
hundred took dinner, and heard some excel 
lent speeches on "Tbe Problem of the 
Hour." On Saturday evening a trip was 
taken to Manhattan Beach, and a dinner 
given by the twin Spencers, who, sealed at 
either end of tbe table posed as tbe two 
Dromios with admirable skill and perfect 
effect. Possibly tbe most enjoyable of all 
the outings was the cavalcade procession to 
the tomb of General Grant at Riverside 
Park. The ladies of tbe Convention- 
twenty in number — wbo had spent the day 
as tbe guests of Mrs. Packard, at her home 
in East 73d Street, visiting tbe Park an.l 
MetroDolitan Museimi of Art, were joined 
by the gentlemen at five o'clock in the after- 
noon. Carriages were in waiting and the 
pilgrimage began, '^e moat picturesque 
figure in the proce^ion was Packard, 
mounted on a flery charger leading the van 
in the capacity of Lord High Marshal, Ar- 
rayed in a vast smile, bobtail velvet jacket, 
white points and cavalry boots, he was tbe 
cynosure of all eyes. " Bob" Spencer was 
so startled by tbe spectacle that his features 
grew rigid and tbe normal smile was knocked 
out of time ; Hiuman's eyes sparkled in rap- 
turous contemplation of tbe perfect bar- 

Good Taste. 


Good taste is a notably rare thing. All 
men have tastes ; and to a certain extent we 
may say that all men have taste ; but good 
taste— which is both a gift and an acquire- 
ment — belongs to companitively few. 

Good taste is tbe Midas touch that turns 
everything to gold. It makes very little 
difference what material comes to band, if 
only this transforming power is brought to 
bear upon it. Wild flowers of tbe field, or 
rare exotics worth almost their weight in 
gold, are equally susceptible to tbe beauty- 
giving power. And who shafl say that a 
handful of wild flowers arranged with ex- 
quisite taste, is not more beautiful than an 
armful of hothouse blossoms put together by 
a vulgar hand V 

Perhaps there is nothing that shows more 
strikingly tbe difference, tbe wide contrast 
between good taste and bad taste (or no taste 
at all), than penmanship. It is one of the 
charms of the art of penmanship, that it 
affords opportunity for the exercise of the 
most delicate taste, both in tbe matter of ex- 
ecution and the manner of criticism. As in 
all other arts, so in penmanship, there are 
two classes of work— the coarse, pretentious, 
elaborate and showy, and the more simple, 
truthful, elegant and neat. It is in judging 
between these two classes, and in choosing 
one's own style, that the good taste of the 
penman finds opportunity for exercise. 

I have said that good taste was both a gift 
and an ac(piirement. It is a gift in the 
sense that some persons are incapable of it — 
totally incapable. No amount of education, 
no culture by example, nor correction of 
fault, can ever bring them to distinguish be- 
tween the truly beautiful and the pretentious 
and showy. Tbey are wholly lacking in the 
artistic sense. 

On tbe other hand, good taste is an ac- 
quirement in the sense that it improves, be 
comes more discriminating.more susceptible. 
by cultivafinn The nnlnral gift may be in- 
creased. 'I lir iiilnii in ilic napkin may be 
put out ;ii n-iii\ iinl niurn its possessor 
many folil "n [n- iiiM-inniii. 

Good tii-'U i- ilir II. . .-ssnry equipment of 
a good penman. He must be able to dis- 
tinguish between what is really excellent and 


cuIIl-iI -UII.-.IS, ■ uhw ill. lu.t ljL--iUtlc lo pro- 
uouuc-C it ■' liutr" than tbe delicate, tasteful 
'^ork of really accomplished penmen. 

Fortunately, since tbe fundamental prin- 
ciples of the artofpcnmimsLip liavc been for- 
mulated, and wbnt 111. IV l.r I iMril ilii;isthet- 
ics of writing, ba VI m i. ' i h rs-iood. 

Ibis coarse and 11 nciving 

thecondciiiiiiiiii'i! ■■ : :. .i..- llisa 

part of II 1 i I I.' l'K>MAN*8 Art 


to cdii 

sof itsclasj 

I : iH, in the 

■ ■ . ■ . . Hint its 

nil.- I lie model 

■ i.i \ iv \uW icii mure truly 
I \ iiiLj to ilic artistic sense. 
rinn- .'Kioriimeiit. less of 
u\\ ili;iri that of a gcDCra- 
aging'devclopment. In some respects, it is 
a development which puts to shame that of 
other arts in this country, nolably tbe art of 
poetry, which is still yearning after the flesh 
pots and tbe metaphysical obscurities of tbe 
most meretricious school that ever existed. 

scope aiii 

has less ( 

VK I -Jot KvviJ 


PubUnhed Monthly at »1 per Y. 

Specimen eople* fumUfaed to AgtaH fi 

m'oo ' tu.w' tuio.oo «lTS.<n 



the •'standard PraoUcal PeumftMlilp." wUJ both bemoUed 
8ub^b«?^rBm^tlii'£7a'^hSlJe"of either of the' "ll^ 

•■ Flouri^od E««le, "'' - *^™?*' . uxsa 

•_•_ Bounding St««, ■ Uz31 


-111 b6 olTen bT e 

The Late Educators' Convention 

As Mrs. Miilaprop would sny, " Com- 
purisons are odorous," and so we will not 
draw jiny between the recent convention 
and any one that has preceded it. There 
would be little danger, however, in saying 
that if the estimate of those in attendance 
is lo he taken it was equal in all respects to 
any one of the seven that have been held 
under the present organization. In some 
respects it was clearly ahead. We speak 
particularly of its social character, and in 
doing so we arc aware that we speak of a 
very important element iu the success of 
the association. It was a happy thought to 
have "a day off" so early in the session, 
and its good effect was seen and felt all 
through the work. The convention was 
not large, not more than half as large as it 
should have been under the circumstances, 
but even in this respect it was quite aCove 
the average. There was, besides, no lack 
of enthusiasm. And beyond all there was 
no working at cross purposes, no "aide 
issues." and absolutely no '• politics" to 
mar the pleasure of the meeting or to inter- 
fere with its great purpose. One of ihe 
best assurances of this is the fact that the 
very last session, which included the clec- 
lion of officers for the succeeding year, was 
the most enthusiastic and harmonious that 
were held. There were some dear and 
familiar faces missing, but the published 
proceedings will show that there was no 
lack of material or of ability. It was, 
without doubt, the most substantial con- 
vention which the association has yet held, 
and one whose intluence for good will be 
felt in the rears to come. 

Remember, you can get the JomiNAT. one 
year, and a 75-cent book free, for |1 ; or a 
|1 book and the Journal for $1.25. Do 
your friends a favor by telling them. 

Exhibits at the Convention. 

In one of the spacious rooms of the Pack- 
ard College, where the convention met, 
were several exhibits of penmanship, books, 
type writers, stenographs, etc. Conspicu- 
ous among the penmanship designs were 
two large skillfully designed and well exe- 
cuted specimens by J. M. Harkins, penman 
at Curtiss Business College. Minneapolis, 
Minn. Mr. Harkins is certainly to be 
ranked among our most skilled and promis- 
ing pen artists. W. E. Dennis exhibited 
several well executed specimens of off hand 
flourishing. From the office of the Journal 
was exhibited the original of the Grant 
Menioriul. and an extensive variety of 
original designs for diplomas, commercial 
form.s, etc., as drawn for photoengraving 
and photo lithography ; also copies of 
Ames" New Compendium and Guide to 
Practical and Artistic Penmanship. Works 
on bookkeeping were exhibited by Dr. J. 
0. Bryant of Buffalo, N. Y., and Richard 
Nelson, of Cincinnati, Ohio. An extensive 
variety of pens, ink and other penmen's 
supplies, together with specimen pages of 
the new Spencerian Compendium and Copy 
Book, were exhibited by the bouse of 
Ivison, Blakeman. Taylor & Co., 753 Broad- 
way, New York, 

The King Club 

For this month numbers twelve, and was 
sent by Fred. S. Lyman. Jr., Honolulu, 
Oahu, Sandwich Islands Mr. Lyman writes 
a handsome letter and says he expects to 
send a larger club when the schools open iu 
the fall. The Queen club numbers ten and 
was sent by I. W. Patton, of the Elmira 
(N. Y.) School of Commerce. 


"Sadler's Commercial Arithmetic."— In 
another column will be found the advertise- 
ment of Sadler's Commercial Arithmetic. 
Those of our readers who are familiar with 
Prof. Sadler's former successful efforts iu 
this direction will naturally expect an im- 
proved text book as the result of bis ripened 
experience as an author and teacher of busi- 
ness arithmetic ; but after a careful review 
of its contents we venture the prediction 
that even his warmest admirers will be sur- 
prised at the extent of the improvements 
upon former methods contained in the pres- 
ent work. It is literally a "new" arith- 
metic, not only with reference to the time 
of its production, but also in regard to its 
contents ; and unlike many other things 
that are simply "new," every departure 
from the older methods is a decided im 
provement. Not the least of its improve- 
ments is its omission of the great amount of 
impractical, unteachable matter which cum- 
bers the pages of most other arithmetics. 
We believe that with this work as the text- 
book it is now possible for a student with 
few educational advantages to acquire a 
thorough and permanent knowledge of 
practical arithmetic in the few months 
usually devoted to a business college courae, 
and for this reason will be welcomed with 
special favor by the business college fra- 
ternity. It certainly is admirably adapted 
to meet the particular needs of business col- 

" Holmes' First Reader." by George F. 
Holmes, LL. D. Copyrighted and pub- 
lished by the University Publishing Co., 
New York, is not only admirably adapted 
to its purpose as a first reader but it is in all 
respects one of the finest specimens of the 
art of flue book making we have ever ex- 
amined. The type is clear and elegant, 
while the illustrations are the perfection of 
design and the engravers' art. Its pages 
are interspersed with script, the copy for 
which was prepared iu the art department 
of the Journal. 

" Sheldon's Elementary Arithmetic," ad- 
vance pages of which have been received, 
appears to be a most attractive and in- 
genious presentation of the first and most 
difficult lessons in arithmetic. The illustra- 
tions all furnish a helpful assistance to both 
the learner and teacher. The book will 
contain 208 pages, at an introductory price 
of 40 cents. This book should certainly be 
examined by all teachers of arithmetic, and 
especially by primary teachers. Address 
Sheldon A Co., New York. 

"The Kindergarten and the School ' is 
an interesting and valuable treatise upon 
that deservedly popular .department of edu- 
cational work. It consists of HQ pages, 
with numerous illustrations of kindergarten 
methods and work, and will be an invalu- 
able aid alike to teachers and pupils in that 
class of schools. Published by Milton, 
Bradley & Co., Springfield, III. Mailed 

"Manual of Correspondence," by Connor 
O'Dea, Secretary of British American 
Business College, Toronto; Ontario. This 
work consists of ((6 large pages, and gives 
with the usual information respecting the 
rules for composition and letter writing a 
large number of practical examples of the 
various styles of correspondence, photo- 
engraved direct from the actual pen and 
ink, thus placing before the writer good 
examples of actual letter writing. It will 
be found to be an attractive and valuable 
aid to teachers of correspondence. See ad- 
vertisement in anothfir column. 

"Allen's Forty Lessons Double Entry 
Bookkeeping," as used in actual business. 
Prepared for use iu Graded and High 
Schools. Complete in itself. No blanks 
required. Price by mail $1.50. By George 
Allen, New Berne, N. C. 

"Essays on Educational Reformers." 
By R. H. Quick. Rending-Club Edition. 
16mo., pp. 330. Syracuse, N. Y., C. W. 
Bardeen, $1.50. The plates from which 
this work has hitherto been issued having 
become so worn as to necessitate renewal, 
the page has been made uniform with the 
"Reading-Club" editions of Sully's " Out- 
lines of Psychology with special reference 
to the Theory of Education." Tate's " Phil- 
osophy of Education," Payne's "Science 
and Art of Education," DeGraff's "School- 
Room Guide," etc. We have examined 
this work with more than a passing interest. 
It is replete with valuable thoughts and 
suggestions upon a wide range of topics. 
Any reader would And $1.50 invested in 
this book a more than satisfactory return, 

• • Nelson's New Bookkeeping, " announced 
iu another column, and lately noticed 
in this column, can now be examined 
and purchased at this office. We are quite 
certain that accountants or teachers of 
bookkeeping will find this not only a 
valuable book for study hut for reference. 

"Poor's Directory of Railway Officials 
and Railway Directors for 1886 " is a valu- 
able handbook for Railroad men. It is 
conveniently arranged and well printed, 
and gives a list of the officials of every rail- 
road in the United States, Canada, Mexico, 
Central America, South America, West 
ludies. Great Britain, and Ireland, Mailed 
for $3.00. H. V. & H. W. Poor. (P. O. 
Box 232), 70 Wall street, New York. 

" The National Builder," a monthly jour- 
nal devoted to practical building. Pub- 
lished by the National Builder Company, 
Thos. E. Hill, President, George M. Poi- 
teous. Treasurer, William D. Ivennedy, 
Secretary. Publication office. No. 103 
State street, Chicago, $3.00 per year, 
single copy 35 cents. To all who are con- 
templating building, or who are in any 
manner interested in fine and economical 
architecture, the Builder will he of rare 
interest. Few if any parties have devoted 
more or equally appreciative attention and 
study to modern architecture than Prof. 
Thos. E. Hill, who is the chief director of 
the publication. 

And School Items. 

0. \V, Temple, foruieily at Valparaiso, Ind,. has 
ciiKueod to tench pcDcnanBhlp and coitimerc!(il 
brunt-bes at the Alamo Business College San An- 
tonio, Texas, after September lat. 

L. B. Walden, lately at Manchester, Ky., has en- 
i;a»eil to teach in the Bitainesa College. 

A. I), Skeels, fiinnerlf of Romeo, MIcb, has en- 
gaped to teach in the Chatham. Ontario Business 

Hege, be says ; '• I can never Bpoak sufficiently 
in praise of the Joorhal for its assistance to me iu 
my home practice." 

A. M. Mayner will bave charge of the penman- 
ship depurtmcnt at the Central Normal College. 
Danville, Ind,, diuioir the ensuing year. 

delphla. Pa., 
cerian Writing Academy " in that city on Oct«>b< 
McCool Ls an accomplished penman in 
to line, and we wiph him 

■ Creaton (Iowa), 

both the plain and n 
success In bis new venture. 

We copy the following f 
paper. " Prof, rcrry T. Benton, t 
manship In oar schools departed for his homo at 
Matteson. Mich., yesterday, where on m-xt Tues- 
day, be will wed Miss Kffie M. Owen, The i-uuple 
will return to Creston in Aiipiisl and will make 
their home in tblsotty among the scoroa of friends 
made by tlie groom during hia sojourn here," 

Warren H.Lamson, for several year« past special 
teacher of writing and drawing in the public 
schools of Lynn, Mass.. has accepted a position as 
tea';her and superintendent of the same branohei) 
for the ensuing year, at Bridgeport, Conn. 

The Fort Worth (Texas), Business College lield 
its seventh annual commencement exercises on the 
srth. The Port Worth OomIU says : 

" The saccesa of the Fort Worth Busiuesa Col- 
lege is assured and it is steadily growing in Its use 

C. N. Crandle has entered into a partnership with 
A. C. West, in conducting an Institute of Pen- 
mausliiji and Fen Art. at Nashville, Teim. Both 
gentlemen are skiUed penmen, and ought to win 
success, for which they have our best wishes. 

Prof. A. J, Scarborough, formerly of the Cedar 
Rapids (Iowa) Business College, has accepted a 
position aa editor of the Penman's QazttU. Chicago. 
The Prof, has written some very bright tbhigs for 
7'A« iSun, recently, and ought to make the QautU 
a desirable paper for all o\asB6i.~Pec'k Sun. 

We hereby return our thanks to P. W, H. Wiese- 
bahn, pen artist and expert. St. Louts, Mo,, for u 
copy of the report of the late trial of Maxwell for 
the murder of Priller. In which case Mr. W. gave 
skilled and valuable testimony as an expert res- 
pecting the Identity of certain incriminating writ- 
ing as Maxwell's. 

A Business University has jtist been incorporated 
In Chicago, with J. G. Cross, M. A., author of Elec- 
tric Shoithand. President, F. F. Judd, expert ac- 
countant, Dean of the College of Commerce, and 
O. W. Royer. practical reporter. Dean of the Cen- 
tral College of Electric Shorthand This Is a strong 
combination as Ihe many pDplls and friends of 
these business educators can testify, and under 
their management the new tTnlversity cannot tall 
to be successful. 

At the Business Educators meeting at Jackson- 
ville, a year ago at an evening reception, Mr, II. C. 
Spenoersald: " I do not know whether there isa. 
God." ThiB remark has been wantonly dlBtovted 
into the declaration timt he said— there is iio(;iJil 
While many great philosophers assert lielief In a 
personal Deity even the most eminent rarely claim 
an absolute knowledge of him. The usual belief 
that there Is a living God was expressed by A.J. 
Kider, H. C. Spencer, and several others on the oc- 
casion referred to. 

H. F. Vogel, pen artist. St. Louis, Mo., Is spend- 
ing some weeks with C. H. Peirce, at Keokuk, 
Iowa, studying the true " philosophy of motion." 

[Persons sending specimens for i 

) that the packatres containing 

rtt\>le consJdeiatioD for a gratuitoufl 

t II. D. Allison. Dublin, N. H. 
S. J. Roblnett. Liberty, Ala. 
G. W. Temple. Valparaiso, Ind. 
J. E. Whitman, Tremont, Pa., and a club of s 

J. K. DcPne, Hoald's Baslneas College, San Finn- 
Cisco. Cal„ and a club of five subscribers. 

C. E. Webber, East Portland, Oregon. 

D. A. GriSIttK, Capital Business College, Au'ttin, 

J. R, Gondler, International Business College, 
Prrt nnion. Mich. 

II 11. Kellogg, Auuku, Minn. 

J. J. Ilagen, Newburg. Minn. 

T. H. MoCool, Spencerian Writing Aeademy. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

E L. Gllck, Saranuu, Midi. 

W. L. Parks. La Salle. 111. 

A. N. Palmer, editor of the Wtsttm P»iiman, 
Cedar Ilaplds, Iowa. 

J. S. Cooley. Nlantlc, Conn. He 8«ys: "Your 
paper Is doing a world of good In our schools 

L. M. Uohnea. Raelern, Ind., Normal School and 
Commercial College. Portland. Ind. 

A, S. Randolph, penman, Carml. III. 

C. R. McCullongh, Belleville (Ont.), Biishiess Col 
lege and club, he says : " I cannot xpeak too highly 
of the .loimNAi. and Iti« aid to me In the work of 
teaching penmanship." 

F. J- Smith, Eastern Michigan Nornpul Schoo 

\ A, I-owf, Lynn. Mats. 

iV. E. Harris, Knoxvllle, Tenn. 

r 7*. Irmkeep. Southern Kanm 

loBeM. Kan*. 

!■, B. Sblon. liOfmnaport, Ind. 

H. J, nar(y, St. Loula. Mo. 

X. A. Newhoiise. Llgonler, Ind. 

.rds to express mf appreclntioi 

'1 espeolally the June number. 

1 by Lyman Spencer was alone 

J. K. Whlteleather, Fort Wayne, Ind.. and aolub 
Ira R. Harris, Boston, Mass. 

of the JoDRKAi- 
worth twice the 

J. r. Howard, Tnckerman, Ark. 
tuke $S a year for the Joornai^ 1 1 

.T. W. PattoD, Elmira (N. Y.) Scho 
and a club of 9 names. 

J. W. Harkness, Providence, R. I. 

O. M. Paul, Principal Providence Writing Parlors, 
Saoo, Oregon. 

O. T. Cragln. Manchester, N. II. 

C, L. Meur, Brownsville, Tenn. 

E. W. Yonng, Michigan CHy Ind 
B. P. I'lLikens, Mooresvltle Tenn 

F. Toland.Markato Minn and a tlub of five 

', Taylor. Taylor's Bn»lnes* CuUege, Roches- 

-. N. Y. 

l1 such as he awards 

A. D. Skeela. late of Romeo. Mich 
Chatham (Ontario) Business College, a letter 
handsomely designed 
to lueritoriouB pupils. 

n. F, Vogel. a letter and a pen drawing of 
cherubs. Ac. 

Mary A. Philip, Waukesha, Wis., a letter and 
card designs. 

.1, F. Ilnles, Caniiilieli. Texas, a letter and several 
copy slips, 

L. L. Tucker, of the NewJersey Business College, 
Newark, N. J., a letter and a photo-engraved copy 
of a handsomely engrossed set of resolutions. 

of Gaskell will remain gr< 
m the mluds of the thousands of young people w 
have been benefited by his ia«truction. as ion? 
memory shall endure. 

Very respectfully yours. 

Ddddijitb, Iowa. Jult 9. 1886. 
Prop. Ambs : Extended observation haa con- 
vinced me, and I think all will admit the plausi- 
bility of the conviction, that lliere are few produc- 
tions In the literary or art world that are utterly 
devoid of merit. I further think Itself evident, 
that In criticising an educational work. It is but 
Just and fair, to take as much pains to discover all 
good, as well as alt faulty characteristics, and to 
emphasize Its merits with as much fervency as we 
bestow upon the task of condemning Its lack of 

A critlolsm tlint does not praise more than de- 
nounce, csinot be other than the product of a pre- 
judiced mind, and we cannot learn to regard an 
Individual favorably who thus reviews a published 

In the present heated dlscusiion of Go'»kell a 
Compendium it seem^ that both factions have at 
least partially forgotten ordinary rules of polite 
nesB and In most cases the arguments produced 
both for and against it have consisted more of 

good, and t 

We give the foregoing communication 
complete as it comes to us, evidently from 
the warmest kind of a friend of the Com- 
pendium. But when he says that "As a 
gystetiMtic and well arranged guide lo instruc- 
tion, it is certainly far from heing commend- 
able," he virtually places upon it the seal of 
condemnation. Also, when he says, "I 
do not account for its popularity so much 
on the ground of any special merit it may 
possess as the wonderful genius and skill 
with which it has lieen advertised." lie hits 
a big nail square on the head. Respecliug 
Mr. Showalter's strictures upon our manner 
of criticising the compendium, we wish to 
affirm that we have written no line in envy 
or malice ; upon the other hand, our many 
years of friendly, personal acquaintance 
with Mr. Gaskeil led us to long forbear 
pronouncing what we felt to be a just criti- 
cism upon the compendium, and it was not 
until, through the Oazctlc, he denounced 
copy books and all present methods, declar- 
ing that the compendium was the only good 
substitute that we drew, in the Jodhnal, 
a companson between the unsystematic 
copies of the compendium and those in other 

who h; 
movement oi 
minuie they 
eighteen teorda 
low who said 


pen holding. The second 

re to write ninety Irlten or 

This reminds mc of the fel- 

' he would not be pimishcd 


Such talk as that may take, in out of the 
way places. Undoubtedly the fellows from 
the hoop pole region when they read that 
will think that Michael is " just lightnin," 
and they will do as many have done " who 
have received similar advertisements, situa- 
tions guaranteed " and the like, go and pay 
him fifty dolhirs and learn for themselves 
that "things are not what they seem." 
Surely Michael does not expect u» to 
believe that he ever did any such thing as to 
have a child write ninety lfit€.r» the second 
minute. That is UAi'iu at bkiunning. 

The Almighty does n^ make four year 
old horses in fifteen minutes but gives them 
time to grow. 

The horseman who would drive his prom- 
ising young horse at the top of his speed 
the first time he put him upon the track 
would be looked upon by experienced train- 
ers as a person of very poor judgment, to 
say the least. 

Mtuicle must be developed by degrees 
whether in horse or man. 

Michael will not claim for an instant that 
he prepares the copy for his engraver in his 
rapid style, lie will not claim that he wrote 
the copy for his engraved letter dated April. 
1886, published in his copy book prospectus 
at the rate of from twenty to thirty words 
per minute, if at ali. 

I am personally acquainted with Mr. 
Michael ; 1 have some of his writing ; have 
seen several of his students try to write and 
know whereof I speak. 

Yours very truly, 

W. F. Lyon. 


« pfiofo-engrared from pm^and-ink ropy, executed at the office of the Jodrnal, and is Jiere given i 
example of Artistic Penmanship applied to Business Purposes. 

C. L. Eby, Enreka, Cal. " My file of the Joornai, 
Is complete since January. ISSI. No words of mine 
can portray my appreciation of its value. I thank 
you most cordially for yout devoted att«ntlon to 
the Inlerest of its readers." 

M, B. Moore, card writer, Morgan, Ky.. a letter 
and several i;ood card specimens. 

A. D. Small, a letter and a finely finished swan. 
The latter would have appeared In the Jutjnx&L 
Lad BuSoiently black ink been used to admit of 

J. R. McPiirren, of Gainesville, Texas, a pen 
drawing 23x28 entitled "The Cow Doy." It Is a 
very elaborate piece representing a great amount 
of work and considerable genius. The piece has 
been photo-lithographed, and copies maybe had 
by addressing Mr. MoFan-en. 

Arthur E. Cote, San Beniardo. Cal.. a letter and 
cards. " The Jodunal is the best penman's paper 

T. H, Creger. Whitewater, Wis., a letter and 

E. K, Salbbury, Phcenix, R. I., a letter and a set 
of capitals. 

P. G. Wheeler, Phoonlr, R. I„ a letter and cards. 

J. H.Weulhcrs. Raleigh. K.C.aletter and curds, 
he says, " I congratulate you on your successful 
showing up of the Gaskeil Compendium. I heartily 
endorse every woi-d you huvo said. 

L. MadarasK. a letter and curds which are simply 

t C- W. Jones,Wtchlta, Kans., a letter, several card 
specimens, a nourished bird and a club. 

G. Blxler, Principal of Pen Art Uall, Wooster. 
Ohio, a letlcr, sol of capitals and several card 
specimens In good style. 

W. J. Kinsley. Shenandoah (lowu) Commercial 
I L. M. Elwell, Rurul Dale, Ohio. 

E. L. Wiley. St. Clalrsvllle, Ohio. 

U. B. Worcester, Garden City Business College, 
San .lose, Cal., and a club. 
Miss U. E. Swayze, Muskegon, Mich. 

F. P. Frost, Springfield. Masi. 
O. E. Gilbert, stookhaven. Pa. 

( chas. A. Bobeox, San Fmnclaco, Cal. 
F. F. Judd, Busiuess I'nlversity, Chicago, 111. 
P. S. Heath. Epsom. X. H. 
EmmaB. Adams. Helena, Mont. 

t calm and 

We had not intended entering the arena at all 
but as an Interested reader of all penmanship liter- 
ature, cannot help offering a word upon the sub- 
ject under consideration. 

We have often been asked the question, " How 
do you like Gaskell's CompendlumV" and It is a 
(luestlon that is rather difficult to answer. We 

tcrard to its 

a bright exanipl.', auri looking forward to the time 
when country boys would gaze, admire and won- 
der at my autographs, old and new, as they 
adorned some advertising sheet. I worked faith- 
fully and unceasingly, taking the slips in their reg- 
ular order, and by the time I reached slip nine, bad 
suceeeded in obtsinlng a fair amount of movement 
and could flourish my letters mafrnlficently. 

But I never proceeded further. Not being a nat- 
ural artist, the Hon proved too much for my first 
lesson iu flourishing, so after some spasmodic at- 
tempts, 1 gave lip in despair. 

1 fin rot ttiiiil; t!i:;' U\ii Compendium merits as 
niui'i' ; ■ 1 ■ ,■■[,-■ ■. .■,Ms-eri. neither do I think 
'I'll' ■'■■■■ I !i iiindenination as \e now 

iK'i'iK ■ ■ ■■..,;,,( !)) someuf ourprofesslonal 
tt-'ii'l" I - v- Li ^.LLmatlc and well arranged 
guide to instruction, it la certainly far from being 
at all commendable, yet It has a great deal of 
merit, and thousands of skilled penmen can testify 
that there Is some magtoal force about It that In- 
spires earnest effort and crontes a determination to 
master the intricacies of the beautiful art. When- 
ever we see an apostle of the Illustrious dead— the 
lamented author and editor, penman and gentle- 
man-Qeorge A. Gaskeil. we see a writer possessed 
of wonderful executive power, and a command of 
the muscular movement which la usually charac- 
teristic of that class of penmen. 

I do not account for Its popularity as much on 
the ground of any speulal merit It may possess, 
however, as the wonderful genius and skill with 
which It ha« been advertised, and 1 further believe 
that If Ames" Guide or the Spencerian Standard 
Practical, should have half the sale the Compen- 
dium has had, muoh more good would result there- 
While It cannot compare la any respect with the 
perfected Spencerian publications, I do not feel 
like condemning It too severely. It has done great 

systems. This we did while Gaskeil was 
living, and uuder the full sense of duly to 
the thousands of teachers and learners who 
patronize the Journal, and who would 
naturally and properly look to it for at least 
an opinion respecting a so-called "substi- 
tute " for the systems of copies they had 
hitherto used. Again we forbore criticism, 
when the compendium changed to the bands 
of the present owners, until it was boomed 
in a manner to out-Gaskell Qaskell, being 
announced "as without an equal or second." 
We ai-e free to admit that it has been the 
extraordinary and preposterous claims made, 
fortified in the most ingenious and telling 
manner, that has greatly quickened and 
strengthened our sense of duty to call public 
attention to what, considering its true 
merits and the claims set forth, was nothing 
short of a public imposition. 

Mirablle Dictu ! ! 
Michael tells us in his Advocate for July, 
that " Penmanship should he taught the 
same everywhere." Then he proceeds with 
what he terms a series of lessons, and 
suppose he has a class of children from 
to eight years of age, for ' ' it should be taught 
the same every wfurrc." Ilis flrst lesson is upon 
the letter a. "Stepping to the board 
quickly " and writing a group of live he 
counts "one, two, three, four, five," then 
asks the class to count the same. Now they 
write counting at the same time. They 
write, or are supposed to write seventy letters 
in a minute the first minute, and ntTUty let- 
ters in the second minute. Counting five 
letters a word, these children the second 
minute they write, are to write at the rate 
of eighteen words lo the minute, oral a rate 
of speed greater than that of the majority of 
business men in their regular work, as a 
rule. Now, remember these are children 
who know nothing of the form of the letter. 


r its class.— Pr«c(ic'«/ £■(/«( 
Those who think that nol 
writing E 


3 subscribe. 

girls if your writing it 
^Pivgrasivt Youth. 

The Penman's Art JounMAL outdid Itself In its 
I^sue for June. The article on Pen Drawing from 
the pen of Mr. Lyman P Spencer, Is one of the roost 
valuable and interesting papere on that subject 
ever prepared. The AnT Jovunal has done iU 
many renders a genuine service In securing and 
presenting this from the most distinguished pen 
artist living.— i?ocA*J!(«' Commerdal Itevimo. 

The Pbnhan's Art JounNAt Is the leading paper 
of its kind in the country. No teacher of penman- 
ship should be without it. It is full of good things 
for every one Interested in the study of penmaa- 
f,\i\^. —Topfka Collfgt Jouritai. 

Of the papers publl-ihed mainly In the interest of 
writing and teachers of writing, the Pknsiak'b 
Art Jodrnal, N. T,, stands conspiouoiisly at the 
front. The amount and kind of thought and lllus- 
tmtion upon every conceivable phase of penman- 
ship and kindred topics, which any single numl)er 
of the Art Journal contains could not have been 
had for love or money twenty or twenty-five years 
ago. Upon the subjects of writing and methods of 
teaching \vrlting the Art Journal Is absolutely 

prletor. Is not only a genius In newspaper publish- 
ing, but has brought his enterprise up from a very 
small beginninj; to a degree of excellence and cir- 
culation that few school journals attaiu. Those 
who want to know everything that Is going on in 
the world of penmanship can find It in the Pen- 
man's Art So\3K's\L.— CoUtge Heconl. 

From having carefully and delightedly looked 
through the Penman's Art Journal, published by 
D. T. Ames, of New York City, while In the glow 
of our enthusiasm, we want to say an appreciative 
word for this journal. We have been a reader of 
It since It was first established. It has been the 
lirst and only purely penman's journal that has 
lived, and It has lived simply because it was in- 
nately Immortal. It has done more for the art In 
general (ban all other ngcm-ies In the United States 
combined. There have been growing up during the 
last twenty yeitrs a race of penmen, and the Jour- 
nal ha!< been their oyolopedta. It has never been 
guilty of publishing a di-y or uninstructive number. 
It is not merely the organ of Mr T D. Ames, 
although it owes all to him, but It Is the mouth- 
piece of nil the best penmen of the day. Often a 
single practical, or artlstlr, or pedagogic, or rem- 
iulstlc article In worth the entire subscription. 
The June number Is one of Its best. To all ad- 
mirers of the art of pen drawing the first article by 
Lyman P. 8pem-er will prove Intenaelyinteresting. 
— Thf. Exponmt. 

The lesson in penmanship In (he Penuan's Art 
JoLUNAi., for June, by Lyman P. Spencer, is ex- 
ceedingly interesting. Thta valuable paper should 
be In the hands of every young man who has any 
desire whatever to improve his penmanship.— 
School VUiior. 

The Varieties and Processes of 


The process of stereotyping requires tliiit 
u mould Hhould be taken from eitcli forni of 
types, and tbat a cast should be made from 
the mould sufficiently true and clear to print 
from. Hence there is a double process of 
casting for each page contained in a book — 
a striking proof of the large amount of 
trouble willingly incurred to gain the object 
in view. The page of type is wedged up 
securely in an iron case, and the surface 
carefully examined to see tbat no dirt or 
other imperfection interferes with the cor- 
rectness of the surface. 

The page thus secured is placed in a case 
called the "moulding frame," and if any 
wood cuts are to t^ introduced, the blocks 
arc placed in the moulding frame with the 
type, for it is one of the indications of mod- 
ern skill in this department of art, that 
stereotype easts are taken from wood cuts 
as well as from types. A skeleton frame is 
placed over the page in the moulding frame 
to determine the thickness of the mould to 
be taken from it, and the types are rubbed 
over with a little oily composition to pre- 
vent adhesion. The mould is made of plas- 
ter of Paris, which is mixed with water to 
ft liquid state, and poured over the page, it 
soon solidifies, and. on being removed, it 
presents an exact mould of the page, every 
letter of the types and every line of the wood 
engraving being copied in leversr with min- 

The mould requires a careful process of 
baking to remove every indication of moist- 
ure from the plaster ; this baking is effected 
in ovens constructed for the purpose. When 
thoroughly dried the mould is ready to have 
the stereotype east taken from it. 

The oast is made of mixed metal of anti- 
mony and lead, like printing types them- 
selves, and the metal is melted in a copper 
containing about a ton. In the casting pro- 
ceM there is an iron vessel employed called 
the " casting box," which has at the bottom 
a movable plate of east iron, called the 
" lloating plate." Upon this plate the mould 
is placed, face downwards, and the cover of 
the box is placed over the mould ; there are 
holes in the corners of this cover to admit of 
the melted metal ; and the internal arrange- 
ments of the box are such as to allow the 
metal to come in contact with the surface of 
the plaster mould. The box is dipped into 
the cauldron of melted metal, and in a few 
seconds all the vacant spaces within it are 
filled. It is removed from the cauldron, and 
when cold the superfluous metal is broken 
ftway with a mallet, so as to separate the 
stereotype cast from the plaster mould and 
from the floating plate. 

This cast is now an exact representative 
of the original page. The plaster mould was 
ii reverse, giving in intaglio or cavity all the 
parts which were raised or in relief in the 
page, and vice versa, but the metal cast re- 
verses this again, so as to come back to the 
original form. The stereotype plate, before 
being printed from, undergoes a very care- 
ful examination. If any slight corrections 
or additions are required, parts of the plates 
are cut or filed away, and the other parts 
put in ; if any of the letters have become 
filled up by the plaster or metal, they are 
opened ami properly shaped by small sharp 
tools ; and if any of the fine lines of the 
wood cuts have been disfigured, they like- 
wise are restored to the proper state. Even 
aft^^r all this work, the pagc-i of stereotype 
plates require much adjvisting before they 
can be printed from. Alrhough cast wiib 
every care, the back of the plate issoniewhat 
rough and uneven, and this want of accu- 
racy is removed by the action of a beautiful 
lathe, which takes oiT a thin film from the 
back of the plate, and reduces it to an ex- 
actly equal thickness in every part. It is 
then screwed down upon a carefully pre- 
pared wood block to make it exactly the 
same height as the priming types, with 
which it has sometimes to be used in com- 
mon, The pages when arranged in order for 
printing may differ verj- slightly in thick- 
«es.«, or a minvite difference may occur in 
difTereut parts of the same plate, so that. 
ftUUough no part might actually escape the 
iuA, s();nc portion might appear more faint 
than others, and thus produce great disfig- 

urment in the printing. It often occupies n 
man several hours in " making ready " a 
form of stereotype plates for the press; 
since he has to place bits of paper under the 

parts which are a little too low. a 
take impressions time after time t 
ihe adjustment is proceeding. 

id has to 
. see how 

Dear Sir: — I have received your letter of 
a recent date, and in reply to your inquiries, 
all of which I take to be sincere. 1 shall 
venture to offer a few words of advice. I 
do so, not as an instructor, or a superior, 
but as a brother, a former home student, 
who has safely passed some of the danger- 
ous places you arc now struggling through. 

You admit that you are discouraged. You 
cannot see that you are making any advance- 
ment. Young man, it is a sad thing to be 
discouraged. It robs you of everything, 
and produces you nothing. If you think 
you have cause to be discouraged, remove 
the cause, and do not yield to discourage- 
ment, until there is nothing to e.ncavrage you. 
If you cannot see tbat you arc progressing, 
find out the reason of it. 

You evidently have a desire to excel ; 
otherwise you would not be a home student. 
You also, no doubt have faith in the old 
adage, that intelligent practice makes per- 
fect. If you are industrious, you will pijic- 
ticeall you can, and if you are thoughtful, 
you will practice intelligently. You must 
combine study with practice. Never prac- 
tice a copy that does not require as much 
study as work. Do not fail to criticise your 
own work. Do it by comparing with per- 
fect copies, and comparing with the models 
in your mind. Your mental conception of 
good forms should always be in advance of 
your ability to execute them. When it be 
comes otherwise, yon cease to improve. 
The mind must go in advance of the hand, 
and prepare the way, and unless it does this, 
the hand must stop before it reaches the 
goal it desired — a superior handwriting. We 
are apt to attach too little importance to a 
scientific study of form. 

But while we would urge extensive study 
of form, we would not have you neglect 
thorough movement drill. Try to keep your 
ability to produce good forms as near your 
conception of them as is possible. As to 
the movement to be used, it is of course un- 
necessary to speak, as all now agree that the 
muscular is the best, and only true business 

Be very careful also that you are using the 
best materials and implements obtainable. 
A student should never use poor materials 
for pr 
to a 

not a subscriber to any of our penman's pa- 
pers, and I hasten to urge you to become so 
at once. If there is any agency tbat will 
drive discouragement from your midnight 
desk, it is a live penman's paper. 

I would urge you, in conclusion, to avoid 
careless practice. Uemember a careless 
stroke with the pen, is a step backward, and 
that a careful stroke is a step in advance. 
The chief things to avoid are carelessness 
and discouragement. The chief things to 
cultivate are intelligence and perseverance. 
Be earnest, inquiring, studiousand dilligcnt, 
and as sure as results follow causes, you 
will succeed in mastering the beautiful art. 

With my best wishes for your good. 
I remain, yours very truly, 

Dubuque. Iowa. .Tune 5, lNH(t. 

From your admission referred^ -j^iDgs." says a writer. They ofti 
the beginning, I take it that you are '^'"Slllw?f'£" 

Superior Pens. 

Just rereired—a new lot of " Ames' Pen- 
men's Favorite Pens," made from new dies 
and with extra care. Every effort has been 
made to secure a better pen than any now 
in the market, and we believe we have suc- 
ceeded. Sample quarter gross sent for 25 
cents, regular price. 30 cents. Try them. 

Return if not Satisfactory. 

Remember, that if you order either our 
"New Compendium of Practical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship," or the "Guide to Self- 
Instruction," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 
the entire amount paid. 

Educational Notes. 

(CommunlcatloQB for tble Department mfiy be ad- 
dremed to B. F. Kkllkt, Office of tlie Penman's 

Brief edacational iteniB solicUedT**^" 

Harvard University will be 250 years old 
next October. 

A copy of au arithmetic, of which only 
one other copy is known, brought $200 at a 
sale in London the other day. 

The rules of William and Mary College in 
1772 forbade the students to drink anything 
except "cider, beer, toddy, and spirits and 

Mr. Georg Henscbel has been appointed 
first professor of vocal art at the Itoyal Col- 
lege of Music. London. He takes the place 
of Jenny Lind Goldschmidt, who resigned. 

Professor Turner of Edinburg, anatomist, 
receives $22,000 salary. This is supposed 
to be the highest salary j)aid any teacher in 
the world. It h'as been stated that $8,000 
paid President Holdcn of the California 
State University is the highest in the United 
States. — Our Country and Village tkhools. 

, If the pe 
-why is it thi 
shunners 't—I^ndl Citizen. 

Six hundred American girls are studying 
music in Milan. American girls are always 
considerate. It isn't every girl who would 
go so far from home to banga piano, — Yon- 
kern Stafe»man. 

Too much study is said to affect the mind. 
A teacher says he knows a number of cases 
where it would affect it very favorably, too. 

site can talk on all topi 

She Roea, home, loaded „ . - . . 

And folks Bay : " How niucli knowledge 

She has gained at the college !" 
Wblle her ma washes, cookn and makes cheese. 

loaded down with degrees ; 

__y : "How much ki" " ' 

She has gained at the college ! 

Oorltum Mountaineer. 

The graduate who recently delivered a 
soul iuspirinjj; oration. %vith the motto, "An 
honest man is the noblest work of God," is 
now wondering how he can ^et home from the 
college town without paying his washing 

In Boston they say "The sanctity of the 
lawn should be preserved;" in New York 
the same motto is rendered, " Keep off the 

" What is the average length of whales ?" 
asked a teacher of a class of boys. 

"About five minutes," responded the 
"tuff" of the class. Poor fellow ! he had 
gone through a "whaling" voyage that 
morning with his father for skipper. — Daua- 
mlle Breeze. 
Grept r 

1 often rise from small begin- 

g. , the point of a pin. 
—BuTlivgUm Free Press. 

This explains why the bent pin is so pop- 
ular among school boys— they are desirous 
of seeing their fellow students get up in the 

■ who 

A favc.ri 
forearm n 
cently oli>i 
large bind 
pass the su 






jst for 



Under a recent decision of the postal ai 
thorities dudes are now carried as third chu 
mail xnattev.—Philadelji/tia Herald. 

Icelander marries be is not al- 
• his mother-in-law. It might 
up there if he did. 

When an 
lowed to sc' 
make thingi 
— Vonkers SUtteami 

Eat plenty of cucumbers, green fruit and 
watermelon's and you would soon cease suf- 
iL-riug with the boat— at least in this world. 
—PhiUiddphiu Iln-nld. 

Dr. Mary Walker is a living illuslration 
of the well known fact that clothes do not 
make the man. — Purk. 

lilk stool. — 

When you see a pretty girl in a stunning 
batbing costume sitting between two briefly 
attired young men on the beach you may 

teur perfi 
without them. 

Go bring my veto, bring It quick 

~~~ lonal am bored ; 

r soldiers that the pe 

llh Deiislonal am Iwred ; 
:oacii uiir soldiers that thi. 
inlghtier thaw rlie sword. 

Wwhinglon Oriiic. 

-"Will you please give 

r Cleveland. 


my way home to die." 

Gentleman— (handing him the money- 
" I don't mind giving you ten cents for so 
worthy a purpose as (hat, hut your breath 
smells terribly of whiskey." 

Tramp— "I know it does, sir. Whiskey's 
what's killin' me." 

Back Numbers. 

Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others : All numbers for 1879, ex- 
cept January. May and Novcrnber ; all 
numbers for 1880, except July, Sep- 
tember and Nimember; all numbers for 
1881. except December; all for 1882, except 
Ju7ie; all for 1883. but Janiuii-y ; all for 
1884; all for 1885. All the 75 numbers, hack 
of 1886, will be mailed for $6. or any of the 
numbers at 10 cents each. 

Can You Make a Better Invest- 

than to pay $1 for the JomtNALonc year, and 
the ■■Guide to Self-Instruction in Plain and 
Artistic Penmanship" free as a premium ? 

The Guide contains sixty-four large pages 
of instruction, and copies for plain writing, 
flourishing, and lettering, and is alone sold 
for 75 cents (in paper covers), and $1, hand- 
somely bound. 

The Writing-Ruler has become a standard 
article with those who profess to have a suit- 
able outfit for practical writing. It is to the 
writer what the chart and compass is to the 
mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a reliable 
penmanship chart and compass, sent by the 
Jouhnal on receipt of 30 cents. 


rack, pin cushion, and puper weight c( 

article. Useful, 

perfect pen 
bined lu 

adapated for office, 111 
elegant present for i 
Jet composition 3So. 
stamps. Pntented. A, 

f or school desks. Ai 
[emen. Nickeled SOc 
t post paid for price i: 

.POPE. 20 West St., N.V. 



A Hmall volume designed as an introduction t'» 
Ihe Study of Book-keeping, 

The course will require about six weeks for Its 
completion, when taken in connection with other 

A notable feature is the large number of Busi- 
ness Forma— nearly all the Notes, Drafts, Checks, 
Certificates of Deposit, Receipts, etc., that ocour 
' ■ ' " " ■ ' full, with easy refereuoe 

) and Gains. Exai 
: and Partial Payments for testing the 
'"""■" perfrirm the computatloiis ocour- 

' ■ r ;Hqertuinlng Averafccs and 

.' off Trade Discounts. 

Its alternating on the back of 

iif Ihe Theory of Closing Ac- 
'liiylnif the process. 
■v<i leauheras well as students. 

1 Chicago or New York, by 
ier, or Currency by Express 


Note, or KcglBtered Letter. 




Author of Nelson's Mercantile Arithmetic apd 
Nelson's BonkkeepiDg. Parti; and J-reaidei.t 
otibe Nelson BusPneBS College Company 
of Cincinnati and Springtield, Ohio, 
ymm Pre» O. W. Brown.qf t?U Jacksonviile, It!-, 
ButiMU ColUgt: 
"Without QUftliHcatlon your work is the most 
exhaustive of the whole subject of accountansbip 
that I have ever examined." 
From the Prefideni of pie Metropolllan BuHnest Ool- 
y work hitherto pub 

Ugt (tf A'"* I''^^ 

ence and ba 
books 1 
and should 

sper of thirty 
v. u^.>, »...-j^ oppose'! tli*^ 1 
leretofore employed In 

: of the t«xt 

lid I decide to adoijt any other in place of 
(manuscript) I shall certainly use yours, 
n. W. jKNNIXOe." 
Frcm the Brvant, StraKon « Sadkr ColUge, Balti- 
" It contalus' a fund of valuable Information 


5hy style 

u Nelflon'3 New Book 


For ciport. and caretol WriMr.. Samples for trial on application. Ask for Card No. 1. 
IVISON, BLA.KEMA.N. TAYLOR * CO., 753 d 755 Broadway, New York 


on the Mississippi, about 


The Peircerian Stjsteiti of Pen- 
manship, and Feirce's Philo- 
sophical Treatise of 

1st. A Membership In the Business Department 
is S40.0r 

. A Membership I 
t is 540-0" 

I Penmanshlft Depart- 
e-half that of 

3d. The total e 
similar InstltutiODs in large cities. 

guarantee fup«rior instruction and 

excellent results. 
Cth. Send three letter stamps I 

. The Pelrcerlan System 



50,000 Copies sohl hi less tlian four years. Adopted as a Text Book 
by the best Schools in all of the {uincipal cities and towns in every State 
andterritory of ihi- United States. 

Some of the Causes which have Led to its Universal Commendation and General Introduction. 

Tt simplifies the subject. 
self-reliance on the part of the pupil. 

t reduces the labor of the teacher to a minima 
; fascinates the student. It contains forty 

iplete treatises 

,^„ „. yet been puL.— 

principles laid down and the explanat 

thorough knowledtte of 

.nd yet are so simple aiiu uicm aa w u^ ^c 
mderstood by persona of ordinary capacity 


that has yet been published 


simple and clear 

rthy of special 
s the discarding or an anticiuated form;, u..^^ 
encumbered the subject tor the last half 

commendable book v 
ly assistant to the bui 

omplete in every de 

I, C. S. 

le student." 

'* It Is thoaagregato of thirty years' experence ii 
teaching ana studying the laws and methods o 
business, with all the weak points and all unnec 
essary repetitions and all antiquated forms ellm 

keepini; we have examined. 

t exhaustive works ( 

i who wish the 

counts should get a copy oi Nelson s New Bo 
keeping."— 3"^ CoUetje Record, Jacksonville, III. 
From the Electric Cily College, Butler, Mo.: 

' booklceeping is without doubt the 

t all t 

B. F. Mooi 

iness College, Akron, OldO: 

merits of the book when 

say that by Its use my stuc 
oroush, rapid and satisfactor 

1 help from the teacher tha 

hi General Bool'k^ater of Ou OermanNO' 
i relating to banking, ( 

provement in writing. 
1 be introduced, ~' 

Ing for the pupil. It Is sold a 

impanied by a 
), without inf 

il by making t_. . 

lompanied with suitable b 

T313Tr^,Tnft 5 Bookkeeping Edition, lOO Pages, $2.00. 

J^ -CV J-V^ J_Jk:zJ3 j Complete Bookkeeping Edition, 208 Pages, $2.50. 

Method of Instruction. Revised, improved, per- 
fected. The tenth edition now reaay. Sample 
copies sent on receipt of 25 cents. By the dozen, 

8th. My Philosophical Treatise of Penmanship 

3 of this " TREATISE " 

lOib. My Oblitiue 1 

(English manufacture). 

Address all communications to 


Keokuk, Iowa. 

President Peirre's Business Tollege, and Superln- 

3 named above. Addn 
wholesale prices of Bookkeeping. 

WILLIAMS & ROGERS, Rochester, N. Y. 

'One of the most practical and most useful text-lsooks ever placed in the hands 














Exercises in Capital Letters, 

Exercises in Abbreviations, 

Exercises in Forming Sentences, 

Exercises in Punctuation, 

Exercises in Spelling, 

Exercises in English, 

Exercises inWritingTelegraph Messages 

Exercises in Writing Advertisements, 

Exercises in Writing Business Papers, 

Exercises in Writing Circulars, 

The Form and Structure of Letters, 

Sample Letter Headings, 

Sample Envelope Addresses, 

Sample Social Letters, 

Numerous Sample Business Letters, 

Numerous Full page Engraved Specimen! 

Numerous Hints and Helps, 

Many Valuable Suggestions, 

Exercises in Social Correspondence, 

Exercises in Business Correspondence, 

Photo-Engraved Samples of Business 

Letters from Nev? York Busines: 


The Automatic Shading Pen 

Makesa Sbaded Mark of Two Colors at a 
Single Stroke. Sample Set of three sizes, 
by mall, 81 Circular and sample writing 
free. C-5 J. tt. STOAKES, Milan, O. 

It U hardly necessary to say that the need for a thoroughly practical text-book on this very 
important subject has been felt by thousands of teachers. It is only a few weeks since the first 
announcement of this new textbook was made. Notwithstanding this fact, letters of inquiry and 
advance orders have been received from nearly every State and Province. The greatest care has 
been taken in the preparation of the work, in the engraving, and in the general typography and 
binding, and we feel confident that we are now placing upon the market a moiU'l text-book. 


Special discounls to schools and ttie trade when urdt-rfii in quantities. Orders by mail promptly 
?nded to. Address, 

THE SUPPLEMENT CO., Buffalo, N. Y., 

; or, CONNOR O'DEA, Toronto, Canada. 

We are now prepared 1 
and durable binder for the Jour 

Itls constructed t 
Sent post-paid, on receipt of $1.50, 

B-if ace Broadway, New York. 

The Best Assistant in Office Work. 

and Bookkeepers. Monthly. Single copies, 10 
cents : IS numbers, (1. Address Tub Ofticb, Co., 
306 Broadway, New York. P. O. Box 1663. 6-tf 


Muijlc, <&c. Applicatiuu-torm and information 
free. Address, 

Uention this paper. (5-U) Chicaoo, Iix. 

Lessons by Mail 

Continued incjuiry ^-ith regard to Instructioms 
BY Mail has induced the undersigned to arrange 
for self and home leaniers, and for amateurs or 
those preparing to teach penmanship: 

(DA Course of 50 Lessons in Writing, 

(AH copies fresh from the pen.) 

(2) A Course of 50 Lessons in 

(All copies fresh from the pen.) 
The 50-leeson Course in Writing c 

titude of elegantly •written copies, embracing 
kinds of Exekcises, the standard small and eani 
Alphabets, Word copies, Sentence Copies, Busi 

_ . .., Page Writing, Letter Writing, variety of 
Business Capitals, variety of Fancy Capitals, series 
of Muscular Combination Exercises, series of 
Wbolearm Combination Exercises, Business Initial 
Combinations, Fancy Initial Combinations, etc., 
together with the kauk of the person purchasing 

^All of these copies s 


Accompaning each 50- Lesson Course in plain and 
ivritlng, are Illdstrateu Printed Imstruc- 
with cuts showing the exact position of 

fancy writing, are Illdstrateu Printed Instruc- 
tions, with cuts showing the ex 
arm, hand and pen and position 
explicit directions with regard " " ~ 
aoliart showing the exa 
pies, proportions, slant, ( 

with Instructions, sent in t 
post-paid, on receipt of •!.!! 
The 60-Lesson Course In 1 
the Exercises or Principles, and a superb collection 

-tfolio package. 

In Flourisbing consists of 

,_es,and a sunerb collection 

of the most elegant Quill, Scroll ana Bird Designs 

package, post-paid, on receipt of •! 

long experience in Ceachim/ penmanship, and itls 
confidently believed that in accuracy, elegance, 
variety, and sparkiini: artistic beauty, the copies 
and Bpecimens embraced in these two courses are 
not equailed by any other penman doing a mail 

cinb together If desirable. 

RErERGNCEs: A. N. Palm 
Hinman, Henry C. Spencer. 

Three beautiful specimens _ . _. _ 

ishlng, Writing, and set of Capitals— the ( 

I each of Flonr- 


Pmman. N. I. Normal School, 

Shading T Square 

nsro'w K.E^HD'^. 

. and made liorizontaliy 

'. AvisSear Sir 

Designer and Draftsman, . 

3 and the facility 

Auks. Eaq,— ZJfor ; 
I Safely; and, "f" 

;<Irk'^o_. _„ ._ ...., „._ 

^xociited. It iM an instrument tliat slioulu 
bv every draftsman. Yours very truly, 
M, J, Goldsmith, ' 
Uoore's Business University. 



Copy of a, picture, 
either Smaller or 
Larger^ than the 

A Cliild 12 years of 

Copy, siuaiit-r or larjier 
tlian the original of a 
Pit-lure, PhotORTaph. 
Map, or design of any 
description by follow- 
Ing the printed Instruc- 
tions. Specially adapt- 
ed for Copying Music. 
The above-named in- 
strument will he mail- 
ed with full directions 
for use to any address 
for SI"'), from tjie of- 
fice of tile JjiunsAi^ 

"we a°e 
D highly 

Al. Jirou<l«a 




Beuding uiu 81 for tbis paper fur'ine i 
subscription!, reteived for all Pt,ni 
CatalogiKs etc free 



J all 


y/.'-n for 





With Two Supplementary Books. 



sjstematizc and teacli writing in accordance witli the usages of the best 
writers in the business world. 

guishing features of " Spencers' New Standard Writing." Iteffects a saving 
of from 15 to 26 per cent, in tlie labor of writing and a corresponding 
saving of time in learning to write. 

A .Sample Set, containing all numbers, sent for examination on receipt 
of $1.00. 

Full Descriptive Circular sent, on request, to any address. 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, & Co., 

753 and 755 Broadway, New York. nj 






For Sale by all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


26 John Street, New York. 

SHORTHAND 'i"'','"!,""^ ""^'"f,"'' 

MAIL or. personally; 
pupils when competent 

-t. opens the best 

''^ fored moated 

lonograpbythoroughly learned. 

rlar. W.O.CHAFFEE, 


2 1st Annual Session begins 
September 1. 

New Masonic Bxiilding. 

Course of Study, 



The finest flourishing ever sent out by any pen- 
man will not equal the mtirvelous specimens lean 
send you, 3 for 60 uent3. Executed by \V. E. Den- 
nis, who in this line has no equal. To be had only 
by addressing L. Madarasz, Bos 2110, New York 

To the Readers of the Penman's Art Journal : 

Th^ undersigntd, who ha» followed Me profession qf 
card writing for the past tfven years, and has yettO 
learn of the first instance wherein kit work has faiUd 
to give entire satisfaction, takes pUatun In caUing 
your attention to t/ie complete line Of written visiting 
cards, which are offered at rates consistent with ths 
quality of cards and penmanship. Orders promptly 
filled. All poll paid. 

^^ With every 4 packages ordered at one time 
an extra package of Gilt Revel Edge Cards will bo 
sent free, with any name written on. With a Uttle 
effort you can easily induce several of your frienda 
to order with you. 

Niunber of Cards In each package: 18 36 

Style A.— r/atn IKftifo, good quality 10.88 

■' B.— Wedding Bristol, very beat.... .40 .77 

" C.-f?(ft.ffdff*, assorted 44 .84 

" v.— Bevel Oilt Edge, the finest 50 .(« 

" E.~Bevtls of Cream and W/UU ... .52 1.00 

" Q.-SUk and Satin Bevels 65 1.05 

" B. —Eight-ply Bsveli, asBortad 67 1.10 

" I.— .£■/((«, the latest Htyies 60 I. IB 

Address Utiss—entn, 16 .80 

It yoQ order carda you should hare a card case 
to keep them clean and neat. 


No. l—Bvesla Leather, 4 pockets $0 23 

No.2- " 4 " 35 

No. 4— Morocco, best quality 50 

No.6—Ca(;', extra good 80 

No. B— Alligator Skin, very One l.M 

No.O— " verybest 2.00 


Assorted designs—bird a. aorolla, qnills, etc., ex- 
ecuted with taste and skill. To students who wish 
good models of Flourishing to practice from, these 
wiU be found to be "the thing." Price, 85 oenU 
per package of 18. 



Elegant specimens of off-hand flourishing, suoh 
birds, eagles, swans, etc., on unruled paper. 
'dcfi are conceded by aU to be the vwsl spiHUd work 
tr se/U out by any penman. I'rloe, ffi cenla each ; 


Executed in the highest style of the art. and 
winning the honor of being mpirior to the work of 


In responae to numerous calls for very briUiant 
black Ink, arrangements have been completed for 
sending, securely packed, quart bottles to any part 
of the country. Price per quart, »1,30. Bydllutlng 
with some good writing fluid (Arnold's Is the best), 
more than three quarts of good Ink may be hod 
from a single quart of llils quality. 1 ose this Ink 
in all my work. See samples. Recipe for its 


If you experience diffiuuity 
wiU make a very fine air line 
elasticity without being scratchy, I 

The Favorite — .....per bo: 
CardWfllIng, No.1... " 

, 40 ct8.. per gross, $1.10 

other schools. 


Send for Catalogue with full partlculara to 

A. J. RIDER. Principal. 

8-12 Masonic Temple, Trenton, N. J. 

-■- Bookkeeping, Including banklnjf by mall 
for (30. 
Text book and blanks price $fl,75 furnished free. 
*-^ Box 26S Sherman. N. V 

nemember to Write your full name and address 
in i^verj- letter you send. Make your remittances 
by Postal Notes or Keglntered Letter, and aee 
lliat all letters are carefully Kuaied and addressed 
plainly. If you don't hear from me in 
due time, drop me a postal and I will i 

New Yoi-k Citv. 



A(lapU-<l for list.- with or without Text-Book, 

and the only set recommL-odcd lo 



Bryant & Stratton 




Favorable nrrangcmenu made with Biialiie 
Colleges and Public and Private Sc-liowli for tntr 
duolton and nse. Descriptive List now read 
CoiTrsixindenco Invited. 

The best Pen In the U.S., and best penmen use the 



o-m. 1 19 i 121 William St., N.Y. 

Penmen's and Artists' Supplies. 

(in receipt of the prices annexed, we will for 
\\ird by return of mall, or by express as stated- 
iiiiV article named In the following list. 

Kv ordering from us, patrons can rely not only 
ii[''.n receiving a Bupenor article, but upon doing 
>■<• iTomptly. 

Ame*' New Compendium of Om'l Penmanship % 00 
Ames' Guide to Self-lnBtruction in Praotloal 

and Artistic Penmanship 1 00 

Ames' Book of Alphabets ■■ IW 

Bryant's Booklteeplnp. Coimtlng-Houae Ed . . 2 BO 
Amea' Copy-slips, for mstruction and practice 
in wrlting.per sheet, containing 40 exercises 10 

Fifty sheets (50 foil sets of copies) 3 00 

One hundred sheets {100 full sets of copies) . 5 00 

Bristol Board, 3-8heet thick, 22x28, per sheet. 60 

22x28. per sheet, by express.,. 80 

French B. B., 24x84, " " ■■■ , '5 

■' 26x40, " ' ... 125 

Black Card-board. 22x28, for white ink 50 

Black Cards, per too -■■ „ *J 

Black Cards, per 1000, by express 2 00 

pep sheet, quire 

Whatman's by maU. by ex. 

Drawing paper, hot-press. 16x20.. 9 .IS * 1 20 

31x62.. 1.75 30 00 

Rlank Bristol Boanl Cards, per 100 25 

" 1000. by ex... 2 00 

" 10,000 " ... 1 50 

WiDSor&Newton'sSup'rSup.Indialnk Stick 1 00 

Ornamental Cards, 12 designs, per pack of 25 

cfirds, bymall 2fl 

1000 " bye\iiM 4 00 

Prepared India li' ■' i-i ■ i, '■'I'l'^*'*''- ■ 'J!> 

01Uott's303Stii I I . !. , I ■ -!. ■ .... I 25 

Ames' PenmeiiS 1 .r> "J .1' N- i liir^rros*, , I 00 

Spencerian No. 1, extra for flourisliing I 2fi 

Ttie New Spencerlan Compendium, Part 1, 2, 

3,4.6.6.eaoh 60 

Engrossing Pens for lettering, perdoz 25 

Crow -quilf Pen. very fine, for drawing, doz. . 75 

Williams' and Packard's Gems 6 00 

Payson, Duutim A Scrlbner's Manual 1 25 

SponL'e Rubber, 3x2 in., very superior 50 

Roll BlaekbiiurdM, by express. 

No. 1, size 2 x:i feet 175 

No. 2, •■ 2Hs3H(eet 175 

No, 3, '■ 3 X4 •■ 250 

Stone Cloth, one yard vride, any length, per 

yard, slated on one side 126 

40 inches wide, per yard, s1at«d both sides. 2 25 
Liquid Slating, the best in use, for walls or 

wooden boards, per gallon 6 00 

^V No goods sent by mail until cash has been 
received. All orders forwork and engraving must 
be accompanied by cash to one-half of its estimated 
coat. No orders, for merchandise or work, upon 
iioslal cards will receive attention. 


205 Broadway, N.V. 


■ A thousand years as a day. No arithmetli' 
tea<rhe9 It. A short, simple, practical method by 
v.. V. ATKINSON, Prluclpal of Sacramento Busi- 
ness College, Sacramento, Cal. By mall, GO cents 
Address as above 2-12 

plate-paper, and is tlevoted 
lide" is a book of sixty-lour large .P"S*-''*',,'^^S""7irVn;rrUhin7 and ■TTetterinc "We are sure that no other work, of 
^^„.,^.« .. instruction and copies for Plain Wnting. "f "and Flpurisbng and Letterm "^^ . ,i ,1^^ departments of 
nearly eq^ual cost, is now before the public that will ^f^";^;,^ ,«%f \^'^^^ plain writ ng. Fourteen pages to the 

the penman's art, ns will this. Thirty-twopages are devoted to nstr^^^^^^^ i. ^^.^^ .^ p^p^ 

"^•^S^^ Z-SlIlJI^!^ .{;^X■^ve7;w"i?.e."^l?l;^i°^a?e^s■^^™a.e .ce .one, ... .ess eflon t.„n wiC. 
any other publication they handle 




class Peuman and 




In Every Town in America, 

to solicit 6ubi4orlptions to Uio Penmak's Akt Joui 
HAi.. and to sell ixipulur publications upon pruotli-i 
and artiiitle penmanship. 

The following Is a list of the works which w 
otTer for sale, with the publishers' prices : 
Amea' Compendium of Practical and Orna- 
mental Peumaushlp t i 

New Si»'ni'i<rlnn Compendium, complete ln« 

Family Hi 

GarBeld MeroorliU, l&x-^4 .'.o 

Lord's Prayer, IBxW «> 

Bounding Sti>g, iMxSS .w 

Flourished Eagle. Wxae. .. 50 

Centeimial Picture of Progress, 22xss 5n 

Ornamental and Flourished Cards, lede^gnV, 

new. orlglunl aud artistlo, per pack oi 60. 30 

soo! '"*".!"■.'!■.".■.'.;■.!;;;.;!!!!;";!;"'!'■ 250 

1000. " 94 so ; by express 4 00 

Live agents can, and do, make moooy, by taking 
subsnrlbers for tlie Jqpukal, and selllDg the above 
■ Works. Sen<l foropr Speflal Bates to Agents 
D. T. AMES, * 
r-tf a06 Bruadwayi New York. 

under the autboi 

j, has been issued. 

jrtfolio form. The 

model writing, 
ijookkeeping, an 

pages of plain 
iiih %mgie letters, words, 
ier(.ial correspondence and 
lattci presented in a style 

■> published. It Is called 

Shorthand Writing 


Send stamp forBpei'imenofwritiug and circulars. 
IV. M. HULTON, Stenographer, 




" Question Books with Answers, " This is a series 
of four small books, comprising U. 8. History. 
Geography, Grammar and Arithmetic, each book 
containing 1001 practical questions and answers. 

~" positively the only question ' — ^■^ 

published that are complete euough on a smgle 
branch to he of any help to teachers or others In 
preparing for examinations, or for reviewing pupils 


in schools- 
" 1001 Questions with 

TIC," iucludlng nearly— ._ 

Hwers and solutions. Besides treating thoroughly 
the entire scope ' 

Liitbmetlc. this b 

t exam ^6! 

I subject. X\ 

.n the appendix. In this book tl 
questions with answers. 
" 1001 Questions with Answers on GRAMMAR.' 
copious illustrations, parslng^and : 

iUustrations, false syntax with o 
reotions, ana the parsing of difilcult words, i 
alone worth twice the price of the book. 

The "1001 Questions with A 



hand, pri 

I by Mail, 

Extencfed Movements, TYacing Exercises, Capitals, 
Cards, Fiourisliiag, etc. Address, 

Wilton Jtinctlon, Iowa. 
P. S.— No postal cards need apply. 9-12 

The following courses nf study can be pursued 

of the 


Phonogrftphio Course and IVpewritlng. 
Business Penmanship Course, 

Teachers' Course In Plain Penmanship, 

_ Tlioroueh instruction given in Phonography and 
mmanshipby Mall. 
Specimens of Plain Writing.. 

Circulars free. 

ig Descrlpti' 

„pliy. Thede . 

grand division separately, thus en- 

„ Jent to refresh hlB m'"-* "" 

tloular country without reading 

iled to any address 

matical C 

askedont— „ .. 

abling the student to refresh his mind on b 

II four for $1,5 


', New York. 





and Ornamental I 

9 smoothly. II. They 

. They make clearer and tlner hair 
ley shade easier. 

Samples for Five Cents. 

n. B. TROUSLOT, SoLB Aox: 
6-6 Valparai 

Send for a Sample Copy of our Journal, and 
learn of onr plan of " Imtncting any perion in any 
Study" by CORRESPONDENCE and Heading 
Circles. Over 60 College Professors engaged, con- 
ferring Deorexs. Sample Copy mailed for postage. 

I teacb fnmlshed to 
ir Bubsoribets ;><m.1-12 


a either end 
t muttlatu 

wilt furnish the Binders 
postage prepaid. Address the 

200 Broadway, New York. 


SuiiK-lliiiig ICntiiL-ly NfW. 




J. C. BRYANT, M, D., 

PresUU'iit "f the Bryant A Strat toil Biiffii).! Business 
Col kgtM Copy ritrlitod 1.S85J; 

Elementary, 1 04 pages, Price, $ .80 
Commercial, 1 60 t .SO 

Countlng-House,3 12" 2.S0 

An enHryJv f""" work, jast from preaa. embracing 
all ilio fwwfcm ii/iprovemenU, and oat bwiMi*/oriM 
now tn use. Contaluinit iicwautl advanced idenM 
in relation to the Dresentnlton of the principles and 
practice of modern bookkeeplnc. 

A Complete Key for Teachers Now Reaily. 

The Business Man's Commeroial Law and 
Business Forms Com'bined, $2. 

Tlie best tcxl Ijnok for Colleges and Scbouls ever 


tn four 

id for sale. Address, 
8-tf. WOOD & VAN PATTEN. Davenport. Iowa. 


Best School of Penmanship in America, 

—Good for a short time only, tn 

introduce my work. 

aluin^ in Punmanship, a 

ionary. SSa paf^a, good 

words Me, 

The entire lot contalnlDg my bett work for 50 
, UIXLEU. Wooster, O. 

Ctroulnrt frte. 


"5o. AReuts 
Cants, name 

•i^i minnelln/or %\\ Stamp Photos,T5 Nassau St,, N.Y. 

riTATIONS. Seven numbers 

t class teacher o 

years cxperieni 


of the biel 
Prlckett. Nutii 

order, ai 
Ibful. ci 

rof commerulul ti 

d competent In 
18 College, Ypslla&tl, 
I. Portage Co., Ohio 


Institution, fiiublv qualified. El{,'ht 
rlence. Best otreterencKB. Addirsf 

js teacher of plain and 

HAVING disposed of mj 
ness Colletife at Altooi 
with any first-class college a 
keeping, business p~ 

!. business, law i 

W. P. GHEOOKY. Easton) Pa. 


B of an engagement with i 

bu^eas tralsing e 


__^_„ 1 with >o 

Q Introduoe the best syBtem of 

and twenty 
obe^. Is de- 
good Bchool, 


Xj _A- T E S T . BEST. 


4000 PROBLEMS. 400 PAGES. 

Mo Mo 

nd N< 

will be Delighted 
what he needs; 

Brief and clear in its detinitions and exphmations. simple and labor- 
saving in its methods of solution, and strictly utilitarian in its large 
collection of problems, it will be found a reliable exponent of the best 
Business College methods of instruction. , 

It is unusually complete in every essential of business arithmetic, 
cnnfaiuing an ample supply of just the class of problems which commercial 
students will be required to solve, and of the simple, business methods of 
solution which they will find it convenient to practice when they become 
business mcu or women. 

By its exclusion of impractical problems, its many simplifications of 
tlie older methods of solution, and 'its system of grouping many specific 
rules under a few general principles — easily understood and retained — it is 
possible for an average student to acquire a "thorough" knowledge of 
business arithmetic in the brief time usually allotted to a commercial 
college conrse. 

A SPECIAL EDITION is published for Business Colleges, 
entitled TUB COMMEROIAL AUITHMETIC, tlie names of the authors 
being omitted from the title page. In binding, special Side Title Stamps 
are used in embossing, similar to Sadler's Counting-Uouse Arithmetic. 
Schools ordering in lots of twenty-four or more at a time may liave their 
own titles embossed on the cover without extra charge. 

A specimen copy will be mailed, post-paid, to any teacher fur examin- 
ation, on receipt of 75 cents. 

The mechanical execution of this work is of the highest order ; infact, 
it is the best and clieapest Commercial Arithmetic now published. Retail, 
^1.50 per copy. Special wholesale price to Business Colleges, 11.00 per 
copy. CoiTes])ondeiue and orders Kolicitcd. 

W. H. SADLER, si 

Nos. 6 and 8— lO and 12 N. Charles St., Baltimore, Md. 


Jj[\\JLbt, (Jj«j Mvj; kiV Imkii 'imlWlVKttAiV. llu«Jt Oum; Wma 

ali'WvoJtW si CuiiWw, (Vwi, uw oil IsWtwuMl* in !oi.df, 

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Mo.irelieltl, Olili 

F*rinter and Stationer, 

8 SPF?UOS 8T„ 
Opp. Tribune Bufldloc. N«-w York. 

Lesson in Practical Writing 

Bv Daniel T. Ames. 

It is often alleged, and not wliolly with- 
out cuiisc". that writing is more neglccti'd or 
unskilluny tnught in our commoD schools 
than is any other branch. 

This is hirgcly due to the fact that n great 
proportion of the teachers are themselves 
not only unskilled writers, hut are uot 
qualified respecting the best methods of 

While we concede that the acquisition of 
u good handwriting costs, as a rule, 
effort than docs proficiency 
any, other of the common school bninchc! 
from the obvious fact that the labor of ii 
:,it;iiiiiii. Ill is twofold — its form aud coi 

I Im inij; a study, while its 

iM|Mii.- uiimvial dexterity — each of which 
i„ Hi- -,i -I |.;iriite attaiument ; yet we iiftivni 


s(hool8 should Dot write with facility a 
good legible hand. The teaching of writing 
is very naturally an irksome duly to the 
unskilled teacher, and even more irksome 
to his badly taught pupils. Is it then any 
cause for wonder Ihal. between such a 
teacher and pupil, there should be a mutual 
willingness to get over the allotted time for 
writing as gently as possible V The teacher, 
perhaps, consoling himself with the belief 
that writing really is a gift, and that him- 
self and his pupils wen 
looked when the gift 
was dispensed, aud 
unfortunately this ideii 
of "gHt" business is 
not confined to the lazy 
and iocoofpeteut teach- 
er, but apparently af- 
fords consolation to a 
host of writers who 
vex their readers with 
well-nigh unintelligible 
hiero^'lyphic scrawls. 
There are few per 
sons who have the re- 
(luiaite intelligence for 
becoming good teach- 
ers, who might not. 
with even a few weeks 
devoted to the spt'ciiil 
study and practice of 
writing, acquire suf- 

lieieut skill to write a Fno/jr 

fair copy, and a knowl- 
edge of form, movement luid analysis of 
writing to enable them, eertadnly with Ibc 
aid of good copy books, to properly direct 
aud criticise the efforts of their pupils-, 
and this school oHiccrs should require as 
a necessary requisite for the granting of a 
certificate or liceuse to teach. 

Fir«t. Explain and illuslnite fully the 
proper position of body, arm^^and and 
pen : these are so fully explained in all the 
copy books that we will not here occupy 
space for repetition. 

Second. Too much pains cannot be taken 
to explain and give examples of the 
movements, setting forth the advantages 
and disadvantages of each, except in the 
low and primary grades, where little should 
be said respecting movement. Form and 
position is quite sufficient for the infantile 

Above are represented the proper positions at the desk, and of the hai 
eressive series of movement exercises, which should be practiced in the order i 
they are given, and according to the degree of advancement of the learner. 

mind to grapple with; in the advanced 
grades, having puiiils of twelve or more 
years, and especially in grammar and high 
school grades, no movement hut that of the 
combined forearm and finger should be per- 
mitted. It is the only movement that 
affords the requisite case, rapidity and 
endurance for a really excellent and. ac- 
ceptable hand for business purposes. Fre- 
quent drills upon good movement exercises 
should be required, strict oversight should 
be exercised that all practice, whclher upon 
copies or movement exercises, be thought- 
ful and painstaking, otherwise practice may 
degenerate into mere scribbling, and this 
tends more to retard than advance the pupil. 
Third. Do not fail to place before tl% 
pupil good and uniform copies, either writ- 
ten or engraved, the more accurate the 
better. Accurate copies furnish a st^^Jp 
criterion for study and imitation, hence ' 
every thought, and stroke of practice, is 
for the achievement of a definite and well 
understood object. With imperfect and 
hence vacillating copies there can be no 
definite idea of form, while effort is wasted 
in the endeavor to imitate the constantly 
varying examples for letters and their man- 
Fourth. See that the copy is studied as 
as well us practiced, and, as an aid to study, 
make a free use of the blackboard, giving 
the analysis of the letters contained, in the 
copy, and explaining their combination; as 
an aid in this respect, wc can do no better 
than to here give the Hand Chart which 
ace om pan ies the 
New Spencer Copy 
Books. It is accurate 
and comprehends the 
analysis of the entire 
system of writing. 

The copies given on 
piige 123 should be 
practiced with the com- 
bined forearm and fin- 
ger movement. Every 
season of practice upon 
these or any copy 
should be preceded 
with at least five 
minutes practice upon 
some one of the many 
movement exercises. 

In practice the teach- 
er and self-learner will 
find that far better re- 
sults wilt be attained 
by using a .short rather 
than a long copy, from the very obvious rea- 
son that short copies are quickly and often 
repeated, thus presenting immediate and 
frequent opportunities for the correction of 
any fault pointed out by the teacher or noted 
by the self-learner. After an exercise has 
been written it shou!(^ndergo a careful 
study and comparison \vifh the copy and the 
differences noted that an intelligent effort 
may be made for improvement in the next. 
This method pursued will rarely fail to re- 
sult in a good, rapid and easy handwriting 
with a few weeks practice. 


Teachers and learners arc often perplexed 
with the very natural and yet absurd criti- 
In business do not write 
like the copies in copy books," and are 
asked, 'Vwhy not teach such writing as is 
pnccticed in busing ? " Such critics should 

l»e informed tbnt there are sevenil millions 
of Myles of "business wriliDg" practiced 
in the Vnitcd Slates alone, and tbcu asked 
whether all these should be followed as a 
standard, or. if not, how shall we cboose ? 
if he does not perci-ive the absurdity, brand 
bini as a mere babbler whose pratiogs are 
UBWorlhy of notice. Wherever good busi- 
ness writing is found, it is Ibe result of 
careful study and practice, originally from 
pood standard forirs, which may bave been 
more or less modified by subsequent practice. 
The leiicher. leamcrand Ibe public should 
rememlur tlmt what may be tcruied ■■biisi- 
uess wriliiig" is a re«uU, while good, sys. 
lemaiie copies and teaching arc the methods 
bv which it is attained. 

For regular practlc( 

Cy C-^/;m^,^. 





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Interest In Classes. 
One of the most important attributes of a 
successful teacher, is the ability to maintain 
a lively interest iu clasLS work at all times. 
The teacher who fails to do this never suc- 
ceeds in producing brilliant results, though 
the instruction be ever so practical, or his 
labors ever so arduous. Dullness, dryness 
and monotony always breed discontent and 
restlessness, which prevent intelligent ejfort. 
The teacher who can interest, can in- 
struct ; and though the instnietion teem 
with soundness and reason, it will fail of its 
mission unless accompanied with the spice 
of interest. 

In order to catch and hold the attention 
and interest of the pupil, the instructor 

must be full of interest himself, 

and show by every word that he is 
thoroughly in love with his work. 
To tell a pupil in words, tbat he 
ought to be enthusiastic, or sboidd 
try to get interested, is utter foolish- 
ness. It is rare that a pupil will 
e\ince more interest in a subject 
than his instructor, but if the 
teacher is full of life and enthu- 
siasm and is "running over" with 
interest, the pupil will naturally be- 
come interested and open to re- 
ceive and be benefited by valuable 
ideas. Enthusiasm is "catching," 
and rarely fails to prove infectious. 
An interesting teacher never be- 
comes dry and raonotonous. The 
pupil soon learns that every time 
he speaks, be is going to say some- 
thing worth listening to, and the 
live teacher will always labor to 
keep up this expectancy. It is an 
easy matter to think of something 
to say, that combines instruction 
with humor and quaintness, and if 
there is a careless pupil in the room, 
he too, will learn tbat it is best to 
listen, as there mieht be something 
said that he ought not to miss. To • 
avoid monotony in class work.Ttffre' 
should guard aj;;iinsl rcpcjiliiig flie 

the i 


The world has arrived at that nrtvanced 
stage of development where concentrated 
effortalone can i>roduce any notable achieve- 
ment. Jacks-of-all-trades have lost their 
employment. It is the Jaek-of-onetrade, 
and still more the Jack-of- one-tool, who 
accomplishes that which the world values 
and demands today. This advancement of 
the specialists, extends to all occupations, 
trades, sciences, arts. It does not except 
any man because he is an idealist or a 
genius. It applies just as much to the man 
who paints on canvas as to the man who 
paints on iron or wood. Thus, we have 
So-and-so. the >;rejit marine painter, and 
somebody else, the famous portrait painter, 
and again, the noted artist of real life, the 
ffcnre painter. There is no division, no de- 
partment of art.^wever minute, however 
limited iu its seoi^ir results, which has not 
its special masters. Take any of the arts, 
music, painting, sculpture, poetry— shall 
we not add penmanship ?— and it will he 
found tbat notable achievement, in these 
modern days, is confined to the specialists. 
A good example is found in the domain 
of literature— whether literature be an art 
or an *' occupation." I am not sure that the 
age has determined. Look at the men and 
women who stand at the head in American 
literature to-day. They are not dabblers in 
all departments of composition — that is. not 
in a professional and definite way. Howells, 

our leading novelist, writes. If believe, a 
little verse now and then. " jusfcrfw- fun."' 
It is not remarkable verse, and M?^cwells 
does not pride himself upon it. He is jiar 
exeellcnce a novelist, and lie wisely keeps to 
that special line of composition. Our con- 
temporary poets, though few of them bave 
yet reached eminence, are poets per se, and 
their work is destined to receive recognition. 
Take whatever art or occupation we may, 
in these days, we find the specialists com- 
ing to the front ; and. as time goes on, this 
tendency is destined to become more mark- 
ed. Many departments of art and science, 
which are now included entire in the re- 
searches of the specialist, will be subdivided 
as study becomes more extended and par- 
ticular. The breadth of a man's investiga- 
tion will be less, but the depth will be vastly 
greater. This is the undeniable tendency 
of the time. 

The question now arises, bow does this 
tendency apply to the art of penmanship ? 
Are we to recognize it, are we to avail our- 
selves of it — or rather, mvet we recognize 
and avail ourselves of it 1 Practically, we 
are doing so. There is already a noticeable 
division of the work among penmen. Some 
are devoting themselves to the ornamental, 
some to the practical department of the art. 
Both these bave their uses, both ought to be 
cultivated and encouraged- I am inclined 
to think that it is not the part of wisdom in 
Ibe young penman of to-day to attempt 
excellence in both. Achievements are being 
made in either department which, render 

anything but concentrated, specialized effort 
unadvisablc. Achievements will be made — 
and that in the near future — by men who 
are training themselves as specialists, that 
cannot but revolutionize the old methods of 
penmanship. Some of the products of 
artistic skill exhibited in this journal, within 
the past year, incline me to this conviction. 
Such being the case, ought not a word of 
advice to be given to those who contemplate 
making penmanship their profession for 
life ? Do not attempt to do too much — 
that is, do not make the sphere of your 
endeavor too inclusive, The man who sets 
out with the intention of covering the whole 
ground, and attaining an equal excellence 
in every department of line writing, while 
be may gain a degree of skill that would 
have made him famous in the days of the 
beginnings, will in the future be sadly 
eclipsed, wherever he may exercise bis 
talent, by those who have devoted them- 
selves to that deparlmenl of the art alone. 
It is always wise to work in harmony with 
general principles and prevalent principles, 
in Ibis world; and the prevalent principle 
to-day is that of specialized elTort in every 
department of human achievement. 

Return If not Satisfactory. 

Remember, that if you order either our 
"New Compendium of Practical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship," or the "Guide to Self- 
Instruction," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 
the eutlre amount paid. 

too often, as it is very easy to em- 
ploy variety without dissipating 
effort. It gives newness and fresh- 
ness to the work, and always stimu- 
lates interest. Novel methods 
should sometimes be resorted to, 
and some plan of criticising adopt- 
ed that will prove interesting and 
beneficial. The constant exercise 
of cheerfulness and vivacity iu 
cliisswill eventually become a habit, 
and while under the inspiration of 
class work, new ideas, and novel 
features will be continually present- 
ing themselves. 

Uniform kindness andN-ourtosy 
will do much to preserve good order 
in the school room. The worst student 
will not show disrespect to the teacher 
who ircats him with gentlemanly regard, 
and evinces a personal interest in his 
advancement and welfare. 

If a reproof is necessary, it should be 
delicately given, as it never pays to incur 
the ill will of a single pupil if it can possibly 
be avoided. 

When every available means for produc- 
ing and strengthening interest in thc-scbool 
room is employed, the hours of instruction 
become the most pleasant and profitable to 
teacher and pupil alike, and our school 
days are no longer remembered as periods 
of dullness that we would not again endure. 



ii, Sept. 

. n. 

, 188«. 

School and College Diplomas. 

We recently called upon D. T. Ames, the 
well known pen artist and editor of the 
Penman's Art Jouhnal. of No. 205 Broad- 
way, and saw numerous specimens of his 
artistic wodc. He furnishes and fills <liplo- 
mas of fRe best workmanship for a large 
number of schools and colleges, lie has, we 
understand, more than a hundred different 
forms of sheepskins, completed or awaiting 
completion, in bis office for the present sea- 
son.- A specialty is made of engroestd rcso 
lutions. memorials, etc., and a large assort- 
ment of blank certificates, testimonials and 
awards of merit is kept constantly on hand. 
— AVf/f York IndepentUnt. 

Business Educators Association. 

The Kcord of the Iiitc meeting of the 
|tii*inc«s Educotore' Assjcintionof America, 
published in the August Jouhnai,, brought 
I be reader to the forenoon session of Tues- 
iliiy. Jvily 18, the sixth day of the conven- 
tion. Mr. A. H. Ilinmim, of Worcester, 
had the floor and was expounding his views 
on "Class Instruction in Penmanship." when 
the JouBNAi/s space failed, and it became 
necessary t« shut down for the time being. 
I lere is the rest of Mr. Ilinman's address : 

In writing on legal cap paper I try to have 
I hem excel themselves— I have them write 
three figures first and then skip a line and 
writeagain what they have written, tryinc 
tn excel in every way thr- ' ' 

1 teach tbeni t ' 
did this ni\ ' 

last work, and 
bffit thpmselves. I 
■i-n ,nv] I found 1 

it f ilireeo'clock 

■ ■ r\ some copy 
! : III bour before, 
pupils wide 

„V..I , In rh(, , ..:i lil-'lll. If aftCF 

„ |j,,i I,,:, I :i.i L''-t indifferent in their 
.., I, ,1 I ,, , , 111 rs duly to liven them 

, I,, , I nii.i,. If he can tell them a 

HtiTV fr pcrlmp-i draw them a caricature, 
or show bow some one writes with his 
t«ii"Tie out of his mouth and say, " I saw a 
hoy^iust now writin.£i like this,'* or get up 
Home awkward position, and then make a 
bow to ills pupils perhaps as our friend 
Miller doe.^ in this 

till- < umplinirnls of his friends? He lias 
made a bird, perhaps, and shows it to all his 
friends and expects them to admire it. Per- 
haps a business man might look at it and 
say as Lincoln said, "For those who like 
things of that kind it is just exactly the 
kind of a thine one would like. " Penmen 
are always fishing for complimehts. It is 
through pride, I think, that ihe majority of 
penmen become successful. And studenta 
should be inspired to take pride in their 
work ; L'l't them to taking home their speci- 
mens to their [>areuts and showing them to 
their friends, and their compliments will 
incite them to further efforts in the achool 

I also believe in teaching pupils as thor- 
oughly as I can. If I have an^ information 
that I'have gained from expenence, or from 
any system of writing. I give it to the pupil. 
I believe in having pupils have faitlj in 
their ability to become teachers of writing. 

1 l)ring t 

X back and a new idea 
s started. Enthusiasm in the teacher 
the chief key to success.^ The pupili 

be enthusiastic in their work if they do 
not see enthusiasm in the teacher. During 
the five hours in the srlmn! thr trnrbf-r 
should do the best work ti' rm? iln tnt In- 

pupils and if he iwh iiim-.' II 1.i-l:iii- Ur 
ought to quicken liis wuiiv III ::i i uui nl Hn 
profession. This eulhubia:^iii i;in In- ciiMlnl 
in various ways. I sometimes lind pupils 
lutrtiing in their work ; they don't know 
wiiv there seems to be a general laziness ; 

id U- 

fresh i 

A\ I M I.. ,-i '.. .iK raiiull> Uii; miiid acta 

,,i;, ;i I ' 1. ii ;i :;oud plan lo have two 
,,,,| I iirown over there, for 

in . : - ,ii liver there — and I aay, 

■■ >..\v, >iu:'], \ v\:iiit you to exccl Brown 
and the one wlm writes* the best copy will 
get a bird or something of tliat nature that 
will please you." And I certify at the close 
of the day which has made the belter work. 
I believe m teaching it is a good plan to teach 
a pupil what not to do. I say " Don't lean 
forward," and I give an example. If you 
want to get the attention of your pupil to 
iin awkward position get into it yourself 
:inil hiiy "don't do that." I teach pupils 
wliiii not to do in order to teach them what 
to (111. Siiiiuiimcs I believe it is well to 
havL- sludeiits write with you. If a pupil 
I'll iu his work I prepare him a 


little U- 

Mr Iluntsiriger, and Goldsmith, and a 
ber of others here that were in my classes 
I have no idea would have become good 
penmen or teachers of writing but that I 
encouraged them to believe that they could 
win hundreds of dollars a year by master- 
ing penmanship, and Ihey have done it— 
and they would never have done it if they 
had not been trained to believe they could 
become proficient penmen — that by its use 
they could become independent of the world 
or of employers— and that kind of talk led 
them on to do it. 

I believe in tiring the ambition of the 
pupil in teaching writing in a poetic way. 
Father Spincer, who was so excellent in his 
work, was full of the poetry of motion. 
He saw beauty in the waves of the sea, and 
the trees, and the flowers, and the clouds, 
and in the bend of a blade of grass— every- 
where, in fact. He would, in his black- 
board practice, let the movements up and 
down resemble the waves of the sea — train- 
ing the pupil to graceful motion, for where 
you have graceful action, you will have 
giaceful forms. There are many things 
that can be said in the school-room to in- 
spire the pupils. How much your friends 
will think of you if you write a good hand, 
:iiiil bow much it will elevate you among 
viiur associates— they will see you are su- 
perior to them — but if you go on writing 
a miserable hand, they will say, "There is 
so and so, he never excelled in anything— 
see what a miserable writer he is." Learn 
to write well, and you will surely receive 
from your associates a kind of attention 
that you like. Business men will pay you 
well for it, and you will be elevated to bet 
ter positions by its use. Then there is 
ideality. If you want to write handsomely, 
you must think handsomely. Think of 
handsome letters at your desk, and have a 
handsome copy and iry to work up In it — 
up to the ideal of bcaiil> :iiiil ^r:Hii'iilnt-ss 

there is in it, and you will [•-.i--- \\y iliri'c 

pleasant hours in pnnijri ih^ii i- [iii ;isiiig 
to your fancy. Be tirm ii i.i|iiii.- (irni- 
ness to succeed. Givtiin i m iv > i 

that copv should bi !' I I imss 

will be followed by ;; i > .i •■ ■ msu 

you to work on to sue. I w i|hj imn- 

touch upon the pride of fnmil} : tlic- fiimily 
will think well of you— will say you are the 
best penman of the family — foryour father's 
and mother's sake who are paying for your 
tuition try to deservr ihiir !iiiprii1i;itinii. 

correct forma. 1 went with the old gentle- 
man Mr Duncan, and be went to the black- 
board and produced the letter R. " Now," 
said he. "look at my letter and compare it 
with that in your copy." No one could 
help seeing the difference, and it left such 
an impression on my mind that I have never 
forgotten the beautiful forms he there pro- 
duced. It strikes me if you wish to get the 
best results you must put the best efforts of 
human skill before your pupils. Merchants 
want boys who can write well, not simply 
boys who scribble, and therefore I am an 
ardent advocate of perfect forms. 

Mr Lansley. of 'Elizabeth, N. J.: I 
would like to know what reply a teacher 
should make when ft parent asks, "Don't 
you think writing is a gift ? Do you think 
you can make a good writer of anybody ? 
Do you think you can teach mc to write as 
well as you do ? " 

Mr. Hinman : I hardly think all ptrsous 
could learn to write elegantly, but 1 thmk 
there are very few but can write with suf- 
ficient accuracy and speed to nnswc i iIk- 
purpose, but that all can get tli 

where it was impossible to determine with 
any degree of certainty whether the signa- 
ture was spurious or genuine. Forgeries 
executed by the tracing process are invari- 
ably demonstnitcd to be such. I believe. • 
because no man can ut the first following of 
a tracing make a signature which will 
deceive a person who is familiar with the 
(jpimiiie — tbe shades will he different, and 
the strength of the lines will be different, 
and where there arc shortcomings in this 
respect they have to be covered by retracing. 
These will appear underihc glass in over- 
lappinglayersofink. This wilfalsobe true of 
forged signatures tlint nrr irirrrl by holding 
them to the light, n^ i" ' pi'i. nf L'l;i-^<nr to 
a light, but there !>* il-" ■' ilitliiriii inovc 
ment. and hence diiTti' lit piuii^ .t ime-^ 
there is that in the nrilinL: uiii»li ^linws it 
is not written with Ihe ordiunry and natural 
motion of the hand. There will also be a 
nervous tremor, and the slower the band is 
moved Ihe more apparent will this be. If 
ui;i -JLii I'lirr is placed over another and 
tnuiiii in II Ml i( in every respect, it f" 

_, is a forgery. 

unskilfully executed, 
idea", or that all the different influent ts are I \\[^,^ i iiciicvt- one iu ten is executed by a 
born equally alike in all persons, I do not professional, or by one who might be called 
■ •• a pen artist. Many are mode by clerks who 

Mr. Goldsmith ; I can testify to one thing. 
I think iutellectualily plays an important 
part in learning to write, and unless a per- 
son has that modicum he cannot learn to 
write I once had a pupil for six months, 
and I never paid more attention to any 
pupil in my life. I exhausted all the means 
at my command, and at the end of six 
months he was as poor a writer as when he 
commenced. He practiced as faithfully, to 
all appearance, as any pupil I ever had, but 
he was no better at the end of that time 
than when he began— it might have been 
the fault of the teacher. I don't know. 
Mr Gallagher : I would like to have Mr. 

Smith illustrate his method of teaching— he 

has some peculiar ideas, I believe, which 1 

would like to see illustrated. 
At the close of this discussion Mr. R. C. 

Spencer, of Milwaukee, delivered an ex 

cccdingly interesting and instructive address 

upon the subject of Industrial Edui-"""" 

It is worthy of beiiif; gi 

as space does nut pirmi 

defer its public;iii<iii ''■ 

the JOURNAI.. H' ''^ 

Packard, who --iiiii A 
city of Milwaukee, lias 

full, but 

idea that they con reproduce their 
employer's signature ; they have had very 
good opportunities to get acquainted with 
the genuine, yet rarely fail to be detected. 
One of the most frequent phases in which 
these investigations arise is in disguised 
handwriting in the form of abusive, black- 
mailing, threatening or obscene letters. 
Persons unfamiliar with this matter can 
scarcely realize the extent to which this 
species of crime is carried. I venture to 
say that during Ihe past year there has not 
been one week in which packages of anony- 
letters have not been brought to my 

Lil lit thin 

I will 

:ii.'o by Mr. Spen- 
cer, the iiuthui ui Uic SptOLcTiau system of 
writing. He got his pupils very enthusi- 
astic inthematterof writing, and so worked 
them up to a love of the art that I have often 
seen tears shed in his classes by pupils who 
were discouraged ; some of them who 
thought they 

• would be abi 
well or become good penmen 
I youu. 

, J ,, whose tear drops were 

found upon his paper, and who said. "I 
don't believe I will ever learn." Mr. Spen- 
cer sat down and wrote a poor copy, but 
little better than the young man could 
write, and said, " There, see if you cannot 
beat the old man." and in a little while Mr. 
Spencer came along and looked at the work 
and hit the young man a slap on the back. 
"There, you are beating the old man; I 
will get another pen." and he wrote a little 
belter copy and in this way led the pupi' 

The old gentleman, 
ber with 

his best and bad deserved 
old gentleman would be 
Love of approbation is ii 
tion ; it exists in all ma 
cause of the largest amoi 
Skill in almost every direction 
through the love of a|i!)roljat 

I Hi,' Iio> uould 

mi wonder when 
ilial praise, and 

II he would look 
e liad been doing 
it. and that the 
sure to give it. 
1 incentive to ac- 
kind, and 

f,,||..',vr,[ by Mr. 
>\>< iHcr, in the 

avs be has been 
all the progressive 
J known for his 
_ le of education, 

and what he has said comes from one having 
experience and speaking with authority. 
Mr. Packard then read a very interesting 
and earnest letter ei.iiiniendins the work of 
Ihe association, h-m Tr.-f 'i uiiier of the 
Illinois State V'- ■ ' ' ""y.'"c-Ji'j 

Mr. Spencei 

._ -. il fore 
recognized as a leadei 
features in that city. He ii 
sympathy with every pha: 

office for invcstigatii 
of thevery worst i 
ing the lives of pen 
and many growiii; 
recently letters 1. 
lirirluis or iii:in;iL- 

s left. 



by G. W. Bro 

As the hour 

Business Con 

article by mail i 

,)e opnn 


^ developed 
n. Appro- 
>est key to 
your pupils 

batioii was Father Sp 
success, and if you use it ai 
they will strive to succeed, 

Mr. Miller, of Newark, N. J. : I desire 
to put myself upon record as an advocate 
of beautiful writing. We bear a great deal 
of talk in regard to "business writing." 
What is business writing ? It is simply 
correct writing, beautiful writing, and I 
to produce the best re- 

to publish it in full iii the report and omit 
the reading at that time. 


Mr. Ames, of New Yorit, then addressed 
the convention upon the detection and proof 
of forged handwriting, as follows : 

It is a subject that has been growing 
greatly iu importance during the past few 
years— that is the legal investigation of 
questions arising from handwriting in our 
courts of justice. With reference to the 
vahie of such labor as experts are able to 
perform in this respect there is a wide dif- 
fereiiee of opinion. Many of the jnrtsf^ of 


We all ku 

very numerous — that scarcelv 
ses in this city that there i 
tried causes involving in some niiu 
genuineness of handwriting. Most i 
present are familiar with the melbuds r 
sorted to by forgers 

•lif- 1m 

irk. The 

p skilled in llie 

better work. You will find i 
in sometimes to give a poor copy s 
UT pupil beat yc 

111 lei 

Take a little child 

"lei's ; 

{ the little one goes and how happy it 
is when it excels— when it beats in 
Rut supposiiiL,' vou start off and run away 
from theeltilir.:in vmi ever " " ' 
with yon I liii I'l I li'u. :i little dog and I 
offer him :i iiii.i ■! 111. Ml . lijQld it a little 
higher tliiiii lii> lje:iil .niA he jumps for it, 
and the luM lime I bold il a little higher 
and so on until he cjui jump very high. 
Rut supposing I hold Ihe piece of meat too 
high at the start, he would never try to get 
it; he would simply stand back anil hmk 
at it and say "I amnot reach it." \\ ■ 
should let the pupi] master somethiiiL- u I 
when he has mastered one thing let linu 
master something else. One great ki \ to 
success is pride. Where is tlic penman \s im 
has excelled who has not been pleased with 

When I attended the Bryant & Stnitton 
school in Philadelphia, I was walking ( 
evening towards my home, and I passet 
window iu which were some specimens of 
penmanship — and as I stood there looking 
at them, the penman, who 
door, asked me if I wasinlen 
manship. I told him 1 ^ 

of a business collegi 

. the 

. of tbt 

purious. The great proportion of the 
orgerics of signatures are perpetrated by 
leans of tracing— the parties making an 
utiine with a pencil and tbeu writing it lu 
, iih ink— forgeries of that class are yeiy 
iMly detected when carefully examined 
. iili a good glass, and especially"""' 


,, run, r-A\ iaentity— 
Iln - nil' r\ni ijand printed. 
Ill -.■ vkilfidly excculed 
I ,1 .1. iiiiiv of the writer 
I Arver, are rare, for 
- , 111 \v lite lo the extent of 
a'piige of' any sheet and not impart to it 
some of their own characteristics. The 
worst of all hand-writing to investigate 
would be that of a school boy who had no 
characteristics to his handwriting— who has 
not practised under circumstances which 
imparted any individuality or person- 
ality lo his writing. If two teachers of 
writing should write a letter and bring it up 
absolutely, according to principle, to the 
standard of any system, there could be no 
comparison as to the personal characteristics 
of the writers. As we go into business, 
however, we depart from the standard 
forms of the schoolroom, and each of 
these departures constitutes the peculiar 
personality of the writer. (Here was illus- 
trated upon the blackboard numerous 
specimens of these habitual changes.) These 
departures are mostly unconscious ; a per- 
son gradually drifts into these variations iu 
his practice (illustrated by the letter L on 
the board). 

A short time ago I had occasion to ex- 
amine a dozen long letters, which I pro- 
nounced forgeries. In the genuine hand- 
writing the crosses of Ihe t with rare 
exceptions were slanted down, hut in the 
simulated writing they invariably ran up. 
These letters were presented by parties mak- 
ing a claim against an estate, and were 
offered in evidence as showing a consider- 
ation. All the crossings of the t in Ihe 
forgeries ran upward, which I found to be 
true of the writing of the party offering the 
claim. It was the little unconscious habit 
wbicli had not been noted by the forger. 

In disciiisinc writing, it would be neces- 
sary llial a should know all his little 
;„,,,lMnii. ,"liMt ,,- ll,-^ .1.. n-.i, thesc in- 

i.-il ui i.oilii. U lui.-., uiiiluiiiily at first, 
after a while, the parly fell lo printing 
main part of it in lower case (illustrated 
(he board). 'and bv-and-by the writer 
('. uneoiiH<iously. to moke the i and ( 
li\ as in H ript-'duil finally a word op- 
,.,1 ill -. ii|>i - L'enerally persons in 
itiiiu 111, ii.wn I iM will make thei'ji, fa 
/■- iiiH'oiiM ii>ii-h . a^; they would write 
II After goini; over f()ur pages of the 
liii- Ihe identity of the writer was fully 

M.iiably the most difficult class of coses 
es where a writer copies or makes use of 
another handwriting to disguise his own. 
p if I should attempt to simply dip^uise 
own hand without any copy or ideal 
>rc me 1 should endeavor lo use forms 

ii;iud where this has, as I allege, been 
I, On the one band it is alleged that a 
i.iin party has written blackmailing 
:ers in a Jisguiscd hand ; on Ihe other 

liand/^lbe accused claims some one has 
simulated his hand. Experts have been 
railed in to show that it is his handwriting 
dispuined. and others to show that it is nol 
hut rather a nmoufaetured imitation of his 

111, .< |K i-..i,;,hii. -, I ail had unwitliugly in- 

<-.r|.Mi ,h ,1 ii jLjh force of habit, those of 

lij^M\\i, ii:i[i.| I III' exercise was listened 
In with iii:iiktil .'iMerition and apparent 


The proceedings of the afternoon session 
l)L-{;an with a paper on Political Economy, 
by Prof. Graham McAdaia, of New York. 
11 was a masterly presentation. Dr. Mon- 
tague H. Levison, of San Francisco, ably 
continued the discussion, and Mr. Gardiner, 
of Poughkeepsie, read. an excellent paper 
on Social Economy. The session ended 
with an address by Mr. W. E. McCord, of 
.fackeonville, III., which is fortunately of a 
length to accommodate itself to the present 
available space. Subjoined are Mr. McCord's 
remarks and an illustration showing the 
topical outline : 

I need not say anything as to the claim of 
political (economy to a place in the business 
course. That claim has already been amply 
vindicated by Prof. Adler and the rest. I 
shall confine myself to the second part of 
our subject, and present my method of 
teaching political economy in our school, 
and asl am not a specialist, I may he 
ahle to help those who, like myself, desire 
to make a beginning in this all-imporlnnt 

It is gnitifyiug in the highest degree to 
see the ntpidly increasing favor wiih which 
business educators regard such instruction, 
We are all of us convinced that it is not 
only legitimate work for the husiness col- 
leges, but it is a solemn duty as well as 
golden opportunity which it would be 
criminal for us to neglect. 

Commercial law is well e.itablfshed in our 
schools. By it we teach what men require 
of each other in the conduct of business. 
We teach that gain in violation of these 
is no gain, and will he followed by penalty 
as surely as men are faithful in executing 
the law. Should we not also teach the natural 
laws of trade and that Tiolalion of these 
will bring disaster to some one as certaiuly 
as God is faithful in executing the laws he 
has made in nature ? It seems to me that 
political economy follows naturally upon 
the adoption of commercial law and is hy 
far the more importout and useful of the 

It is by political economy that we may 
best accomplish what Prof. Adler so earn- 
iippealed to us to do. By it, we may 

society, hut 

moral upbuilding. And surely no work is 

more imperative than this. 

I have placed upon the blackboard a 
topical outline of the subject which I place 
before my class at the beginning of the 
work. Without extended explanation, it 
will indicate the scope of the instruction. 
Following this, I have arranged a series of 
sixteen lectures which I give in as many 
weeks. It might be done in eight weeks, 
giving two each week. I have not lime to 
show you the ground covered by eiicb 
lecture, but only to give the general topics 
discussed. In it, I follow more closely than 
any other book. "Chopin's Waylaud."— the 
small book — which may well be used as a 
text book where one is desired. (See dia- 
gram "Topical Outline," centre of this page.) 

Wodnusday Morning, July U.— The Pen- 
im's Section was called to order at the 
K'nccriau Hall, Mr. D. T. Ames in the 

Mr. Brown, of Jacksonville : There are 
divers opinions in the world res])e(lini;- .sys- 
tems of theology, itmii.imi, - |i..iiih mi.l 
about everything elsi, >: ; . i, ,,ilh' 

that opinions should vu , i ,: , {lii 

mauship. I believe, Imw , m i ii,,|[ Mm .IiIIit. 
euces that seem to cmm lelate to (Iclinitions 
rather than to facts. From remarks that 
have been made in this convention on the 
subject of writing, some of our friends seem 
to hove the idea that certain schools, per- 
haps ours in particular, are committed to a 
sort of go-as-you-please, haphazard system 
of writing. Nothing could be further from 
the facts, so far as Jacksonville is concerned. 
We may not make as much use of the prin- 
liples. so culled, as some schools, but we 
have a rigid, well defined system of instruc- 
liou and drills. We teach by exercises 
rather than by principles. For example, the 
lines that form the small letters i". w, and w, 
and others in part, constitute an important 
exercUe. This we dril! our pupils upon a 
great deal. Another exercise consists of the 
lines found in the small letters m, n and 
others. The loop in I. b. h, etc.. forms 

valuable movement drills. Thei 
double purpose of teaching form and move- 
ment. Certain exercises are also arranged 
for capital letter drills. In teaching, great 
care is taken that the spacing and slant, as 
welt as the form and movement, receive due 
attention. Our writing lessons are from 
forty-flve minutes to an hour in length, and 

writing. AH uf them are doubtless serving 
a good purpose, but it seems to me that all 
are open to criticism in respect to the rela- 
tive lengths and proportions of the letters. 
In all the published systems with which 1 
am famifSar, the loop letters, both above and 
below the base line, and tlie capita) letters, 
occupy entirely too much space for practi- 










5«t spoilt '' 

ftuTicAi Economy 3fe jcoyt aui> bu';>«>vw-^iaftfi.H'ii. suGj'tct 

eJ.v,..>voKov.. ^ ' 

^iof>t>- Cfovw. Vc v^Pv<.m,?_ S£U %^Ci a«i at„J'u of &.cfvo 



The ab&re cut is 11 practical reproduction of Ulustrfttion made by I'rof. 3fcC'or(f. . 
toit/i 7ii« remarks upon the utitjecf of PoUdcal Economy. 

about one-third of this time is devoted to 
these movement exercises. The remainder 
of the time is employed in the careful writ- 
ing of pages which are dated and signed by 
the pupil, and taken up and examined bv 
the teacher. We have followed this methoii 
of teaching for many years, and its results 
are most satisfactory" Great enthusiasm 
prevails among our students on the subject 
of writing, anq many of them take the extra 
writing lessons each day, for which they pay 
a small additional fee. I feel myself gener- 
ally at peace with the published systems of 

books and papers used now-a-days, have 
very narrow rulings. If the prescribed pro- 
portions of writing are adhered to, one of 
two things is sure to be the result. Either 
the small letters of the writing must be 
made much smaller than they should he to 
make the writing legible, or there will be 
great interference of tlie letters, thus destroy- 
ing the legibility of the work. This criti- 
cism is a good one. Business men every- 
where who regard writing only on account 
of its practical use, have mode and are still 
making this criticism. It seems to me that 

it is reasonable and should be heeded by the 
publishers of penmanship systems. 

Mr. Spencer, of Washington ; When you 
are writing on narrow ruled paper, do you 
reduce the comparative size of all your let- 
ters ? that is, do you make the same reduc- 
tion comparatively in every letter ¥ 

Mr. Brown : There is now such a ten- 
dency to narrow ruling, to get as much writ- 
ing as possible on a page, and if your long 
letters are made full height they arc apt to 
till the spaces between the lines and lend 
toward illegibility. 

Mr. Spencer : Do you leave the short let- 
ters as high as in wide ruling, and reduce 
the height of the long letters ? that is. would 
you leave the height of the letter i the same 
in all cases? 

Mr. Brown : Of course we would have to 
meet whatever were the necessities of the 
case, but I should not reduce the small 
letters in quite the same proportion as the 
loop letters. However, I am simply trying 
to explain my method, and to make it plain 
that we do not work in a go-as-you-please 
way, but have a systematic method of 

Mr. Spencer, of Milwaukee : It occurs to 
me that these variations should be system- 
atic and regular variations. Every varia- 
tion in height, or spacing, or slant, affects 
the appearance of the writing and every 
change in the appearance of the writing is 
a change of style. Style is the appearance 
or impression produced upon the mind by 
the various features that make up the hand- 
writing. In writing, we first have what we 
call ideals, and in order to give expression 
to the ideals, we bring to our aid the move- 
ments of the hand in guiding the pen. If 
these movements even leave no traces of 
themselves, and there is no visible represen- 
tation of the idea, we still teach something. 
All these things are mcessary to expression: 




Wc tirst set up a standard and then vary 
the features to produce different styles. 
Style is the appearance of the writing, the 
same as it is the appearance of a dress or a 
speech or anything— it is simply the general 
impression produced by all the parts com- 
bined. Slant is the position of the writing 
with regard to the line, and the slimdard is 
53 degrees elevation from the horozontal 
toward the perpendicular. If we change 
the slant of the letters, we change the style 
simply hy changing one feature. Persons 
have different preferences as to writing in 
these different positions, and these persons 
produce different styles of writing. But 
this change is a perfectly systematic one. 
and we must follow the same rule in regard 
to the relation of the lines, which mu&i be 
parallel. We must have the same law of 



Now, in regard to height, to which Mr. 
Brown refers, and which he modifies in 
order to produce a «tyle of writing which 
in his judgment is best adapted to ordinary 
business. You can vary not only that one 
feature and produce a very desirable result 
of writing for business purposes ; but you 
can change other features, and these changes 
ought to he made systematically. If you 
change to the perpendicular style of writ- 
ing, you will he able to get more on one 
line, but you sacrifice something in the 
matter of ease of execution. There is no 
other way in which you can economize 
space. The slant of the upper stroke regu- 
lates the spacing always. If the desire 
is to bring the writing closer together 
and to condense it, you bring it nearer to 
the perpendicular, u I were to make it a 
point in my instructti^n to teach pupils to 
vary their style of writing, I should begin 
by teaching Ihem standard writing and then 
teach them to change the style system- 

Mr. Brown : Suppose the style we teach 
is considered by the pupils the standard — 
what is the objection to that ? 

Mr. Spencer : Every man may set up a 
standard for himself, but whether he should 


if time, and if he beUevcd a ccrtaia 
'HI nf Imsincss bouses used a certain 
writing, «bouId be not use it Id his 
r. no ninttcr wbnt the standard 

Mr. Sjie 


I am of Ibu opinion that if 
' le the writing done in tbe 
>iii.<iinc>SH world, wc should tina tliiit on the 
whole it conforms very iiciirly to tin- stand- 
ard set up by the ..u iin -iibject. 
The variations are l:irL'rl\ (ini-di l^y the 
varying conditions xwUr whii ii ji.-opic are 
obliged to write, or Hu jn i iili;j[ |>Ii\Nirai or 
mental constitution uf Uic iiidiviilujU. 

Mr. Ames, of New York : Tbe standard 
that Mr. Brown may set up in his school is 
nil very well so far as he and his school are 
eoncerucd, but it seems to me we must look 
to some broader field for a national standard. 
Some of Mr. Brown's graduates may go out 
as teachers in the public schools. Now sup- 
pose one ()f tliLse tfuclii-rH should lake the 

tbin! L'li.dr III :l I.lllili, .rl i Tllf pupil 

but ill Ihu third giaJe he 

have to change and begin all over again. 
We must liave some national standard, and 
I believe we have it in the Spencerian sys- 
tem and that published by Messrs. Payson 
& Dutton, and in the leading publisbed sys- 
tems. Of course we all know that a teacher 
who has no methods of his own is not lit to 
go into a schoolroom, but when we come to 
systems tbey should be identical. 

Mr. Brown : I am very much impressed 
by what Mr. Spencer has said, and if I were 
to place myself under the instruction of any- 
one to-day to get a thorough, plain and 
practical handwriting, I would immediately 
turn my steps toward Milwaukee. With re- 
gard to Mr. Ames' remarks, 1 have no doubt 
if I were to publish a system of writing to 
be used in the public schools, or in any con- 
siderable number of schools, I should be in- 
tluenced by the same ideas he has set forth. 
But we are merely teachers, and in my opin- 
ion we should teach as nearly as possible 
that style which is of the greatest practical 
value to the pupil, or will be when he goes 
into the busiuoss world. We should act for 
the greatest good of tbe greatest number. 
^lio-w tbe proof of tbe pudding is said to be 
^an the eating, and I have here some forty or 
fifty letters written by a number of my 
pupils to the pupils in tbe different depart- 
ments of Packard's College, and you are 
permitted to e.'iamine tliem if you care to do 
so. Air. Iloitou has collected them at ran- 

Mr. Spencer, of New York : Mr. Brown, 
what is the average age of your pupils in 
writing ? 

Mr. Brown : From 18 to 19 perhaps. The 
great majority have been pupils in the public 
schools. We do not want any system of 
writing that is maintained simply because it 
is a system ; but all systems should be re- 
commended upon the basis of the use and 
service they will be to the pupil, or the 
erreatest number of pupils in our institu- 

Air. Spencer, of Washington : I want to 
call the attention of tbe convention to the 
fact that in the city of Rochester we agreed 
that the definition of " business writing" 
was "that handwriting best suited to the 
uses of business," and that its essentials 
were legibility and rapidiiy and ease of exe- 
cutirm. Now I wnni t.. -■,y -nm,.tliinL-:ibout 

ii.>^ lin„M^ in Ashtabula. OhU,. Up to tbe 
\i.Mi is'.ii be did not himself measure the 
■^hnji nil wliicb he wrote, but he found that 
vMi li I in- ptisition which he prescribed — what 
wr 1 Mil I lu> standard position— the result was 
;i ^l;ini of :,;; degrees. When a standard was 
rLi|iiii.,l. ihat man's writing was taken, and 
iliis \\;,- lotmd to be the slant, was adopted 
:i^ a standard, and is made so, I believe, in 
all the systems of writing published in this 
country. It is tbe result of tbe best position 
lor writmg, not only for the penman but the 
business man. 

Mr. Brown: How far would you allow 
departures from that slant ? 

Mr. Spencer : I believe in teaching the 
correct relative position of the hand arm 
ami paper, and the result will be writin«r at 
a slant of !S2 degrees. ° 

At 10 o'clock the regular session was 
called to order. President Rider in the chair. 

The Chainnan of the Executive Com- 
nuttce announced that it had been whispered 
to him that Mr. f.aii.l,-) , nf KIi/;>I„.n,. had 


lit-flt-r w;,y would be Ivi liu- ■^^nilcill-.m to 
read it. Whereupon soniL- humorous lines 
entitled "Babes in the Woods" were seri- 
ously delivered. 
On motion of Mr. Spencer, of Milwaukee, 

8 educators 
of the country in behalf of the Awocialion— 
same to include a copy of the constitution 
and by laws. "Tbe same gentleman was also 
designated to take charge of tbe publication 
of theproceedingsof the present convention. 

The President announced the questions of 
the morning to be—" What Features in 
your Schools do you Attach most Import- 
ance to, and What are your Chief Dif 
ficulties ? " 

The talks were by consent limited to five 
minutes. Most of them wen- in happy vein, 
and the .Iouhnal regrets that it has not 
space to give them in full. 

Mr. Brown ; Our test this morning is a 
pretty long one. It is something like the 
text the preacher took when he said he 
would speak upon the World, the Flesh and 

Flesh and godirecttotbe Devil. (Laughter.) 
I will not undertake to cover all our text, 
but will discuss only one point. Some of 
our friends seem to think that one pecu- 
liarity of our school. is that our students, in 
their practice correspondence, do a good deal 
of poor writing. This is undoubtedly true. 
It cannot be avuided in the very nature of 
the case, if we deal fairly with our pupils. 
We are one of the scbnols fti.'ii -i. lai-rly 
into the inter-communii^iiimi iintlin.l -.t 
practice. Indeed. I mi^'hi ~:i\ Tl]:it unr-i <>i 
our practice is conductid iiiL..imli Uu m^iil^ 
As we use Packard's Mauuul in uui dupait 
raent, it requires only from four to six 
weeks for bright, quick pupils to make such 
preparation in bookkeeping as we require 
for promotion to the business practice de- 
partment. You will thus see that many of 
our students are advanced tn the practice 
department before tbey have had the ben- 
efit of a long drill and training in writing. 
Having become convinced that ihe best pos- 
of bringing a pupil up quickly 

1 his writing is this 

! correspondence 

somewhat peculiar to ourselves, but that 
doesn't make them any better ; tbey may 
even be worse for that. I wish to empha- 
size this point. Because we believe our 
school may be improved, and ought lo be 
improved, I have felt it my duty, year by 
year, since tbe business teachen of this 
country began to meet for an interchange of 
ideas and experience and observations, to 
attend these meetings. I have felt that this 
is a duty which I owe to my school. I know 
that I have done this, as you have, at con- 
siderable sacrifice of time and money ; but I 
believe that is what time and money are 
given us for — to use for the benefit of those 
who are committed to our care ; and I know 
of no way in which I can spend a little 
money and a little time each year for tbe 
benefit of the public who are in some sense 
dependent upon me, to better advantage 
than in attending these annual meetings. 

Mr. Nelson : We teach our students the 
first dav they come to write down figures 
as rapidly as they can. We drill them in 
rapid methods of addition every day they 
remain with us, if that should be a year. 
Fifteen minutes are spent every day in 
rapid addition. We first take a single 
column of figures at a time, then we run 
up a combination of two figures and then 
three. With that we teach our students 
bill making. In order to teach them bill 
nKikiiiL', nc have to give them lessons in 
wrinii- I wnuld say that these two things 
I Mniiuii. .1— simple writing and arithmetic — 
are wiinl rir.inimend Our students in pre- 
ference to anything and everything else. 

Mr. Williams : I believe if wc send our 
boys out with an elegant handwriting, the 
ability to perform arithmetical calculations 
with accuracy and rapidity, a §ood knowl- 
edge of orthography and the ability to write 
a nice letter, they will pass muster. I be- 
lieve we should spend more lime on this 
and less on the more advanced features of 
bookkeeping. The first question 

ivheu he wants a clerk 


end. If a boy can whistle better than any 
other boy, I want him to whistle. If he has 
a marked talent in any direction, I get him 
in some way to trot ii out, that we may all 
see how smart he is, and that he may gel 
credit for so much. It encourages him and 
gives us access to him. It shows him that 
although be may be dull in some ways, he 
is not in all ways. I find also that young men 
have Ibis trouble of expressing themselves 
about which Mr. McAdam spoke. The first 
thing a boy swiys is, ■• 1 know what it is, but 
I do not know how to express it." In a 
sense this is true, but not so fully as be 
imagines. He often has an idea that never 
formulated itself in language, and so he con- 
cludes that he cannot express it. I want a 
boy to say exactly what is in his mind, just 
because I know tbe first thing he will say is 
the thing that is not in his mind, and he will 
be so sorry thai he cannot say what he wants 
to that he will struggle until tbe words 
come. That is a victory. It is not merely 
teaching him " gab, * for when he has con- 
quered his diffidence and mastered expres- 
sion, then he will see the importance of hav- 
ing somcihiug to express. I have started 
more boys to reading by showing them their 
ignorance when they stand upon their feet, 

Mr. Spei 


^^-*^*S7 -^^»»-*»^<^^-^V ^/V^^ C*-**^-**-**^^^^, 

iS>C^^ ,^^-»^«^^4^^i^.^ ^^^**^ 

The uhove w pliolo-enyraval from o. UtUr by ouv "versatile gauitn," E. K. Isaacs, to i 
tfie JornNAL readers need no iiitroductiop. 

and practice work, we put him at it early, 
as tbe surest means of improving him. This 
work is certain to produce tbe best results ; 
for it keenly interests the pupil from the 
very start, and colls forth bis best efforts in 
all that he does. Therefore I adopted this 
plan, and you see our students are sending 
out their work very early in the course. 
Why not, if this method produces better re- 
sults than any other? Why should business 
educators be afraid lo Irf . i. ), ,.i1m i r - just 
the kind of work we all ' ' . : .|..ih> 

everywhere? The ire '■. to 

make it appear that hi-- |. ,] .;,(..;hii 

R. C. Spencers iu pcnin:iH-lii|j and ..auiot 
do poor work if they try, ikctives ni.Iiody 
but himself. Why not quit all such nou- 
sense V It does nobody good, and those 
who iittem|il l»» carry it out do the majority 
of III. Ii |iii|iiK w Iio arc not fine penmen and 
never \\\\\ hi , ^r,al injury. The very 

P".!"i ^^)' I 'Ih~ kind of drill most to 

briim u[) ]u^ U..F I. 1- the one who does not 
get u. \\t. iuuA\ that every school has its 
"Mr. Toots," the crack scholar and dress 
parade boy. He is trotted out on all occa- 
sions, to the great amusement of the rest of 
the school. Ill general ability and good 

-- be the weakest 
iny pupil has suffl- 


ikkeeping. spelling, 
rut- to take him lo tbe, bis handwriting should 
not long bold him back. We examine the 
handwriting with reference to movement 
as well as other qualities, and make the 
penmanship as good as possible. When 
our pupils reach the oflicc work, I believe 
iheir writing will compare favorably with 
that of any other school. At any rate I am 
willing to place our bank correspondence 
alongside of similar work from any other 
school, business men and teachers being the 
judges of their comparative merits. 

Mr. Spencer, of Milwaukee : We, like 
other schools probably, do ourwork in ways 

kind of a hand does he write ? " The sec- 
ond is, "Can he add a column of figures 
rapidly ? " and the rest be cares little about, 
provided the boy has a good character. We 
attach a great deal of importance lo the 
business practice and the correspondence 

Mr. Bartholomew : The peculiar feature 
of my school is that I teach the stenograph 
and it only. Tbe chief difficulty that fhave 
to contend with is getting students. There 
is another difficulty, however, that I suppose 
all who have anything to do with leaching, 
have lo contend with. That is, having ap- 
plicants appreciate the fact that general in- 
formation and education iu other matters, 
other than the mere useof orability to write 
shorthand, is very necessary. The createst 
drawback with me is that ^rinli'nts"'<in not 
seem to pay enough attention (o ih, v 
read and hear. Now I think liiii nmlv ail 
tbe mistakes that are maJi \>\ im hhm n^ s 
and shorthand writers grow out oi w^ lan 
thai they really do notundersland tbe things 
they are writing. Tbey do not get tbe 
meaning fully, and I think it is welt for us 
to try lo impress upon the minds of our stu- 
dents at tbe start that thty must understand 
the meaning of what tbey are called upon 
to write ; else they cannot possibly do accu- 
rate work, 

Mr. Packard : That is a model speech. I 
do not want to repeat it, but the difflcully is 
that I cannot make a good speech without 
repeating it. It touches high water mark. 
I think the chief difficulty I have found with 
students has been to introduce them to them- 
selves, to let them know that they really 
have minds and ought to put Ibem to proper 
use. Young men and women naturally feel 

that II 

M tbeyc 

-■ of dull- 

■, of Washington: Inmyjudg- 
iK'ss oi c-ducating the youth 

In w\. Mil luain of the grand 
I jiaiid man, and to 

I.I , ii; nwn and young 
worocu lo a-MiiLK iliiJi places in tbe great 
working wmkl. AVi: uaut to do this as 
fully and iis symmetrically as possible. This 
feature oi hludctits gelling knowledge from 
tbe libraries at home, from Ibeir observa- 
tions on the streets, from conversations with 
their friends, and going into the schoolroom, 
rising before their fellows and expressing it, 
is one of the most important exercises con- 
nected witb education. We have had this 
exercise in our institution for years. 

Mr. Lausley : The dual aspect of this 
question, What feature of your school con- 
tributes most to its success? and, What is 
your chief ditticulty t admits of a division 
into two parts, ana I sometimes divide my 
subject into two parts. We have one fea- 
ture of our school that we regard as tbe 
chief of tbe chiefest as regarding success. 
I think if we should withdraw that feature 
there would be a great lack of success. 
That feature, ladies and gentlemen, sits at 
my left (Mrs. Lanslcy). bo far as the dif- 
ficulties are concerned, when tbe features 
of success, with high aspirations and am- 
bitions are lived up to, we have no 

Mr. Miller, of Newark : I have one hob- 
by, as it seems we all have, aud that is my 
method of examination. I would premise 
by saying that I have a long course school. 
1 have three departments — Theory, Ad- 
vanced Theory and ihe Practical Depart- 
ment. When a student completes the 
theory work, be then develops a set iu 
bookkeeping drawn from his mental re- 
sources. I'Uis set is carried out in every 
particular; every auxiliary in connection 
with it is written out. He incorporates 
with this his examination in spelling, the 
application of words, composition, arith- 
metic, commercial law and any other fea- 
tures we may have. This is then brought 
before me, after having been placed in a 
book written up to the best of his ability, 
aud 1 grade il. On Friday afternoon we 
have a literary society meeting in which we 
engage in all kinds of exercises such us re- 
ferred to by Mr. Packard and others. On 
that occasion the pupil, having completed 
his course, receives his certificate. Then 
having completed the advanced theory 
course, he again recapitulates his work by 
producing another evidence similar lo this, 
and receives a second certificate. Having 
finished tbe actual practice work, then 
comes the grand summary. A uumber of 
sets are selected similar to tbe sets over 
which he has passed, and he spends at least 
a month in getting up his last work, which 
must present tbe beat features possible. 

Mr. Gaines : There are perhaps no fea- 
tures of our school that may be considered 
peculiar except three. One is the short 
term, and I attach great consequence to 
that; another is our system of public and 
private eutertainmeuiH. aud I attach a still 
greater importance to that ; and the third is 
the moral influence thrown around the 
young men, not alone by wholesome re- 
strictions, but also by a students' prayer 
meeting, which during ten months of the 
year meets once a week, and which always 
carries an iillcnilnni o of aliout fifty, and on 
special fuia i.ri- lia- tirrnljO to 200 stu- 
dents. Ii c'-i" |.iiiiM'^equence to leach 
a youii- [iiaii lo iliiiik on his feet, but I 
think a youu^ iitau [should have sonic social 
advantages as well. To give them ihe 
social advantages, we invite them to our 
house once a week the year round. There 
they see pictures, of which the house is full, 
and many things Ihat green country boys 
would not perhaps see anywhere else. I 
think it adds lo their pleasant memories 
of the school and of us. 

Mr. Spencer, of Cleveland : We have in 
our school several different departtrteuls, 
and at the head of each is a man whose 
business it is to push bis own department 
through, thus making, us it were, each de- 
piirlmcut the printripal one of the school. 

Our room!) arc open to the use of tlic 
dents from eigul in the moroiog to L»lf 
paat five fn the evening. Our teachers arc 
in attendiiiicc all these hours. The pupils 
are required to be in strict order at their 
tU-skif live hours in the day. 

Mr. Ilinnian: I can think of hut one 
thing that may he called the leading feature 
iu our school, and that i» the making of 
men out of hoys. And 1 mean men in the 
fullest sense— gentlemen— men who will be 
pri/t'il licri-iifler, and who can make their 
\v;iy in ihe world by showing good ahiJily 
in iiiisincsy ways, and good address, all 
based upon principle. The chief trouble 
that I have in my school is in watching my- 
self to see thai 1 keep a close eye on the 
enthusiasm of the pupils as well as teachers. 
I see that all do their best, if possible, and 
that even the smallest and most bashful 
pupils receive proper attention. They are 
trained to come up to one ground of com- 
plete manhood and self-respect ; to be 
eourtcous in action, that they may pass into 
ilie world well qualified to he received and 
to succeed as capable, principled business 

Mr. Spencer, Louisville : If there is a 
single feature of our school to which I 
atinch more importance than to the others, 
1 should say il is iiritlirtietic— simple ad- 

have auylhiju i . ly peculiar to 

ourschool,! -IjmuhI -i\ it i- llif presenta- 
tion, practically, of iionks. I get just as 
large a variety of these books as I possibly 
can from the outside world. I have had a 
greatdeal of experience in accounting work, 
and I give the student everything that I find 
peculiar. I had to change a set of books 
from a house where there were seventeen 
different deparlments, and I did away 
entirely with the journal. The head book- 
keeper has since told me that he is not doing 
ooe-tiftb of the work that he did before. 
This is my peculior line of work. 

Mr. Stowell : In regard to school work, 
my first difficulty with students is that as 
they come to me I find that tbey have been 
1 the habit of being governed wholly by 

like a flock of .^Ii( 
them, and my > i! 
that I have tlim 
men, with all li^^i 
they arc in ;i n^i, 

ith the leadei 

force wjiirh ii.iih..U lli:il -\ W ImUk^i- 

or bookkeeping', ii i- i<i th im' I <■ \,, [\u- 

student thiti IIikiil'IjI. Ili;il in- lniii'-< II iiiii^l 
make up willlin lli^ tuvil lnin<l ;l Ii:lsi> \u 

operate upon, and that every niovenieiitand 
every thought and every word must he in 
consonance with that central idea ; it is his 
and bis alone. Independence of character 
I also endeavor to develop. 

Mr. Gray: Ido not know that there isany 
very peculiar feature about my school. I aim 
to comprehend as nearly as I can what seems 
to be most important for business education, 
and give those studies which are in my 
judgment relatively important, and then I 
try to instruct accordingly and make my 
course as nearly as possible a unit as a 
whole. My course is, I think, mther long. 
The difficulty is that the students' purses are 
not long enough to enable them to take it. 
One difficulty I have to contend with is that 
all over the State of Maine there are schools 
which advertise short courses. They do not 
simply advertise a short course, but pro- 
claim themselves to be the most thorough, 
the best and most practical in the world. 
Tbey say that a student can get through in 
three and a half months, and they do turn 
them out in about that time, But when the 
student has got through the course, and is 
able to stay longer, what does he take? 
\yhy, the very same things are put before 
him again, and where is the bright young 
man that is going to stay and take the same 
course right over again V 

Mr. Gallagher : We give a great deal of 
attentmn to thoroughness in the Kuglisb 
branches, although we h»vc no spcihil Eua- 
lish department, and 1 Mm, I, ii,,i 1 i|,. 
manded. I finda husiiii . , ., >..,■, 

in his office, who is n. i i , ; , ii,,. 

English branches, onu wli. , ,j,i. i,, .|„ii 
correctly, write plainly, .iml k-uit i.u.i.llv 
and accurately. 

Mr. Kandiill : Thereisoue feature, whether 
it is p.'<uli,ir to my department or not. that 
IS worth speukinsr abnul. I finniii it ik-ccs- 
sary early in my r;itr.T ii- ;i trm hrr' <.l ],i:\r- 
tical branches 'in Uu,.^ nn -hi.JMii iri>in 
the start, and 1 U.,-.. i,,,,, ,,,,,, i, ^,[.■,.,.,\ „iii, 
what has been s;iii! li\ .Mr Kuthhiin u].! .Mr 
Sadler in regard to luiowing studc-nls. One 
bought he would tiud out what a student 
knew, the other what he did not know I 
think if you find out what he knows, and 
whiit he wants to know, you will be likely 
to learn what to give him with most ht-netit 
1 have adopted the plan of learning my stu- 
dents the first day as far as possible. 

Mr. Osborn : I propose to say only a 
word in relation to the difficulties that I ex- 
perience in my work, and these difficulties 
are only of a peneral nature and not specific. 
They are difiiculiics that perhape we all 
have to conlend with so lomf as \\o nr<. (« 

the business of teaching. Chief among them 
is the wrong conception which students 
have of education. Many are apt to take 
the view that education is an accumulation 
of facts — considering the brain a storehouse 
ratlier than a laboratory. This is the case 
with every one, probably, at some period of 
his being. At the same time we will come 
at last to the inevitable conclusion that what 
others Clin do for us in developing the mind 
that is ill u^ i- iiiMLTiiificant compared with 

what v\f 1 III ili> I ii-^clvcs. Tnourwork, 

e8pcci:iiK . -I III I' 111- • "iiif to us with the im- 
pre-s^inii dial w. ..ui iiuui' our information 
into Ihiir lR;aib. Mu^l ull of our students 
when tbey enter school have not passed this 
stage. I take occasion to tell tbem that I 
can do comparatively little for tbem ; that 
they must not look to teachers as the gmnd 
illuminating sun, but as lighthouses in the 
sea of knowledge, which can help those 
alone who will help themselves, 

Mr. Spencer, of New York : I btOicve 
that the position of the tni^im -^ ,.,11, ■, in 

the educational world i^ ■ 1 i^. 

Only a few years ago it li:ci ■■ ■ 1 . i ,i:h d 
position. It was hardly 11 liimI- u :\- m in- 
stitution where the e'ducaliun iziven was 
worthy the name. Those who were en- 
gaged in the work did not speak well of 
each olher, and some were not good enough 
business men to present in their colleges 
current business methods. This was twenty- 
five years ago. Evolution and wise progress 
have happily brought these institutions out 
of this condition. They now stand upon 
schools of the 
es and indus- 

Mr. Ames : The gentleman at my right 
(Mr. Collins) asks for suggestions with re- 
gard to advertising. I have only a point to 
make. In order to advertise judiciously, 
" know the results of julvortising he 

has fnrni''rt\' 



kept ;i 

top. 1 \ ■ /, AMrejts. 

a. Dal. '•! /■>,/,./ 1 r.,,n.. y,,, ,,..,,/. -». Pre- 
sent Ad<tn.sM. (I, i-;,l,nr Aihhrm. Then a 
column "How Ifrawn," that is, how influ- 
enced to come to my school ; then. Standing 
in Theory mid siniihir headings for the other 
departinniN. FMll..uiii- IImsc w umi liroiiii 

"Wbi.l hiMii^hi \uM I s s,'|„,mI ;■■ Whal- 

ever be inisuucd I piil. duu u under the 
heading " Jiow Drawn." " I saw your no- 
tice in the daily Joui-nal or J'rihine ; I gave 
that paper credit Or he would say "My 
brother has been here," or that some friend 
had visited the school and recommended it, 
and I made the entry atxordingly. In this 
way I was enabled to look over the register 
at any time ami .sec thcinflucnces that were 
at work ami ^^ Mi 1i |.n il>iiiiiviii .1 ill bring- 
ing pa( 


other way. I believe in a true and faithful 
statement. I do not believe in writing up 
ideal institutions in a circular and sending 
it out : hut I believe in an honest, faithful 
statement of the facilities which you present 
and nothing more, and (hat upon a liberal 

Mr. Wiuans : Our school has no par- 
ticular hobby. Being in the center, we 
chiim to he well balanced. We have at the 
head of our different departments teachers 
who have hobbies of their own, and each 
one tries to make his the most prominent. 
A great point with ua is business ethics — 
honesty in business — doing business in a 

business men said to us, "We are afraid 
of you fellows ; every business college man 
thai has been here has bit us," — something 
I had not been used to. We made it a point 
to gain the respect of the community by 
doing business on business principles. 

Mr. Collins ; I cannot say that we have a 
particular hobby, unless it be to make our 
students thorough and enable them to enter 
at once upon the active duties of a business 
career. When a student places himself 
under our instrnrlinii, wf liiid iisually llnd 
his idea seems t(i III- I" ili.;i icitani aniniint 

of work in order in -ri ih lIi [}>•■•■ --■ 

And our idea i.s to 1 liaiii:r ihr diiii ui ins 
mind. We try I" liiiii tLai lliMi(.,u-h 
uess is the first point in bis work, One 
ditflculty that 1 have encountered is know- 
ing when and how to advertise. 
Mr. Rider ; I find myself conducting the 

say "Amen" to wIliI lia- iictn said by 
othersus totbcnd\aiii;i-rMt hr I piiiL' students 
to think and teiicliiiiLi ili. m \\li:d is iroingon 
around them. The elheieuty of ihjit work 
depends entirely upon its management. The 
next thing I find myself doing is looking 
after the language and spelling lesson. We 
leach our young men to speak and we teach 
them to spell. I do not believe any young 

ing a year who will not speak correctly and 
spell correctly. The next thing 1 find my- 
" " ' ' "" '■ to is rapid addition. 

scale will do more to bring patrons to your 
institution than any other method. By 
keeping such a record as I have de- 
scribed you can detenniuc in which di- 
rection you want in rv| I v.iii energy 

and money in imi . 1 .:. ;■ : .uiigo to 

your school. I li 1 1 i-icy. in 

which I took the ]ia iimm \i-iiorwbo 

came to my insiifnin-ii, iiud I nuuii; it a 
point to encourage people to come. If a 
stranger visited me. I asked him if he knew 
any one in his neighborhood who purposed 
patronizing such a school. "Why, yes; we 
have several young men and young women 
who ought to be in your school ;" solwould 
sometimes get a list of from fifteen to 
twenty names to whom 1 would oddress cir- 
culars, and most certainly some of that num- 
ber would he among our patrons the next 

Jlr. Crane 

TLt pcciliiM- 

Iji' \unil,- 111' 

V (if iTiy system 

,' l,,.,ii„.^» of 

■ -1 liat is 

ilii- fuel 

11 i.K-tliod 

uiinLLlum with 

This closed the speech making. 
Mr Spencer, of Milwnnkpc. in a bnppy 
speech, invii'-d dtc A^c,.ei:,(if.ii ii. imM (hfir 

the call '<\ 1 1 ■ ' . . ■ ' ' I . I ■,. . nini' 

Commiiii ■ I ,■ , 1 . - pt. d 

Mr. Gll!la-lnl l....hl ll.r J.d(j.,il,u..liuu gl;i.l 

the Hmiiilloiiiitiis \v.nifd lie to entertain 
them two years from now ; and Mr. Rider, 
looking a year further in the future, ex- 
tended an invitation on behalf of the Tren- 

Tbe following were chosen by acclamation: 
President. Warren H. Sadler. Vice Presi- 
dents. R. E. Gallagher, L. F. Gardiner, and 
Mrs. 8. S. Packard. Secretary and Treas- 
urer, A. S. Osborn. Executive Committee, 
R. C: Spencer, Chairman; 0. W. Brown 
ard T,. L Willii'ms. 

Messrs. Ames and Spencer of Milwaukee 
wereappoiuted by the President a committee 
to escort the newly elected President to 
the chair. 

Mr. Sadler's remarks on assuming the 
duties of his position were well chosen and 
evoked a storm of applause. They were 
incorporated in a sketch of Mr. Sadler which 
appeared in the last issue of the 

After thanking Mr. and Mrs. Packard 
and the Messrs. Spencer for personal atten- 
tions duringthe convention, and the retiring 
officers, the convention adjourned trine die. 

Lesson In Drawing. No. IV. 


, by.] 

In drawing the human face, front view, 
it will be seen that an oval or egg form will 
give the best contour upon which to draw 
the features. 

With the head erect, divide the oval ver- 
tically with a right line ; divide this line 
into four parts horizontally. Divide the 
central horizontal line into five equal parts. 
Place the eyes on this line in the intermedi- 
ate divisions, as shown in the example. 
The nose is one-quarter the length of the 
head; the ears the same length as the nose. 
Divide the space below the nose into three 
parts, the mouth is one-third of the way 

If the head is thrown directly backwards, 
or as if lookingdownwards, the lines which 
before were horizontal must, in such cases, 
be curved upwards or downwards. See 

For an infant's or young child's head, 
more space must be allowed above the eyes. 
Some writers think the head should be di- 
vided into five parts, allowing three parts 
above the eyes. If the head is turned from 
the front towards one side, the central 
vertical line should also he curved cor- 
respondingly. (See accompanying illus- 



1 have always hated to give advice, espe- 
cially when there is a prospect of its being 
taken. It is only one eyed people who love 
to advise, or have any spontaneous prompt- 
itude of action. 

When a man opens both his eyes, he gen- 
erally sees about as many reasons for acting 
in any one way as in any other, and quite as 
many for acting in neither, and is therefore 
likely to leave his friends to regulate their 
own conduct, also to remain quiet as re- 
gards his especial affairs till necessity shall 
spur him onward. 

Nevertheless the world and individuals 
flourish upon a constant succession of blun- 
ders. The secret of a practical success lies 
in the characteristic faculty of shutting one 
eye, whereby we get so distinct and deeiued 
a view of what immediately concerns us 
that we go stumbling toward it over a hun- 
dred insurmountable obstacles, and achieve 
a magnificent triumph without being aware 
of half its difficulties. 

Lessons in Practical Penmaiv 

B, F. Kelly, of New York, will give a 
lesson in the October number. 

P. P. .Judd,Chicago (111.) Business Univer- 
sity, will give a lesson in the December 

The following named gentlemen have 
already given notice of their acceptance of 
our invitation, and will give lessons at such 
times as will be mutually acceptable : 

II. W. Flickiugeri Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
Thos. J. Stewart, Trenton, N. J. ; W. Ii, 
Glen, Phila.,Pa.; H. A. Spencer, New York; 
R.J. Magee, New York; L.L. Tucker, New 
ark, N.J.; C. Bayless, Dubuque. Iowa; W. 
11. Patrick, Baltimore, Md.; E. Burnett, Bal- 
timore, Md. ; II. T. Loomis, Spencerian 
lUi.siness College. Detroit, Mich. ; Uriah 
AIcKee, Oherlin (Ohio) College ; G. A, 
Hough, of Fort Scott (Kan.)Normal College. 

We are very sure that the practical infor- 
mation that will be presented in the series of 
lessons to he given by such representa- 
tive teachers as are named above will he 
of solid advantage to all teachers and pupils 
of writing. 

Note. — All who have consented to give a 
lesson, are hereby requested to designate the 
time at which they prefer to do so. Also, 
to any teacher or author, who has not sig- 
nilied his purpoac to give a lesson, and who 
contemplates doing so. 

Theology and Jacksonville Hos- 

Editor of the JocKNAl. : 

I am glad tbat in tbe August issue of the 
JoLBNAL is a paragraph kindly intc-uded aa 
an apology for an oxpressiou of mine re 
garding the exifltcnce of Deity, you Lave 
turned our minds back again to the meeting 
.,{ the Business Educnlora' Association held 
,.t Ja^■k^'onviIle. 111., in 1885: for I shall 
count among the plcasantest memories of 
my life the rcflned hospitalities and cour- 
tesies of that highly intellectual and cultured 

My affectionate esteem for the penple of 
Jiicksoiiville is heightened by the fact that 
their Lospiiality is of that bread and gencr- 
ims character which includes the thoughtas 
well as the personal pleasure of Its guests. 
This fact makes it the noble seat of learning 
and intelligence that it is so widely known 
to be. The intellectual and moral impres- 
sion made upon the community at Jackson- 
ville by the wise, scholarly and venerable 
Dr. Sturdevant, Prof. Turner and others, 
who manifested so deep fin interest in our 
deliberations and objects, is free from that 
nnrrownesB that too often mars Ihe moral 

chievous fellow started a call for " Bob 
Spencer," evidently intent on letting SaUn 
loose in the house of the Lord. The chair- 
man seemed hesitating and doubtful as to 
the exact propriety of this call, evidently 
feeling in the tone and manner of it that 
there might be some evil design at work. 

Reassured probably by the rt-petition and 
continuance of the call, the chairman at 
length requested me to speak. In my own 
mind I hesitated about responding, fearing 
as 1 did, that the motive in calling for me 
might be questionable, and being also doubt- 
ful as to tiie entire willingness of our hosts 
the Y. M. C. A. to have me say what I 
might wish. With little time for reflection 
and none to arrange my ideas, I arose and ex- 
pressed such thoughts as at the moment 
came to me. What I said I do not now dis- 
tinctly recall. I remember, however, that 
as we entered the building of the Y. M. C. 
A. of .lacksonville, I was most pleasantly 
impressed with its fine arrangement, its ex- 
cellent library and reading rooms, its con- 
veniences for useful instruction, pleasant 
social intercourse and religious worship, the 
works of art that adorned the walls, and 
more than all with the 

self regarding theology, and his views were 
well understood by pastor and members, he 
was a member in full and regular standing 
in the Presbyterian Church of Jacksonville, 
presided over by Rev. Mr. Morey, whose 
excellent sermon on the morals of business, 
preached on Sunday in his church for the 
Business Educators* Association, is an im- 
portant contribution to the best literature of 
business and business education. I had the 
pleasure for some time of a correspondence 
with Rev. Mr. Morey. whose catholicity of 
of Christian spirit renders him as hospitable 
in theology and in the domain of thought 
and intelligence as is the noble commuuily 
in the midst of which he performs his minis- 
terial work. 

If, however, any word that may have 
passed my lips gave pain or offense to the 
religious feelings of any citizen of Jackson- 
ville, or anyone else, I shall always regret 
it ; and all the more deeply because of the 
great kindness with which they treated me 
personally, and the respect which they 
showed business education and the Associa- 

The only person from whom I have heard 
complaint regarding my public confession 

Business Penmanship. 

beauty and limits the hospitality of many 
good people. 

I shall never forget the delightful rcccp- 
Hon tendered the Business Educators' Asso- 
ciation by the good people of that city; 
and am quite sure that whatever others 
may bave thought of my frank acknowl- 
edgment that I had no absolute knowledge 
of the existence of God. the intelligent and 
hospitable people of Jacksonville desired 
that 1 should be free to speak of what I 
did not know as well as of what I did 

It will be remembered by those present at 
that reception thai religious sentiments were 
tpiile freely exchanged, and that the intro- 
ductory address was very naturally and 
properly of this clmrneter. This address was 
followed by some humorous remarks by 
Packard expressing regret that Brown had 
not shot him, the absurdity of the idea 
being heightened by the fact which every- 
body understood, tliat Brown could not, if 
he tried, keep still long enough to take aim 
sufficiently steady to hit an elephant at short 
range. On Packard's side the absurdity of 
his being shot by any one, however expert 
in the use of firearms, was apparent in his 
thin and shadowy form ; and the height of 
absurdity was reached of course, when be 
talked about being shot by Brown, 

This amusing and cbafting talk was fol- 
owi'd by gra%'c. dignitled and pious speeches 
by Rider and Gardner with^xcellent music 
and recitations interspersed, that were 
greatly enjoyed. About this time some mis- 

gent and retined people of the place who re 
ceived and entertained our Association so 
delightfully. I also remember contrasting 
all this with the wretched and abortive at- 
tempts which I had seen elsewhere to found 
such institutious, and this it was, I think, 
that suggests pretty nearly all that I say. I 
do however recall that nssociattd in my 
mind with ail these good and beautiful 
things was the regretful feeling that this in- 
stitution was after all based on a narrow 
and sectarian view of Christianity and reli- 
gious life that cruelly excluded many noble 
men and women ; and of this 1 probably 
spoke somewhat feelingly, saddened as I 
always am with the thoughts that because I 
cannot honestly subscribe to Christian the- 
ology, I am treated as unfit to share equally 
with those who accept that theology in the 
work of benefiting and improving young 

On Ihe morning following the reception 
at the Y. M. C. A., (he venerable Prof. 
Turner, of Jacksonville, said to me that he 
presumed I thought that I had no sympa- 
thisers in the audience to which I was speak- 
ing the evening previous. He assured me 
that such was not the case, that be was of 
my view and had subscribed to the building 
fund and maintenance of the Y. M. C. A., 
with the express proviso that it should be 
conducted in accordance with the liberal and 
hospitable spirit in which we both sympa- 

lie further informed me that although be 
was in msich the same stalt of mind as niv- 

at Jacksonville of want of knowledge upon 
theological questions, which may fairly be 
considered open, is my sensitive and saintly 
brother Michael.whose religious sensibilities 
I have vmfortunately deeply wounded. He, 
however, is of that very tender and exalted 
type of religious character for which all 
earthly conditions are unsuited, and cannot 
therefore be considered in fixing standards 
of propriety for ordinary human intercourse. 

Milwaukee. Wis., Aug. 31, 1880. 

Ames's Guide. 

If you desire to have the very best aid to 
self-improvement in practical and artistic 
penmanship, send seventy-five cents for 
Ames's "Guide to Self- Instruction in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship" (in paper 
covers), or |1 for same nicely bound in thick 
covers. It tells you all about writing, flour- 
ishing and lettering, and how to learn. If 
you are not pleased with It you may return it, 
and we will refimd the cash by return mail. 

Back Numbers. 

Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and Tio others : All numbers for 1870, ex- 
cept January, May and November; all 
numbers for 1880. except July, Sep- 
tember and November; all numbers for 
1881, except December; all for 1882, exce[)t 
June; all for 1883. but January; alt Icr 
1884; all for 1885. All the 75 numbers, back 
of 1886, will be mailed tor $6, or any of the 
numbers at 10 cents each. 

The following is from the Jacksonville 
(111.) College Retord for July :— 

" It is most gratifying to note the grow- 
ing tendency among business collegeJi and 
teachers of writing to magnify the impor- 
tance of the practical in the art. and give 
a hack seat to that which is only for show. 
This tendency is especially noticeable 
among the business colleges most noted for 
their excellence as schools of business 

" Businessand ornamental penmanship, in 
the ordinary use of the terms, have nothing 
in common. Indeed, they are antagonistic 
in their very natures. Since the nearer the 
haudwritiug approaches to the ideal stand- 
ard of business writing the farther it departs 
from the ornamental ; it therefore follows 
of necessity that the more ornate or embel- 
lished the handwriting Ihe less it is adapted 
to the purpose of business. A handwriting 
may easily be unfitted for business use by 
emljodying unnecessary lines and curves, 
ornate forms and purely fanciful propor- 
tions in letters. 

" Besides destroying the utility of writing, 
these characteristics are decidedly in had 
taste, viewed from the standpoint of genu- 
ine art. They are not only in bad taste; 
they are vulgarisms. A business handwrit- 
ing, to conform to the true principles of art, 
must he free from everything that detracts 
from its usefulness. Tacking on to the 
plain forms of the letters, lines and flour- 
ishes that are not needed and are there only 
for ornament, not only destroys the legibility 
of the writing, but shows poor taste on the 
part of the writer. 

" Legibility we believe to be the first and 
most essential quality of handwriting, and 
afterwards comes speed in execution. Legi- 
bility and speed successfully combined are 
sure to produce good writing for business 
purposes. The plainest and simplest forms 
of letters should be selected and much time 
may be profitably spent in practicing on 

I knew a venerable gentleman of Buffalo, 
Dr. Scott, who did very great things in a 
very small way. At the age of seventy he 
became conscious of decaying power of 
vision. Being professionally a physician 
and naturally a philosopher, he conceived 
the idea that the eye might be improved by 
what he denominated a series of " ocular 
gymnastics." He therefore undertook to 
exercise his eyes upon the formation of 
minute letters — working upon them until the 
organs began to be weary, and then, like a 
prudent man, resting for hours. By pro- 
gressing slowly and carefully, he became, at 
last able to do wonders in the way of fine 
writing. He also became able to read the 
newspajK-rs witlmiti -los^.s, (Here's a hint 
forHonud. A^'i V,iiik>':,s-..ud as a fortune.) 

Now, Ti'nilri , pi. |i:iir fur ji big story; but 
be assurtii lli;it ii i- tnir, and that my hands 
have handled and my eyes seen the things 
of which I tell you. At the age of seventy 
one, Dr. Scott wrcle upon an enameled card 
with a stile, on a space exactly equal to tbat 
of one side of a nickel three cent piece, the 
Lord's Prayer, the Apostles' Creed, the Par- 
able of the Ten Virgins, the Parable of the 
Rich Man and Luzarus, the Beatitudes, the 
fifteenth, one hundred and twentieth, one 
hundred and thirty-first and one hundred 
and thirty-third Psalms, and the date " 1800." 
Every word, every letter and every point of 
all these passages was written exquisitely ou 
this minute space ; and that old man not 
only saw every mark he made, but had the 
delicacy of muscular action and steadiness 
of nerve to form the letters so beautifully 
that they abide the test of the highest mag- 
nifying power. They were, of course, 
written by microscopic aid. and not with 


Ames' Compendium restored to 
its regular price $5.00. 
It should be uhsurved that the price of 
Anu.s' large Compendium of Artistic Pcu- 
niani^hip bos been restored to it& regular 
price of irj.OO, at which it iif.Il hereafter he 

1 .Joi i{\Ai;. ^5c 


Pobli>h«d Monthly at 81 per "V 

n - ^00 ' turn (imoo %\n.oi 



and ArtliUc feiimaikBhipi" or.for ILae.aoop^ bouDd In cltb. 


opinions therein s 

t forth. 

New York, Septembek, : 

The Journal as an Exponent of 
the Art of Penmanship. 

Not the least of the Journal's claims to 
pre-eminence, ns tbt representative paper 
of its class, rests upon the fact that it has 
given more tliat is new. practical and useful 
to the professional penmeu of America, 
hotb in iileas and examples, than Ihey have 
obtained from any contemporary source, or 
possibly all others combined. Far-reaching 
as is Ibis claim, it is fully warranted by tbe 
facts in Ibe premises. 

The purpose of penmanship journalism, 
as tbe JouuNAi, understands and practices 
it, is twofold. First, there is the rising 
geueratioii to educate — tbe young men 
and women who need to acquire a certain 
de2:ree of proficency with the pen, as an 
indispensable accessary to their training in 
any special line ; aud this class comprises 
pretty much everybody who bas not attained 
to the degree of skill requisite for business 
and social purposes. 

The other class is made up of those who 
liiive passed this practical standard and 
reached tbe high water-mark of professional 
cxpertncss. They are the professors of 
writing, tbe expounders, authors, artists 
and students — the actual penmanship bread- 
winners aud/ghose who are striving to 

Tbe cordial relations existing between the 
JoruNAh and this body of professional pen- 
men have been of great mutual benelit. 
Tliey have told the Journal a great many 
things it bad not previously known. Tbey 
have exemplitied iheir methods of teacliing 
in its columns, have introduced new drills, 
contributed new forms, and made many 
suggestions of tbe greatest value to iis 

The fact ihat the Journal has earnestly 
aud with abundant success maintained its 
part of this reciprocal arrangement is a 
matter of record known to all pen workers. 
Both of lis editors were professional pcu- 
mansbip teachers and workers of wide cx- 
pcrienrc years before the Journal came 
iiitu being, a decade since. They had worked 
shoulder to shoulder with the teachers 
of thought aud action in tbeir line, knew 
them aud were of them. This acquaintance 
with the personnel of the profession, rein- 
forced by a practical and accurate knowledge 
of tbe technique of the art, made it possible 
for tbe J«)URNai. to serve the profession 
with a fidelity of purpose and wealth of 
resource unapproached by any other e«- 
poueut of writing then or since — a possi- 
bility that has been realized with most 
[rratifying results. 

So generally appreciated is this point by 
the profession at large that any elaboration 
of it would be idle and profitless. A mo- 
mentary retrospect of tbe Journal's 
achievements in the one branch of artistic 
penmanship, however, cannot fail to in- 
terest tbe student of pen art. 

It is known to all men interested in suob 
matters that a greater volume of such work 
emanates from the Journal office than 
from any other establishment in America — 
any dozen -estublishments, in fact, still leav- 
ing a margin wide enough possibly to cover 
all that remain. Much of this work has 
been reproduced in tbe Journal, giving its 
student patrons tbe benefit of tbe largest 
variety of new forms, of unsurpassed ex- 
cellence and practical value. A glance at 
the best efforts of other workers will show 
that these examples have been studied with 
the most wholesome effect. They may not 
appear in fac simile, but the flavor is ap- 
parent ; and it is gratifying to know that 
the lessons and examples inculcated by the 
Journal's artists should be reflected in the 
work, not only of the younger members of 
the profession, hut those of wide experience 
and unexceptionable taste. 

Every pen worker appreciates the value 
of Ames' Compendium. No work on pen- 
manship extant can compare with it as an 
aid to the professional artist. It is not a 
collection of curiosities of penmanship, to 
be admired for their grotesqueness, or won- 
dered at ; nor is it padded out by tbe 
threadbare accumulations of other periods. 
It is a work for this day and generation, of 
contemporaneous interest, aud contains no 
line that has not a definite present value to 
the pen artist. Other publications may 
have been "boomed" more freely; but 
none compares with it in the variety and 
usefulness of its forms, the freshness of its 
information aud the order of its arrange 

It is worth anyone's while to visit the 
Journal office, to inspect tbe collection of 
ornamental pen work there displayed. No- 
whereelse on this continent can so many fine 
specimens be seen. In richness aud variety 
of design, strength and grace of stroke and 
delicacy of finish, this collection stands 
alone. It presents a graphic panorama of 
the progress of pen art in tbe past twenty- 
five years. There are specimens executed 
a quarter of a century ago, tbe best in tbeir 
day, and still fresh and vigorous, and pos- 
sessing many points of inspiration to tbe 
modern toiler in artistic pen work. Aud 
there are creations fresh from the pens of 
the Journal's busy artists, embodying the 
highest development of that art to-day. 
Many of these specimens have been repro- 
duced by photographic and engraving pro- 
cesses, and thousands of people throughout 
the countr)' are in possession of reduced 
copies. Of course, the original pen work 
is more spirited and beautiful, and it 
aflfords the Journal great pleasure to ex- 
hibit their excellencies to its friends, to 
whom there is a standing invitation to call. 
Visitors are at all times cordially received, 
and those who have a taste for tbe beautiful in 
pen art will have no occasion to regret their 

The Writing-Ruler has become a standard 
article with those who profess to have a suit- 
able outfit for pnictical writing. It is lu the 
writer what the chart and compass is to the 
mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a reliable 
penmanship chart and compass, sent by tbe 
Journal on receipt of 80 cents. 

The Weakness of Desperation. 

Of all tbe weak defences attempted by 
the friends of the Gaskell Compendium 
against the exposition of the Journal, tbe 
smallest and meanest is that by which the 
defenders affirm, or insinuate, that tbe 
Journal has perpetrated the awful offence 
of assailing the reputation of a defenceless 
dead man. 

Such defenders perpetrate the more awful 
offence of uttering what they know orpugbt 
to know to be an utter falsehood for the 
purpose of defaming tbe living editor of the 
PEN>fAN's Art Journal. We defy them 
to name the page and line where one word 
has been printed in the Journal denuncia- 
tory of Mr. Gaskell. No such line has ever 
appeared. With him we have nothing to 
do. His mission, so faras we are concerned, 
ended at his grave ; but it must indeed be 
a shortsighted critic or friend who does not 
discriminate between tbe showing up of 
tbe Compendium, which, in the bands of 
new owners, remains none the less a live 
imposition, because of its author's demise. 

Again, it has been' intimated that the 
Journal would not have dared to make 
such attacks were Mr. Gaskell alive lo 
meet them. Here again is betrayed the 
worst kind of ignorant or malicious false- 
hood, for tbe files of the Journal show 
that tbe longest and severest criticism ever 
pronounced through the Journal upon the 
Compendium was made while Mr. Gaskell 
was at the head of the Oazette, and in the 
full vigor of health and promise of long 
years of labor. We trust that this line of 
attack and defence will henceforth be 
abandoned, if for nothing else, for tbe sake 
of tbe personal reputation of those who 
have sought lo advance on it. 

With the Left Hand. 

A small piece of pink paper attached to a 
letter received in the Journal office recently 
conveyed this printed information : 

•' Such poor writing from a professional 
penman requires this explanation : Owing 
to long continued and laborious writing, ray 
right hand is beginning tc exhibit signs of 
exhaustion. In order to relieve it in a mea- 
sure, so as to preserve its strength and fitness 
for fine writing for many years to come, I 
have commenced to use my left baud for 
correspondence and other writing in which 
legibility and a reasonable degree of speed 
arc the essentials." 

The name appended to this novel docu- 
ment is tliat of a well known professional, 
E. K, Isaacs. Valparaiso, Ind. The accom- 
panying letter furnishes an illustration in 
point. Legibility is a distinguishing feature 
of tbe penmanship, and Mr. Isaacs says that 
Ibe work was done at a fair rate of speed, 
though his practice has been limited. 

Whether ambidexterity is an accomplish- 
ment within the reach of every one ; or, this 
granted, whether it is worth the time and 
labor necessary to its attainment, are ques- 
tions suggested by Mr. Isaacs' experimenl. 
If anyone has fresh, juicy views on ibe sub. 
ject which he desires to get before an enthu- 
siastic writing constituency, the Journal 
would be glad to see them. 

Our Penmanship Lesson. 

The current lesson in penmanship will, it 
is hoped, he found to contain suggestions of 
use to the writing teacher as well as to the 
student who is endeavoring to improve bis 
chirography without tlie advantage of per- 
sonal instruction. In connection with this 
paper it has been ileemed not inopportune 
to present a portrait of its author, the editor 
of tbe Journal, who has been identified 
with the penmanship interests of this coun- 
try for upwards of thirty years. 

The Spencerian Hand Chart. 

Teachers who may retiuire copies of tlie 
new Spencerian Hand Chart, which appears 
elsewhere in this issue, in connection with 
the writing lesson, may be supplied with the 
same from the office of the Journal, by per- 
mission of the owners. Tbe Hand Chart 
will be found an invaluable aid in inculcat- 
ing principles of correct vn-iting in the 
minds of students. It covers tbe whole 
ground in the concisest manner possible, 
and is altogether admirable. In clasa work 
e.-^pecially, it will be found of very great as- 


J. P. B., Council Ornv.v Kn^ — ■■ I have 
lately lost my riglii hiniil li\ ;iin|minlion at 
my wrist, Ibavc in -nn pi n i m ■ wiih my 
left hand. IslheniLiiv -|.. .nl i-usitiou you 
would advise for lit I li m.l 'miImil' ,' I find 
tbe back slant the easiest to practice. What 
slant would you advise ? " 

Respecting position, sit with the left side 
to the desk, so as to give the proper support 
to the forearm, having the arm parallel with 
tbe side of tbe paper ; that is, have the 
same relative position of body, desk, pen 
and paper as for writing with the right 
hand. The back or upright slant will be 
most natural and easy to tbe left baud. 

G. W. C, Grafton. Dak., requests our 
opinion respecting the relative merits of 
several series of copy-books which he names 
now before tbe public. If we were to speak 
respecting thegeneral style and merit of the 
copies, we should say that it is a sharp 
critic who could tell the difference. Each 
has some specific claims to superiority of 
method in arrangement, gradation of copies, 
analysis, or other thing, respecting the 
merits of which we are not prepared to ex- 
press an opinion. We believe that any of 
these systems are sufficiently good to aid 
any equally good teacher to secure excellent 
results in his writing classes. 

A. P. R.. Cornwall, Ont.— "In tbe com- 
bined movement do tbe fingers remain quite 
stiff while making the small letters V that 
is, do they move only with, and as part of 
tbe band and forearm but having a some- 
what distinct and separate movement in tbe 
stem and loop letters '! Or does the com- 
bined movement mean that all the up aud 
down strokes should be made with the 
fingers, the forearm being used mainly or 
altogether for sliding purposes V And is 
the forearm movement alone (for stem, loop 
letters and all) preferable to either of tbe 
above 1" _ 

In the combined movement the fingers 
should be nearly motionless except in mak- 
ing the extended and shaded lines, in which 
liiey should simply assist by acting conjoint- 
ly with the forearm motion. All the short 
up and down lines should be purely forearm 
and the extended and shaded iines chiefly. 
The stem is made with the combined, the 
fingers assisting in the extreme extension 
and shade. 

The Grant Memorial. 

The JoiiRNAL reproduces in this issue tbe 
Grant Memorial, Since it was first printed 
(nearly a year since), thousands of new sub- 
scribers have been added to the Journal's 
list; and these have exhibited an altogether 
natural curiosity to see the piece of pen 
workmanship that has provoked so many 
nice criticisms from our contemporary 
press. Its reproduction just now is entirely 
apropos the remarks elsewhere presented in 
reference to tbe Journaj.'s connection with 
ornamental penwork. The Memorial ion- 
vttys a very fair idea of tbe Journal's re- 
sources in this direction. 

Lesson for October. 

Mr. B. F. Kelly, of the Journal's staff, 
will give tlie regular writing lesson next 
month. The subject to be particularly treated 
is signatures, which will be considered from 
all points of utility to tbe practical penman 
and tbe practical man. 

Permanent Subscriptions. 

It should be remembered that while it is 
a rule that the Journal will bediscontiu- 
ued at tbe expiration of the term for whicli 
the subscription is paid, any one who shall 
so request may have their names entered 
upon our permanent list. In which case, a 
bill f<ir tbeir subscription will be sent at the 
beginning of each new term of subscription. 

Fine Specimen of Penmanship. 

There are a few copies of the Blaine aud 
Logan campaign pieces left, which we will 
now mail at 20e. each, or by the dozen ;^1.25. 
These pieces are not, nor have they been, 
offered for any other purpose than as speci- 
mens of artistic penmanship, and. as sucb, 
are richly worth the price named. The copies 
are handsomely printed on plate paper, 


Books and Papers. 

The Toledo Business ('ollege sends lo ils 
jiiitroiiB a photographic copy of orn»n)cntiil 
lellt-ring from ihe pen of A. K. Su-udman. 

Mr. Slowcirs Bryant & Sirntton's Busi- 
rji •*■* CoWege. Providence, R. I.. iMuesa par- 
liriifarly stylish catalogue, profusely illus- 

liie Joi-RNAi. is glad to note evidences of 

I iiKinucd and well deserved prosperity in 
ii> briglil contemporary, the Ciirolimi 
Ttaditr, Columbia, S. C. 

Like everything else that comes from the 
Youth'ff Companion ofQce, the latest card an- 
nimiicing special editions for the year is an 
iirlistir- ;:em of the llrst water. 

Howard Lockw<M>d in lo he congratulated 
on his unique and highly interesting publi- 
cation, the Amrrican Bookmaker, published 
at 12C Duane street, New York. 

The Curry Institute, Pittsburgh, serves 

L'lhing new and attraclive with its cata- 

in^^iic, in the form of a beliotype impression 
ui eighteen members of its faculty. 

Qood taste and tine art are exhibited in an 
engraved circular announcing the opening of 
(Shirk's Business Colleges, Erie, Pa., and 
BufTalo, N. Y. Uev. Dr. Talmage, of 
Brooklyn, is to lecture on these 

A fire in the office of the l^me Sior Pin- 
man, Dallas. Tex., played general havoc, 
destroying valuable plates and the entire 
July edition of the paper. Mr. Spring, the 
editor, may well be excused for issuing no 
August paper under the circumstances. 
A double number will appear in September. 
and we trust that no further calamity will 
overtake our bright contemporary. 

Catalogues of attractive appearance have 
been received from the Elmira School of 
Commerce. Elmira, N. Y.. tlie Jersey City 
Business College, Wihnington (Del.). Com- 
mercial College, Taylor & Son's Business 
College, Rochester. N. Y., Gem City Busi- 
ness College, Quincy, 111., Belbauy Normal 
Institute, Lindsberg. Kan. Supplementing 
the latter is an attractive engraving of the 
handsome and commodious Institute build- 

Dr. A. D. Mayo*s withdrawal from the 
editorial staff of the Nexc England Jovrnal 
of Education is announced. Dr. Mayo's 
services to the cause of general intelligeuce 
have been marked. Scarcely any nuui of 
our time has accomplished so much in this 
line in the Southern States. He will be 
missed from the sanelum, but it is a pleas- 
ure to know that the reason for his retire- 
ment is t^ afford greater time and oppor- 
tunities for his Southern labors. 

Experts Who Examine Disputed 
Handwriting and Accounts. 

The business of an expert for the examin- 
ation of handwriting and accounts is one of 
great responsibility, and such person should 
be thoroughly acquainted with the most 
minute details that serve to arrive at a cor- 
rect conclusion. Great experience is neces- 
sary, united with the exercise of great care 
and a complete mastery of the science of 
accounts as well as chirography. 

The defalcations, frauds and failures all 
the while transpiring in mercantile and 
financial circles insure no end of business 
to an accomplished expert who is honorable 
and faithful and follows out the plain faith 
of duty to his patrons. 

A representative expert of the character 
and qualifications above described is Mr. 
Daniel T. Ames, of No. 205 Broadway, New 
York. He is an authority on (juestioued 
handwriting and accounts and is peculiarly 
fitted to solve such problems in the briefest 
possible time and in the most effectual man- 
ner. His references are unquestioned and 
include the leading lawyers and judges 
as well as mercantile and business houses of 
every description, banks, insurance com- 
panies and other corporate bodies. He gives 
bis personal attention to the examination of 
account books and documents of all kinds, 

' origiiuil flourish hy A. T. Raynalds, pe/in: 
Angimta, Me. 

The advantages of being trained for busi- 
ness at the New Jersey Business College, 
Newark, are set forth in a pamphlet of ex- 
ceptional neatness. A portrait of its prin- 
cipal and proprietor, >Ir. C. T. Miller, does 
duty as frontispiece. 

Our luminous contemporary, the Sdutol 
Supplement, Detroit, Mich., and Toronto, 
Canada, is re^ipiug the fruits of its deserving 
luicrprise. A hundred now subscribers a 
tiny shows the esteem in which it is held by 
sill admiring and discriminating public. 

The /ftrfcj, offleial paper of the Curry 
Institute imd Union Business College. Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., is one of the brightest papers of 
ils kind that show up at the Jouiinai, 
ottice. Mr. McClelhmd's papers on pen- 
manship give promise of sustained interest. 

The commencement exercises of thePhila- 
'ielphia College of Commerce, are embodied 
ill 11 pamphlet, carefully arranged and beau- 
tifully printed. The front cover reveals au 
rngraving of artistic design, and the brochure 
is in idl respetris worthy of the excellent in- 
-liuuion from which it emanates. 

The well known educational publishers. 
A. S. Baruea& Co., New York and Chicago, 
favor ihc JouKNAi. with a set of their Na- 
tional System of Copybooks. There are six 
of the books, gradeil, and from such exam- 
inaiion as we have l>een able to give them, 
appear to depart very little from the methods 
of generally accepted Riandard works. 

"New Speed Writing," is what II. A, 
Spencer, of the Spencerian Business Col- 
lege, New York, calls a system of characters 
which be bos Just perfected. It is a system 
of alphabetical signs, readily adapted lo com- 
biuations, witli separate signs for figures. 
Mr. Spencer claims that suventy-five per 
cent, of the labor of writing in the usual 
way is saved by the use of his new system, 
and that this is accomplished without abbre- 
viating the word so much as by the omission 
of a letter. 

"Longhand Shorthand," is the title of a 
little volume received by the JouiiNAL with 
the compliments of its friend, B. B. Trous- 
lat. editor of the Hoosier Katurali«t, Val- 
paraiso, Ind. The name is a sufiicient index 
to the purpose of the work. It is designed 
to meet the demand for a means of writing 
rapid enough for amanuensis purposes, and 
one that can be mustered in a short lime. 
The ordinary script letters are used, as in 
longhand. From the same source the JouR- 
NAT, has received a pamphlet containing 
many valuable suggestions on capitalization 
and punctuation. 

Agent for Canada. 

We have ronimissinned A. J. Small, 13 
Grand Opera House, Toronto, Canada (P.O. 
Box 634), to act as agent for the Jouhnal 
in Canada. lie will take subscriptions, ad- 
vertisements, and supply our publications at 
the regular rates. We trust that our Cana- 
dian friends will give him a liberal patron- 

and has facilities and advantages for such 
labor enjoyed by few others in such liberal 
measure, and as a consequence is actively 
employed in his profession, of which he may 
be said to stand in the very front rank. 

In the celebrated libel suit of liaymond 
vs. Dodge, recently tried at New Hampshire, 
it was shown that Henry Uaymond, the 
confidential clerk of Mr. J. A. Doilge, when 
the latter lay at the point of (!eath, presented 
to the bank where Dodge deposited, a check 
for|2,500 purporting to be signed by Dodge, 
which was promptly cashed. Soon after, 
Mr. Dodge died and Raymond presented to 
Mrs. Dodge, the widow and executrix under 
the will, a note for $5,000, also purporting 
to be signed by her husband on which he 
demanded payment. The will nor codicils 
did not make mention of such note and 
Mrs. Dodge doubted the genuineness of the 
check and note and resolutely charged Ray- 
mond with forgery. The result was a suit 
at libel, and when expert testimony of hand- 
writing was called in, the evidence of 
Mr. D, T. Ames, of New York, clearly 
established the fact that both the check and 
note were forgeries. In fact Mr. Ames so 
dissected the false papers that the jury gave 
a verdict before the defense had closed their 
testimony (with the consent of Raymond's 
counsel) for Mrs. Dodge, and, as a conse- 
quence, Raymond was shown to be a deeply 
dyed villain. — New York liecord. 

Subscribe for The .lot unal. 

Ruling Slates. 

By CirANDi.BK H. Peikce. 

The amount of work done upon sli.tes by 
the pupils of the public schools of this 
country in their regular lessons, should not 
be lost sight of, in solving the problem of 
how to secure the very best results in 

It matters but very little how the special 
lesson in penmanship is condvictcd during 
the half hour or less of each day. if during 
the remaining part of the time little or no 
application is made while pnictically put- 
ting to use the special lesson learned. One 
day in seven given to devotion will not work 
any gratifying remits, if during the remain- 
ing part of llir wr.k 111. ;i].!'lication is made 
of thetriilli- |'i.>,htiiM.,l 


id abr 

writing eboi.ihl h^-^i lir luiLght, little or noth- 
ing has been written of the counteracting in- 
fluences which too often outweigh and se- 
riously prevent any actual progress. 

The per cent, of loss is always provided 
for in conducting any thrifty business. The 
bad often overbalances the good. The wear 
and tear of many a business has consumed 
all the profits. 

The immense amount of scribbling in- 
dulged in by the average pupil in school is 
enough to work injury and disaster to the 
handwriting. The pages of writing required 
in the regular lessons of pupils is on the in- 
crease and unless proper pTovisiona are made 
we may look for a generation of insipid 

Writing upon slates with blunt pencils 
and without lines; writing upon unruled 
paper, seemingly with the finger miils.during 
the general lessons, will undo all special 
efforts of whatever character they may be, 
and eventually overthrow the strongest dis- 
position toward positive progress. 

If the lessons learned in our schools were 
retained ; if the lessons were not forgotten ; 
if the coimteracting influences were not so 
great as to almost destroy the truths so ear- 
nestly proclaimed and so honestly received, 
then might we marvel at the wonderful 
strides of a generation. 

How much friction can be overcome is 
one of the first provisions in al! mechanics. 
If what the pupil does wisely is undone un- 
wisely, what is the need of doing at all V 
This state of affairs does not of necessity 
have to exist. If the best means are em- 
ployed ; if proper remedies are applied ; if 
valuable experience is not ignored, Ihe fric- 
tion created will not be perceptible, and pro- 
gress will be positive rather than negative. 

To escape all retarding influences is as ne- 
cessary as to provide the very best means for 
advancement. Knowing what to do does not 
always imply what not to do. 

A person may do one kind act and utterly 
destroy its best effect by omitting to do an- 
other that good judgment would suggest. 

A teacher may work faithfully yet not see 
satisfactory results, because of counteracting 
influences. Too much friction will destroy 
the working of any " machine." Too much 
attention to other things, lettingwnYtnjr take 
care of itself outside the special hour, will 
grow carelessness impossible to overcome. 

If paper be ruled, then slates should be 
ruled. If the holder and pen, properly held, 
is accepted as correct, then a slate pencil of 
similar size and length (wooden covered) 
should be used. 

In lower grades the slates should be ruled 
with double lines, while in the upper a single 
line will do, corresponding with that on 
paper. It is the duty of every teacher to see 
to the proper ruling of slates by DorNO it 
HIMSELF, and thus provide one of the he«t 
means to retain, in general lessons, what has 
been gained in special. 

application of the special to U^p general work, 
there can be no gratify in^j^sults. If Ihe 
special work be wilh the pen or lead pencil 
and ruhd paper, it is folly to expect similar 
work on slates without liiTeH, and too often, 
with short, t.lmit ["'tirili If carelessness is 
the rule, ii i- mmiimil. I \>\ allowing the 
use of c'l;!! i I 'I "I' lead pencils, 

No iinpv'^ ' MM iif : ■iMiragement, no 

so success nin follow the use of poor ink, 
poor paper, poor pens, or pencils. So infal- 
lible is this law that all sane persons accept 

The Oblique Holder 

My assertion in the March number of tlie 
Journal, that "The oblique holder is a 
nuisance in every sense of ihe word," and 
that " those who use and recommend itare, 
with a few noted exceptions, either very in- 
ferior writers, or interested in selling it," 
having called forth considerable unfavorable 
comment. I consider that longer silence 
upon my part would he a tacit acknowledg- 
ment that I had made an unjustifiable state- 
ment, and one that was not supported by 
facU. Bro. Ames being the only critic 
whose opinions would have weight with the 
majority of the Jouunal's readers, I will 
lake the liberty of commenting upon his 
statements, and also give my reasons for 
discouraging the use of the oblique holder 
by those desirous of becoming practical 
writers. Before doing so. however, I desire 
to call the attention- of my amateurish 
friends to whom this world is as yet one- 
half moonshine and the other half oblique 
holder, to the fact, that unless otherwise 
stated, I refer only to the use of the oblique 
holder in practical writing, and that the 
term practical writin}/, would have but a very 
limited, and in many instances a very gues- 
tionnble meaning, were it applied only to 
such wnrk :is is produced by writing teach- 
ers !md " pen artists." In the June number 
of the JoniNAi- Bro. Ames, in answering 
a correspondent, makes the following asser- 
tions regarding the oblique holder: 

" That it posesses real advantages over a 
straight holder in the hands of many writers, 
and probably most professionals, cannot be 
successfully denied. A very large portion of 
those who write experience a difficulty in 
turning the hand so that the straight bolder 
will point over the right shoulder, which is 
necessary in order that the pen should 
squarely face the paper, causing both nibs 
to move under the same pressure and thus 
give a smooth line. It is our impression 
that a large majority of our best writers now 
use the obliijue bolder." In tbeabove, Bro. 
Ames has simply, by request, stated hisown 
opinions, and while we are all admirers of 
Bro. Ames, and true disciples of the Aiit 
Journal, we do not, nor does Bro. Ames 
expect us to accept him as infallible, or his 
decisions as linal. That the oblique bolder 
ecrrecUy held, possesses advantages over the 
straight holder inei/rrectly held, cannot be 
denied, but I do deny that there are any 
natural, scientific or good reasons why a 
pupil should be taught to use the oblique 
holder, and I furthermore deny that the 
oblique holder has any advantage whatso- 
ever over the straight bolder in securing 
legibility, speed, ease of execution or en- 
durance. But that it does permit the writer 
to roll the hand so far to the right as to in- 
terfere with speed, that the arm tires sooner, 
and that the small letters cannot be formed 
\vith as great accuracy. I assert. 

That "a very large proportion of those who 
write experience difficulty in turning the 
hand so that the straight holder will point 
over the right shoulder," is admitted. Bvit 
this is no argument in favor of the oblique 
holder, for it is also a well known fact 
that a large majority of persons expe- 
rience great difficulty in acquiring a free 
movement in writing, or in even producing 
legible letters. Yet this fact would hardly 
be brought forward to prove that pupils 
should use their lingers, or that printing 
should he substituted for writing. Nor does 
it deter intelligent teachers from denouncing 
alow finger movement, nor convince them 
that their services should be dispensed with. 
I also question the assertion that it is neces- 
sary to point the penholder over the right 
shoulder to produce smooth lines. It is my 
opinion thallhe majority of rapid writere 
point the"l^er to the right of the right 
shoulder. That the pen generally faces ihe 
paper obliquely, not squarely. That in 
shading — the principal merit of the oblique 
holder — the nibs of the pen do not receive 
equal pressure, the right generally receiving 
the must, no matter which holder is used. 
And finally, " pointing tfu holder oter f/ie 
shoulder," doet not irmtirc that the. pen will 
fact the paper pr perly, that the pressure upon 
the nibe will be equal, or the lines formed be 
smooth, a verysliglit movcmciilof ilieili'ii"b 

upward or downward being sunicieut to 
turn the pen too far to the right or left. 

As to Bro. Ames* final impression. " that 
a large majority of our best writers now use 
Ihe oblique holder," he evidently meant 
writing teachers and card writers. He cer- 
tainly does not wish to convey the idea that 
in his opinion the army of writers who earn 
their daily bread in banks, eoimting houses, 
wholesale establishments. railroad, telegraph, 
express and county offices, are wielders of 
the scientific side draft humbug. Having 
commented upon Bro. Ames' opinions, I 
will now give my reasons for discouraging 
the use of the oblique bolder by those de- 
sirous of becoming practical writers, 

I object to its use. because its "scientific 
principles," and advantages (?) derived from 
its use are not conducive to practical writ- 
ing. Turning the band too far to the right 
to use the straight holder to advantage is 
neither natural nor desirable, and is object- 
ed to, not only because the pen docs not 
strike the paper fairly, hut because when so 
turned the arm rests upon the side of the 
fullest part of the forearm, and the move- 
ment (unless finger movement is used) is 
irregular and jerky, making it very diflicult 
to form small letters— especially extended 
ones — with any degree of speed or accuracy. 
It has also a tendency to diminish final let- 
ters in long words, impedes a free move- 
ment to the right, atfd tires the arm much 
sooner than when resting fairly upon the 
muscles of the forearm. 

Because the so called scientific principles 
are such that it requires a much firmer 
grasp to prevent its rolling, consequently 
the lines are much more apt to be heavy 
and the hand tires sooner than with the 
straight holder properly held. 

Because it soon becomes loose and will 
frequently change its angle in a single 

Because it requires fully as much time to 
learn to use the oblique holder to advantjige 
as it does the straight, and that after using 
the oblique holder Ihe pupil finds it almost 
impossible to use the straight holder, which 
he is frequently obliged to do, unless he 
carries his oblique holder and special iuk 
bottle in his pocket. 

Because, no matter how enthusiastic pu- 
pils may be in praising it, not one in ten ever 
use it after leaving the fancy writing schools 
and colleges, unless they become " Profs." 

Because as smooth and beautiful shades 
can be produced with the straijiht as with 
the oblique holder, and even if it were not 
so. shade is merely a matter of taste, and, 
like flourishes, is discarded by our best 

Finally, because, after years of persistent 
advertising and "" puffing," those most in- 
terested have failed to create a demand for 
it outside of writing teachers, artist penmen, 
owl's nest and menagerie carpenters, and a 
few school boys. 

And should each and every one of the 
aforementioned parties vUi! up and swear 
by Ihe bcieiiiiii' ^i'l' linft nf lii- uMique 

holder, lluii 
ulCni of all 
should be n 

■li, it 

a bank and county otliccs, that cannot pro- 
duce tt writer, who for legibility, rapidity, 
ease of execution and endurance is superior 
to the majority (if writinj; teachers: and I 
do not think iIih ilu m.-t entlnisiastic 
champion nl ii ^ i Ki.rwill have 

the elTroDiiv :ii majority of 

those wrileI^ 11 ' Im ..-1^11 liulder. Toniy 
precociousaud vlim ^uliniitrs, (?)whoare 
positive that I am sadly alone in my esti- 
mate of the oblique holder, I would state 
that 1 have in my possession letters from 
fifteen of the best penmen and most success- 
ful teachers in America, in which they give 
their opinions of the oblique. Three use 
and recommend it for practical writing. 
Four use both but do not recommend the 
oblique to their students. EigJii ueither use 
nor recommend, and one of the eight who 
stands without a superior in America as an 
all arnnnd penman, and whose specimens of 

to criticise nul only my article but myself, 
1 would say, that while I am always ready 
to answer the intelligent criticism of teach- 
ers of recognized merit, I have neither 
leisure nor inclination to enter into a con- 
troversy with unknown writers whose stock 
in trade evidently consists of a lively imag 
inatioD and an oblique penholder. 

Anti obliquely, F. J. Tolakd. 

St. Paul, Minn. 

That Muscular Bugaboo. 


By F. S. Heath. 

In a recent number of the Jouiinal under 
the heading of "The Jluscular Hugaboo," 
an " Old Conlributor"makcsan attack upon 
the muscular movement. He begins by say- 
ing a few words upon cause and elTcct. We 
will not dispute the importance of reasoning 
from causo to effect. But how this can be 
construed OS an argument against the mus- 
cular movement we cannot see Why one 
cannot reason from cause to effect when the 
cause is the muscular as well as when it is 
the finger or wholearm movement, is a mys- 
tery which we cannot solve. 

Writing may be done with any movement, 
Yet we do not dispute the fact that certain 
styles of writing can best be done with cer- 
tain movements. Fof example, a bold flour- 
ished capital is better and. more easily done 
with the wholearm than with either of the 
other movements. Also, capitals i>f a me- 
dium size, aud all common writing can best 
be done with the muscular movement. So 
we see that to produce a good effect the pro- 
per cause must be used. The value of rea- 
soning from cause to effect is thus shown. 

But the fact that our " Old Contributor " 
makes monstrosities of his O's and F's when 
using the muscular movement, does not 
prove that the cause is wrong. It may rather 
show that the cause is nol sufficiently devel- 
oped or trained to do the work correctly ; 
for it is not to be supposed that the finding 
and using of that cause which is capable of 
producing the desired effect is all that is ne- 
cessary to success. The power, which is the 
cause, must be developed before success can 

Our frieud speaks of the length of loop 
letters and claims that a specific cause must 
be used to produ'ce them with good effect. 
Loop letter's can be made with what is gener- 
ally termed a pure muscular movement. Yet 
it is admitted by nearly all advocates of that 
movehiGiit. that a slight action of the fingers 
upon such letters will materially strengthen 
them. This action of the fingers conies nat- 
urally. Id fact, the muscular movement is 
a free action of all the writing muscles. Ex- 
perience has proven and reproveu many 
times that the principal motion comes irom 
the arm, aud thai the fingers arc merely aux- 
iliary, and their action being natural, does 
not need developing. But because there is 
this slight action of the fingers, mustwe dis- 
card the arm movement ? As well might we 
do away with all action of the fingers because 
there is an action of the arm. The two be- 
long together aud cauuot well be separated 
except in theory. 

Another statement made by our friend is 
astonishing. He says: "The object of 
capital letters is to secure streugth and give 
character and expression to writing. If they 
be made contrary to all artistic effect and too 
small they fail to meet the requirements and 
are little better than small letters. We fear 
that our friend has mistaken his field for re- 
form ; he should turn his attention and 
talents to a reform of our grammatical 
" bugaboos." Judged by hiswords how few, 
alas, of our educated people use capitals in 
a proper manner ! 

He also says that muscles were created be- 
fore written characters. Wonderful argu- 
ment against the muscular movement ! It 
also occurs to us that the lingers were created 
at the same time as the muscles — before writ- 
ten characters were invented. 

Does not the argument (V) apply as for- 
cibly in one case as the other ? 

We do not know the design of the artist 
who gave to us the forms of the letters. We 
presume that he had no idea of the muscular 
movement, or any other working movement. 
We have been told many times that the l»te 
P. II. Spencer found the letters so formed 
that they could not be easily made with the 
muscular movement, aud thai he originated 
a different style of form which was particu- 
larly adapted to the muscularmovementahd 
easy of execution. The Journal recently 
printed a very exact speeiuien of writing, 
and said that the original was done with the 

[1 this 

experience we have been led to believe that 
just as good writing can be dune with the 
muscular movement as with any other. We 
need say nothing in its favcr. All the pen- 

men of skill in this country use it and know 
its value. Thousands of business writers 
use it, and believe it to be the only way to 
write easily, rapidly and well. 

And we hope that the misleading article 
of him who, jliough an " Old Contributor," 
did not hav^^e courage to sign his name to 
it, will be looked upon by every student of 
writing as an unreasonable attack upon the 
easiest and most graceful way of writing. 
And we trust that they will continue to train 
their arms to obey the behest of their mind, 
leaving our friend the "Old Contributor," 
to strike off his capitals with the whole arm 
and draw out his smidl letters with Iheflnger 
movement, iind imagine that he is obeying 
the law of cause and effect. 

Kpsom. N. II.. July 31. I8H0. 

Unrevised Versions. 

Every year a certain proportion of the 
children of the London board schools enter 
into a competitive examination iu Scriptural 
knowledge, for prizes which consist of hand- 
somely bound Bibles and Testaments. The 
competitors write answers to printed ques- 
tions, and the following specimens of their 
work illustrate that one result of the cram- 
ming process is to make " hash " of the chil- 
dren's knowledge : 

" Abraham was the father of Lot, and ad 
tew wives. One was called Hismale and 
tother Haggar, he kept wun at home, ami he 
turned tother into the desert, where she be- 
came a pillow of salt in the daytime, a pli- 


Another on Joseph : 

"Joseph wore a Knat of many garments. 
He was chief butler to Faro and told iu 
dreams, He married PotitTers dorter, and 
he led the Giphans out of bimdage and died 
in sight of the promised land." 

This was offered on Moses : 

" Moses was an Egypshion. He lived in 
a ark made of bulrushes, and he kept a 
golden calf and worshipt brazen snakes, and 
he het kwales and manner. He was kort by 
the air of his ed while riding under the bow 
of a tree, and he was killed by his sou AIjso- 
lom as he was hangio from the bow. His 
end was peace." — Youths' Companion. 

Can You Make a Better Invest- 

than to pay $1 for the Jouiinal one year, and 
the ' ■ Guide to Self- Instruction in Plain and 
A rtistic Penmanship" free as a premium ? 

The Guide contains sixty-four large pages 
of instruction, and copies for plain writing, 
flourishing, and lettering, and is alone sold 
for 75 cents (in paper covers), or $1, hand- 
somely bound. 

Just for Fun. 

Little ones often wear clothing iu peculiar 
places. A cuff on the ear is frequent. 

Chicago women never argue. They put 
their foot down, and that covers the whole 


.S'/. Nicholas tells of a dog that can 
count. But it can't equal a eat iu running 
up a column.— JVj^'us tiiftinga. 

"Are cigarettes injurious V" demands an 
excited exchange. As the cigarette is fast 
wiping out the dude population, we are in- 
clined to believe that they are not. — Ncip 

Gus Dk Smith.— " This, Mias Biriiie. is 
the Holy Family after Raphael. " 

Miss Birdie— "I see the Holy Fiunily. hut 
where is Raphael *" 

Gus — " I expect he got away; they were 
after him though." 

" Have you heard Mrs. Simpson sing 
since she returned from Frimce ?" 

" Several times." 

" Do you think she has improved Y" 

" \vTy much." 

" In what particular "/" 

" She doesn't singaamuch as she used to.' 

"If it wasn't for one thing, boys," saiil 
an old farmer, :ui he got down from hic« 
his wagon, " I'd bet enny amount o' money 
on thct bay colt o' mine irottin' a mile in 
a:I6i4. I'd bet a million dollars ef I had i(.' 

The crowd laughed derisively. 

" What is Ihe one thing ¥" asked one of 
the crowd. 

;v i,h,totuarunilfrom an original demgn. extcuUd at the office of the JouHNAl.. Size of the original, S4x30 tnche*. Photo-lithogrnphed cojriea are printed o 
or pt4itt paper, 22x2y. aiid will be mailed free to mtbaertbers aa a premium wit/i tfie Jouhnai,. iiingle cojnex to those who are i^uUcrihera far ffty 
cent*; to otherafor %\, A liberal duseouni mil be maiU to Agents, who are wanted in every County in the Union, and to wlum sample A 

e&piee ipHI be ir, ailed for f fly cents. ^ 

Prof. Little's Drawing Lesson. 

'I'lic iisuiil drawing lesson, by Prof. Geo. 
E. Little, is omiitcd from tbis iminbcr on 
ftccouut of his pressing engngemenis to lec- 
ture before teachers' insiitutes nnd other 
educational bodies. He promises to be on 
liand for the next number. Prof. Little's 
Hand Book of Drawing for teachers is now 
ready and will be mailed from this office for 
o') cents. 

Exercise Writing In Public 

In another column under the Leading of 
'■ Ruling Slates." Prof. C. H. Pciree, special 
teacher of writing in the public schools of 
Keokuk, Iowa, offers some exceedingly val- 
uable advice to all teachers who are in any 
way responsible for the results of the in- 
struction in writing in public schools. 
Every teacher should read it, 

The King Club 

for this month numbers twi^nly-five. and 
was sent by W. A. Sehell. of Savage & 
Schell Commercial School, Belleville, III. 
This does very well for a vacation club. 

Remember that now is the time to sub- 
scribe for the Journal, while you can get 
all the back numbers and begin with the 
year and the volume. Two subscriptions 
will be received for $1.75 with a copy of the 
GiTiDS to each subscriber. 

Convention Report. 

The Report of the last Convention of the 
Business Educators' Association of America 
will be ready for mail bv Oct. 1st. Copies 
will be mailed from this bflice for 50e. each. 

Good Pen^. — We have received from 
iMessrs. Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co. 
samples of the famous Spencerian pen No. 
1, which write splendidly. Thev cannot 
fail to give aatisfaction. If you "have not 
tried them you should do so. 

been received durliij; the past niontli from the 
foUowlni; : 

J. K. De Pile. Heald's Bnsliiess College. San 
Franeisco, with club of five. 

C. O. Mem, Covluitton, Tenn. 

Alex. W'mt, EdwardBTtlle. 111. 

W. P. Ilobbs.peumaii. Highland. III. 

A. W. Clark. Portland. Me. 

R. C. Spencer, Speiicerlan Biisliipss r.'ollege. Mil 
waukee, Wla. 

A. II. Steadman, Toledo nunhienn Cullefee, 
Toledo. O. 

.1. H. Wallace. Dallas, Texaa. 

T. J. Miller. Shusetown. Pa. 

W. K. Watson, Illira BnslneM (College, Waco. 

C. A. Ileekman, Lainpas^a, Texas, His appreci- 
ation of the JonuNAi. is thus felicitously expressed: 
"Consider me a permanent aubacrlber. I could 
not think of giving up the Journal, even if the 
price wero double what it is," 

C. II. Klmmi^. I'hiiadetphia. 

J. A. Willia. Tully. N. Y. 

U. It. Moore. Morgan, Ky. Speaking of the June 
number of the Joubnal, he sayB • " The lesson by 
Prof. Spencer la truly worth many times the sub- 
scription price, while the drawing lessons by 
Profs. Harlow and Little are equally interesting 
and valuable, to say nothing of the vast amount 
of other matter in the same issue. May the Joiin- 
NAi, long live to continue on Its onward road to 
the highest advancement of the penman's art." 

H. 8. Goldey, Commercial College, Wilmington, 

R, F, Moore, Torney, Texas. 

J. M. Baoheldor, Bacheldor's Business College, 
York, Pa. 

Wm. H. Doff, Duff's Mercantile College, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

J, D. Holoomb, Cleveland, 0. 

W, F. Lyon, Youngstown, O, 

F. B, Stern. Kansas City, Mo. 

Aogie E. Ailing. Kensington, Conn. 

John J. Hagen, Newburg, Minn. 

J, E. Oustus, Treasurer Bethany College and 
Normal Institute, Llndsberg, Kan. He writes: 
"Tbe masterly drawing lesson by Prof. L. P. 
Spencer In the JoDttK.iL for June oertaiuly eclipses 
anything ever produced on this continent." 

J, F. Dorey, Grafton. N. S. 

E. W. Smith, lioxbury. Mass. 

J. T. McCarthy, Webster's Corner, N. Y. 

A. H, Clark, Superintendent of Writing in the 
Pnblio Schools of Cleveland, O. 

J.G, ll&rmlson. Commercial College of Kentucky, 
Lexington, Ky. 

Frank W. Morrill, Boston, who says: "I am 
highly pleased with the Joubnal, and find all 
others who read it of the same opinion." 

AlvlUe B NIckerson, Boston. He says ; " 1 have 
taken your paper since last February and like 11 
very much." 

A, N. Togle, Syracuse, Kan. " I could not do 
without my Journal," he writes. 

P. C. Smith, penman and artist. Eastern Normal 
School and Commercial College, Fentou, Mich., 
with a club of five. 

A. A. Collins, Carthage, N. Y. 

Edward AdHius, 61 Wall Street, New York. This 
i;- Hi. riU'i ii-ii vMiy in which he sums up the 

J . - Of all books, papers and 

I " ' Mil r>ir in my time, none has 

■'I' ' ■ - i-Li'i I'k-aaure than to continue 

K. . 

, N. Y. 

H. J. Williamson. Pen Ait Hall, Klohmond, Va. 

John P. Byrne, WouuHOcket, R I, 

P. B. Wood, Commercial College, WlUIams- 

i. Secretary linoxville BuBl- 

:e. Kn. 

1, Tenn. 

D. W. Needier, Kansas City. Mo.: " During my 
experleuceaaa teacher, I received copies of nearly 
every penman's paper, and the worthy old Joun- 
»AL Is one of many— It Is the best." 

L. M. KIwc-ll, Kural Dale, O. 

W. A. Schell, teacher of commercial brauohes, 
Bellevltle, 111. This is his letter : " Inclosed find 
club of twenty-Sve of my pupils and money order 

pay for the same. Students in penmanship who 
aka better progress and are 

■ the com- 

wiahefi f 

J. M. Hnrkins, Calhoun, Ga,, with apecimeus of 
card work, plain and fancy writing. 

W. J. Uermlngham. Allentown, N.Y.. with cards. 

A. H. Knapp, Weatfield. Pa., with specimens of 
business writing. 

B. F. Kichardaon, Ilorae Cave, Ky., letter and 

W. F. Graylffl, llellara. Pa., enolo»lng nourished 
apeoimons of dlfforent designs. 

W. S. Bowman, Lynn, Mass. He says : " It does 
not seem possible fnr the Jodrkai. to improve 
ich number Is better and better. 

y dotliu 

: of ( 

heats tlicm all." The cards and flourished bird 

eeut are very artistically conceived and executed. 

A.U. Hall. West Brighton. I'a.. wilh flourish of 

J. W. Inman. Tower Hill. 111., set of capitals 
nd specimen of pen drawing. Ho says: '" Yoii 
lay count me a life subscriber. The 'Guide' Is 
ndoubtedly the beat work ou penmanship I have 
ver seen for the price." 

Locke Thompson, Templeton, Pa., with cards. 

B. 1'. I'kkens, Mooresvllle, Tenn,, enclosing 

Ky., and will join tbe army of scribes Intluerant. 
Ills address is Horse Cave. Ky, 

The Ohio Business University is one of the 
thriiing educational Institutions of Cleveland, O. 
Messrs. Caton & Oorstlne, the enterprising prin- 
cipals, gave their students and friends a delightful 
lake-ride on the steamer " Pearl," on Saturday, 
August sa Yociil niuslo by the company and in- 
strumental mu^lc by pianists and a hand were 
among the pleasant features of the occasion. 

The JouBNAL had the pleasure of a call recently 
from Oliver B. Goldsmith, of New York, a teacher 
of writing. Twenty-one years of activity has not 
dimmed Mr Goldsmith's ardor for the beautiful In 
pen art, nor made him lesa /.ealons as a cause of 
that ardor in others, 

Mr. n. S. Goldey, late teacher in the Philadelphia 
Collegeof Commerce, has established a business 
college in the thriving city of Wilmington. Del. 
Mr. Goldcy'a school Is known as the Wilmington 
Commercial College. 

The citizens of Tomey, Texas, seem to ap- 
preciate good writing. Mr. It. F, Moore, the local 
ler of penmanship, gave instruction to large 
classes during the summer. 

Prof. A. H. Hlnman and lady, after attending the 
Convention of the Business Educators, took pas- 
sage abroad to spend the rest of their vacation. 
They have visited England and the Continent, and 
have doubtless received great benefit from the 

The Omaha Business College, Messrs. Rathbun 
& Dailey, proprietors, has moved into new quar- 
ters to accommodate the demands of an enlarging 
constituency. The several departments now oc- 
cupy a space of 00x130 feet, fitted up expressly 

Hon. H. A. Spencer, of New York, was one of 
the speakera ou the occaslopi of the recent great 
labor parade at Newark, N. J. Among the other 
distinguished speakers was the noted advocate of 
labor, Henry George. 

Among the one hundred and fifteen thousand 
employees of the United States Government there 
are thousands of good penmen, but none of them 
are so noted for excellent, plain, rapid and artistic 
writing as Mrs. Helen Avery, of Wasblngtun, D. C. 
Her skill with the pen is almost magical. She re- 
cently favored her friends at the office of the Jour- 
nal with a pleasant visit. 

Passing through Boston recently, the editor of 
the Journal called at tbe Burdctt Business Col- 
lege, and was gratified at the evidences of thrift 
which the surroundings presented. The college 
now occupies elegant and commodious rooms on 
Tremrmt Street, having found their oldi|uavlersnn 

Educational Notes. 

Another one of Rockford's daughters deserts the 
ranks of her fair companions, and Unk.s her destiny 
with tliatof a gentleman highly esteemed in our 
midst. Liist fvening witnessed the nuptials of 
Herbert A Slmlilurd and Miss Helen E. Wallace, 
at the humc uf h.-r slater, Mrs. Dr. Frank C. Gill. 

Mr. and lIis. Stoddard received the congratula- 
tions of their friends in no formal words, but the 
heartfelt wishes for happiness which each aud all 
feel for this highly esteemed couple. Refresh- 
ments were served of the choicest, and in abund- 
ance, und with merry convfrsatiou the evening 
slipped away, 

Mr. hloddard liae boeri coimtcled with tlie busi- 
ness college of WInans & Stoddard for several 
years, and In this capacity, and as a citiifeu, has 
won the higli regard of all, as a young man of 
principle and stirring business qualities. 

Mrs. Wallace- Stoddard, who came to our city a 
few years ago from Fitchburg, Massuchuiietts, the 
home of her parents, has. with her charming man- 
ners and happy disposition, won a host of friends* 
and has, to the present time, ably filled the position 
of stenographer and typewriter in the otlico of the 
Knowltou Manufactory. 

Mr. aud Mn. Stoddard will remain in the city a 
week or two, and then visit the dells of Wisconsin 
aud other places of Intereat In our sister State. 
Their home will still be in Rockford, and a happy 

The golden beUa are llnkl 
N. Y.. on the 9th ult.. Mi . 
of Moorelleld, (l., wa,s m 
Williams, of Albany, N. ^ 
performed the ceremony. 
felicitatloiiM to its friends. 

Brief educational 1' 

T this Department may be ad- 

-T, Office of "- " 


KXLLIT, Office of the Pxnmai 


The five Uundredtli anniversary of the 
founding of Heidelberg University was a 
lirilliant and interesting occasion. Many 
delegations from nil parts of Europe and 
America were present. 

dents. — Neto Tark Qi'aphii 

The " Report of the Commissioner of 
Kducation, IS83-84,", shows that in Iowa the 
average montlily pay of teachers wa.s #33.91. 
which certainly falls short of a princely 
snJary, and we hope they deserved more. 

The institutes of New York cost the State 
during the year 1885, $18,433. The average 
expense to each county was $317.81. and 
38,295 teachers attended them. All the ex- 
penses of the institutes were paid by the 

According to the lalest Eilucalionul Kc- 
port, the number of penmen in the I'liiltd 
Stales ranking thetnselvcs llie "Best iu tlie 
World" i.s 27; the number who esteem 
themselves the "Best iu America" is 413, 
while none were found who considered 
themselves " fair to middling." 

In the year 986 the University of Cairo, 
Egypt, is sjiid to have numbered more than 
four thousand students. In the year 1876 it 
had under the iustruclion of 231 professors, 
7,595 students, natives of Europe, Asia and 
Africa. The instruction has always been 
free, and lodgings and bread have been 
always furnished to foreign students unable 
to pay for them. 

In Brazil are found the best schools in 
South America. They are divided into three 
grades — the primary, the secondarv, and the 
technical The tlrsl two correspond 


Educational F.vncie 

e of any Item 

, proper credit 

e courtesy from others will oe appre- 

used In this department la knonns, the prober credit 

Teacher: "Can any boy tell me at what 
lime the sun rises now ?" Small boy (shrill 
and prompt): "Just the minute father 
calls, down at our house." — Siftings. 

Harper's Bazar tells this under the hesiding. 
■* It Would Seem so." " Teacher of Bible 
class: ' In what book of the Bible is the ex- 
pression found, " All flesh is grass ?" ' Stu- 
dent ; ' Er — Timothy.' " 

Striking school boys in Indinnopolis have 
^i.'intiiided Ihat srtior,l<< sh,,!! he 1.4 out any 

,f(,,r,Mnn uImT, lil.Tr i^ ;, h:i.,. 1 .,11 malch Or 

I . ;i. u> vNilliJi, nllrrii mil,., Axui that the 
...I Miii<.-<M-iMni .,!■ pu,ijshi„^' l"o-sby a>m- 
["■Iliiii; thrill tn ML Willi ttir girls be imme- 
diau-iy restoreil. 

Uarper'H Bazwr tells this : " Sunday 
School teacher—' Now, children, tell me 
please, what Samson wa-s noted for T Chil- 
dren—' Slreugth " — Teacher — ' And SIoscsV 
Children — ' Meekues.s. " Teacher — ' Aud 
Solomon V (/hlldrcii — 'Wisdom.' Teacher 
—'And Job ?' Little May — ' I know; boils." " 

In a district school, a scholar was asked 
recently why Mt, Sinai is of special interest. 
The fact that the commandments were re 
ceived there wtis elicited, but to the question 
"By whom ¥" came no answer. Presently 
tht dead silence was interrupted by the shrill 
whisper of a small boy behind her; ' ' Where 
was he when the light went out ¥" 
A teacher, all goodness and smiles, 

Superior Pens. 

JuHt receic&l — a new lot of " Ame.s' 
men's Favorite Pens," ma<le from new dies 
aud with extra care. Every effort has bt 
made to secure a better pen than any m 
in the market, and we believe we have si 
cecded. Sample quarter gi-oss sent for 
cents, regular jirice, 30 cents. Try them. 

Remember, you can get the Joubnai. c 
year, and a 75-cent book free, for |1 ; oi 
$1 book and the Journai. for $1.25. J 
your friends a favor by telling them. 


The flnest flourishing ever sent out by any pen- 
man will not equal the marvelous specimens I can 
send you, 3 for 60 cents. Executed by W. E. Den- 
nis, who In this line has no e.{iual. To be had only 
by addressing L. Madarasi'., Bor 21 IC, New York 

To the Readers of the Penman's Art Journal : 

The undersigned, who fifU/oUmiied thr proftition tff 
card ieritingfor the pott gevfii, ytars, and htis yet to 
Uarn ^ the first instance wherHn hU work hoe failed 
to tjive entire lati^factUm, talus pU/mir« in enillng 
your allention to the comi>let4 tin* of written visiting 
card*, which are (fffrrrd at ratra consistent unth tht 
qualify of cards and peninanthip. Orden premptly 
filled. All post paid. 

laf" With every 4 packages ordered at one time 
an extra package of Oilt Bevel Edge Cards will be 
sent free, with any name written on. With a little 
effort you can easily induce several of your Irienda 
to order with you. 

Number of Carda In each paokatce : 18 36 

Style A.~P/air» Ifftite, good quality 80.88 »).75 

" ^.— Wedding BrUtol, -vers best.... .40 .77 

" v.— oat Edge, assorted 44 .84 

•' Yi.—Bmei Oilt Edge, tbe finest 50 .08 

" E.-Bevdeof CrmmandWhiU ... .52 1,00 

" Q.^Sak and Satin B^iieis 65 1.06 

" \l.— Eight-ply Bevels, assorted 57 1. 10 

•' I.— i:/f/e, the latest styles 60 1.16 

Addreu Llnet-extra. 16 .30 

If you order cards you should have a card case 
to keep them clean and neat. 


No. I— Russia Leather, -l pookets $0.23 

No.2- " 4 " 85 

No. ^—Morocco, best quality 60 

No. 6— Calf, extra good 80 

No. B—AUigalor Skin, -very ene 1.60 

No. 9- " very best 2.00 


igns— birds, scrolls, quills, etc., ex- 
ecuted with taste and skill. To students who wish 
good models of Flourisliing to practice from, these 
will be found to be "the thing." I'rice, 65 cents 
per package of 13. 


Q unsurpassed speoimen of bold business wr 
In the shape of a letter, and any qaestloi 
wered, on the flru-j-t .iiiality of unruled paper 

If you wish your name written In assorted styles 
and combination?, send 61 cents, and the hand- 
somest cards I can possibly write will he sent you. 

Eleeant specimens of oS-hand flourishing, such 
15 birds, eagles, swans, etc., ou unruled paper, 
Dhieh are conceded In/ all to be the most spirited work 
iver sent out by any penman. Price, 26 oeats each ; 
[ for 4S cents ; ja,IO per dozen. 


Executed In the highest style of the art. and 
winning the honor of being superior to the work of 
ani/ofA«rpeuinanlu tbe world. Each 35 cents: ^ 
seta (different), 45 cents ; 3 seta (different), G2 oenU 
Mention If you desire plain or ornamental styles. 


il.Mii>e to iiotm-iniis rails for very brUliant 

1 1' I' ' '-' riT . i, no been completed for 

:, • 'lit bottles to any part 

; ;'iurt.»l.30. Bydllutlnn 

from asiui,'le n 
in all my woi 
manufacture, ; 

in.iiL.. ui Koiid Ink may be had 
t of this quality. 1 use this Ink 
See samples. Recipe for it* 


If you experience difficulty in securing a pen Iliat 
will make a very fine air line combined with greiji 
elasticity without being scratchy, I can send yon 

The Favorite per box, 40Rts.. per gross. $l.tO 

Card Writing, No.l... " 50 " " 150 

Remember to write your full name and addre!>.'H 
in every letter you Kcnd. Make your remlttBUce>( 
by PostBl Notes or Registered Letter, and see 
that all tetters aro carefully sealed and addressed 
plainly. If you don't hear from me in 
due time, di-op nic a postal and I will sco what I" 



A'l;ij>I«(I for iis'_- with or without Tcxt-Itoufe, 

iind Ibc only net rfcom mended to 



Bryant & Stratton 
Counting- House-Book keeping." 




I'avorable Brrangomenta mado with Business 
Colleges and Public and Private Sc-hools for Intro- 
duotion and nite. Dcscrlptivo List uow ready. 
Correspondence invited. 

The beat Pen in the U.S., and best penmen use them. 


lured Ml 1 1.'' 1" I I. . .; . iii^rully selected. They 

are in i ■■ i i it Public and Private 

Hrhoi'i- 'I ii-o. Put Up Id Boxes, 

I'ontiiiiiK I ist-pald, on receipt of 


o-m. H9 i 121 William St., N.Y. 

Penmen's and Artists' Supplies. 

Ames' Copy-N 
In wrltinK.ii 
Fifty sheets I 

' ■ hundred Bhet-i^m*"* full -•.■is .if tniiirH). '.> '^ 

)1 Board, 3-8heet thick, £ix2H, per Hnoet. b 

ffix28, 1 

French B. B., S4xS4. 

" " 26x40. 

Black Card-board, 22x28, for white ink. . 

Black Cards, per 100 

Itlack Cards, per IDOO, by express. . 

per sheet, (luire 

nymall. by ex. 

Drawing paper, hdt-press, 15x20..$ .15 S 1 20 

Blank Bristol Board L 

fc Newton'a Sup'r Sup.India Ink Stiok 

iital Card~ '" '~ ' — ' '" 

cards, by mall.. 

Ornamental Cards, 13 designs, per pack of 26 

GlUott's 3ft3 St«el Pens, pet 

Ira for flourirtimK!". ''" 
Cumpeudiiun, Part 1 i 

Engrossinc Pens for lettering, i 

lid wide, any length, 

Liquid slating, the I 

I. slated both sides. 

leu boards, per gallon.. 


■ A thousand years as a day. No aritlimi 


In Every Town in America, 

ii^iiFK'utal and Flonrishcd Cards. ladcsiKiiV 
ii'W, orUriuul and arlUtic, per |iaek of 60, .■* 

$4 50; by oxprcss.... ..'..'...'.. HW 

' >gcnt« can, and do, make money, by taking 

'ii>i-raroriheJouiiXAL,and selling tJie above 

Send for our Special Rates to Agents 


'f ao Broadway, New York, 

• I, _ Mill, I iniiil on the finest quality of fine plale-paper, and is devoted 

i> I I ,ii liing, and Lettering. We are sure that no otber work, of 

' :iid to either teacher or learner, in all Ihe deparlmenta of 

Mh.i i.. iii-hijiiion and copies for plain writing. Fourteen pages to the 

to nlphalx-ts. package-marking, and monograms. Price, by mail, in paper 

Given free (in paper), as a premium with the Jouhnal, one year, for $1 ; 

L every town in America, to whom liberal discounts will be given. 

: things that tafie everywhere. 'With them agents can m " ........ 

flourishing. Sixteen pag 
■ * 3 stiff covers, |: 

: money with less effort than \ 


■We have a most elaborate and artistic rustic bor- 
ier, transferred direct from tho original peu-and- 
,uk, nrinteii oil iht- lltn'st nualiiv ot Bristol board 

. of mail, on receipt of Ihe priee, 
S. T. AUSS,ArtlBlFeunuandPublltber, 
205 Broadway, Hew Yon 



Salines, eic ; sent free. D. L Sec 
^owne, 33 Clintoa PI, New- York, N. 


g publication, for t! 

i.hajsbeeu lasued, 

tfollo form! The letterpress instructions 
ure snort and oonolse. All of the 36 pages of plain 
model writing, embracing single letters, words. 

Etirases, sente " 
onfa keeping. 

rto published. It is called 

•i Practical" and I 

Shorthand Writing 


Thorough iustrucliou in the best system ; terms 
low ; satisfaction guaranteed. 

Young men have only to master Shorthand to 
make it a sure source of protit. Stenographers 
receive better salarius than are pnid In any other 
clerical position. 

Send stamp forepei-imen of writing and circulars. 

W. M. HULTON, 8t«na|Taptaflr, 


Writing and Measuring Ruler. 

For Gtudent«, schools, and accountants, It gives 

Eractlcal forms for tlie capital and small 
abet«; also the figures; thus b '~- 
■ present and convenient before the 

script alphabets ; also the figures ; thus keeping 
"esent and convenient before the — '"- 
forms for writing, This ruler is 15 
1 lengib, metat edced. 
Sent by mail 

r writing. Address, 

2(K Broadway. New 



Geography, Gn 

mprlsing U. S. History, 
)ractical questlo 

I positively the only que; 

_ are complete enough _._, 

be of any help to teachers or others 

TIC," including n 

inatibns, or for reviewing pupils 

Besides treating thorouglily 

^-ithme"- ■"" " ' 

from 10 to 30 test examples 

) of Arithmetic, this book contaiu! 

tions under each subject, the solutions being placed 
In the appendix. In this book there are over ' '"" 


All orders for the " GUIDE " received within 3 
vlll be filled at lao, per copy. " Prize .Snenl 
and " GUIDE," lOo, Addre&nD. I 

days will be filled 

men " and "C 

State Normal 

1. New Jersi 


and I will send : 

e written in full, and % 

with copious illustrations, parsing and analy^i 
The numerous illustrations, fab© syntax with co 
rections, and the parsing of ditBoult words, at 

I Questions with Answe 
' including the Federal ( 

PHY, "embracing Descriptivt 

matical Geography. The descriptive 

asked on each grand division sepan 

abling the student to refresh bis mind < 

grand division separately, thus e 
tent to refresh bis mi ' 
tlcular country without reading ( 


( for- 1. 
Combining Capitals 

ishlp generally. 

mootbly. II. Thoyji 

IV. Tbey shade e 



. Ind. 


Send for a Sample Copy of our Journal, and 
learn of our plan of " InstmcUny any pmsoii in any 
Studij" by CORRESPONDENCE and Reading 
Circles. OvcrW College Professors engaged, con- 
ferring Di>.aiteK3. Sample Copy mailed for postage. 


SITUATIONS !.°u/."rcriS&' 



vrritlng it, with ii 

hand, price list descriptive of Lesaons by Malh 
Extended Movementa, Tracing Exercises, Capitals, 
Cards. Flourishing, eto. Address, 

Wilton Ji 
P,S.— No postal c 


New Masonic Building. 


Masonic Temple, 

SHORTHAND ilir "ofVVSSu?^ 

good situations procured all pupUi when competent 
Phono^'aphy thoroughly learned, njiens the best 
field for young people, especially for educiated 
young ladles. Send for clr'lar. W. G. CHAFFKE, 


tbl3paper._ 6-12 3, Moffat Suit 

A Few Pointed Points for Every 
One to Read. 


After Iiaviug visited quite a number of 
Commercial Colleges imd corresponded with 
many of the best penmen of our country 
willi a-\'iew of pursuing the art under their 
instruction, sis well ns to secure a specimen 
of their penmanship, I fimvlly decided to cast 
my lot with Prof. McKee, of the Oberlin 
College Writing Department, whose pen- 
mau5!liip ranked among the best, if it whs 
not superior to all others ; and I can unhes- 
itatingly say Ibat I know of no reason to re- 
jrret having made (his choice. Prof. McKee 
is devoted to his profession and to the ad- 
vancement of his pupils. lie is a painstaking, 
thorough, a most successful teacher and 
wiilial a true gentleman in every sense of 
the word. 

Having token a "professional" course 
under the author of ibe so-called "Induc- 
tive System," 1 am firmly convinced Uiat 
there is no "royal road" to eminence in 
this arl, and that those who claim lo make 
profesfiionat jienmen in an eight weeks' 
course are ignonuil of even the first prin- 
ciples of penmnnship, or (sad to say) wil- 
fully dishonest. And then again, the ab- 
surdity of promising positions, at not less 
than %Tii) per month, to nil who complete the 
professional course. 

Dear reader, don't allow yourself to be 
hoodwinked into the idea that this promise 
means anything in Ihe world but a bait for 
your bard earned ca^h ; and espcc-ially re- 
member the following — write it down in 

your diary and look i 

of tllO! 

; It every time you 
tiiti-e siiuntion prnm- 
^c/nwl Viat will resort 
/» aanire pativrKtffe, 
cannot h, i/,ji,niltil uj,„ii for an honest, 
tJwrottyhyi'iiiy ivume cj inxtruHion, and such 
schools itevei- give such a course. 

If you will heed this you will save your- 
self an experience which I have purchased 
at a very dear rale. Think twice before 
you allow youraelf to be roped in by such 
gilt-edged promises, and then I know you 

ducted on an liontsl basis. 

C. E. .lOHNSUN. 

West Liberty (O.) Banking Co. 


Having been a student in the Oberlin 
Business College, I take plKisure in recom- 
mending it as one of the most thorough and 
successful schools of its kind. Its Prin 
cipals, Messrs. McKee & Henderson, I have 
found by personal acquaintance, to be men 
deeply interested in their pupils, and thor- 
oughly qualified for theirwork. 'Any young 
man or woman expecting to enter business 
or keep up with the times, should have a 
good business education. Having hud 12 
years experience in business, 1 can hcarlily 
recommend the Oberlin Bu'^iness College 
as giving a course thorough and practical 
iu every way and adapted to the needs of 
the present limes. 

Instructions in law on every day busi- 
ness transactions, wbicb it is so essential to 
know correctly, are most thoroughly ex- 
plained by Mr. Ueuderson, who is master 
of business law and especially adapted to 
impart bis knowledge to others, and in a 
way that makes his elai« interesting and en- 
joyable lo all. 

Its success in the past is a suflicient 
guarantee for its future usefulness, and any 
one entering this College will receive more 
personal instruction from the Principals 
than io any other similar Institution iu ibis 

8-lS Cashier WfSt Liberty Banking Co. 

IsTO^W K.E1J^IZ)-Y". 





With Two Supplementary Hooks. 



systematize and tcacli writing in accordance witli the nsagcs of tlie 
writers in the business world. 

guishing features of " Spencers' New Standard Writing." It effects a saving 
of from 15 to 25 per cent, in tlie labor of writing and a corresponding 
saving of time in learning to write. 

A Sample Set, containing all numbers, sent for examination on receipt 
of $1.00. 

Full Descriptive Circular sent, on request, to any address. 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, & Co., 

753 and 755 Broadway, New York. j_k 

L?'- " ""JLjhi Ur r , A 1 luuii UTtlr >'^ (£ii. •^^^'u^^ 






For Sale by all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


26 John Street, New York. 

mtot the I 
1 pleased to 8i 
/ instruction, 
est Scliools ii 

Send for our Journal : Lessons in Penmanship 
'•■■ "rofs. Forbes and V ' ' - -■ ■■ 

k executed as bef o 

H. F, VOGEt., Siipt. Pen Art Dept. 

Int Bu8. Coll, and School of Pen Art, 
ner address. Altooiia, Pa. 

as premium 


Price, SO Cents, Poetaee Paid. 
1 postal note. Addre^, 


Washington, D. C. 

Doiibie Entry BuoklceepiDe for $T.i 
iiirse. fM.M. Blanks eto. furalshc 
OLCOTT, Prin. Com'l Dept.. Amen 


ANTED— To engaee five young men. Mi 
~lte a nice hiuid. Address n.C. CARVF 


ANTKD.-A poiltion asTcaolier In a BuBlnesis 
College; U5 years old; (j years' experience: 4 
-'--■- ' ■' -Tor a leading colleife. 

Shading T Square 

possible test, and find it the most reliahie and ci n 
venlent mechanical aid I have ever seeu fur the 
purpose for wbloh It la destguod 

Respectfnlly, C JL O iewnw 

Designoi iiid Uiaftsman Ain HaiikNoleCo N\ 

> draftsman 
Moore s 



The only Instru- 
ment that will 
make an exact 
Copy of 3, picture, 
either Smaller or 
Larger, than the 

a WIFT-S HAND-BOOK of lOO valuable 
^J Keclpes mallt-d fur 60 cents, or free lo 
sendlnK me tl for this paper for one year. 

Sulisoripllona received for all PeriodlcalB, 

Catalogues, etc., free, 
la la WELLS W. SWIFT. Marionviiie, N 





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The Form and Structure of Letters, 

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f Conyrffg. in the yatr 1880, liy Danirl T. A«bs, in tht Offii-t Of tht Librarian of Congress, Washington, D. i 

Vol. X.— No. 10. 

Writing in General— Signatur 
in Particular. 

rill- spccilic iletinition of tLe word " sig- 
I iH ' wliiib suits the purpose of this 
uiirie is tlms given by Webster: " The 
ii;itii(of any person, written with bis own 
ij.iriil. employed to signify that tbe writing 
u iiicb precedes iiccords with bis wishes or 

This word is frequently but erroneously 
considered ossynouyinous with "autograpli." 
There is however this difference, that a 
signature is an autograph, but an autograph 
is not necessarily a signature. 

In the considernlion of any subject it is 
desirable to know something of its history, 
iind this is eminently true of signatures, in 
ilii' treatment of which we will be obliged 
Id pursue the same course of investigation 
;i- ill ilie history of autographs or other 
I inn, and whut we iiuiysayot tbe history 
ii;ii\irc« will iutrluile lliat of writing in 

i'Nt we will find that neither sacred nor 
pnhiiie authors give anything like a com- 
|.li ii iir satisfactory account of the origin of 

i'tibaps the great dearth of information 
\\\"\n its early history may lie due to the 
i;i\;iges of the Ph(pnician temples and 
Egyptian colleges Ijy the Persian General 
Ochus, to Ca-sftr's troops who hurnt'd ihi.- 
library of Ptolemy Philadelphus, the grtai 
eat of antiquity, to the destruction of the 
Pythagorean schools in Italy, of heathen 
peoples in the reign of Constantine, the 
ravages of the barbarians of the North, or in 
Finnic of the many warlike expeditions for 
L-i'iy. or in the name of a more sacred 

( I'l tain it is that the world at present pos- 
- -I > little positive information upon this 

1 1 i^ not probable that alphabetic writing 
\\!iv iiio first method (if communicating in- 
iriii.rfuce through the sense of sight, but to 
I 111- wc- will for the present confine our at- 
ii iiiiiin as the basis of the signature proper. 
I'iii>> iiHserts the use of letters to have been 

■ l< ui:il. 

I hi cabalistic doctors of the Jews main- 
I ini iiiiit alphabetical writing was one of the 
III! tilings which God created on the even 
\wz uf the Sabbath. 

I'hiio in his Pha'dnm makes tlie god 
Tlieuth or Mercury the inventor of letters. 
IJut Plato also informs us that "Some, 
when they could not unravel a difficulty, 
br.iii,^lit down a god as in a machine to cut 

TIr- learned Bishop of Gloucester says : 

' I Ik- aueienta gave nothing lo the gods of 

-•• nriginals they had any records, but 

I ■■ iht' memory of the invention was lost 

* * * the gods seized the property 

i'\ I \v.\\ kind of right which gives strays to 

Nil h^ni of the manor." Among the nations 

ri liiniug the invention of alphabetic writing 

iii:i\ t)e mentioned the Pha-uicians, the 

1\\ |.ti;iu8, Chaldeans, Syrians, East Indians 

nil Arabians, but the preponderance of evi- 

i' '• seems to be iu favor of the Phoeui- 

The first mention of writing in the 

'iun-s is in Exodus xvii., 14: "And 

! rd said unto Moses, write this for a 

ii'riid in a book and rehearse it'in tbe 

curs of Joshua," etc. 


There is nothing to indicate that writing 
was at that time a novelty. 

In Exodus xxviii., 31, we read: "And 
the stones shall be with the names of the 
children of Israel, twelve, according to 
tbeir names, like the engravings of a signet, 
every one with his name shall they be. ac- 
cording to tbe twelve tribes." 

In Deuteronomy are several references to 

In the foundation of the Temple of the 
Moon at Hur are square bricks bearing the 
name of Urukh, who reigned 2093 B.C., or 
in the time of Abraham's father. 

Letters were known in Phn?nicia about a 
century and a half after the flood. 

The foregoing examples give evidence of 
the great antiquity of writing, but yet we 
fail to discover with certainty the time when, 
the place where and the person by whom 
writing was invented. 

Neither are we to suppose that alphabetic 
writing was tirst used, or that signatures 
were the first examples of such writing, but 
it is probable that no great length of time 
would elapse between the invention and its 
use for such purpose. 

Let us now for a moment consider the 
materials used in the infancy of writing, as 
well as in its progress toward its maturity. 

The writing of the ancient Hebrews and 
t lie Egyptian hieroglyphics were cut in 
stone with bronze chisels. The arrow- 
headed inscriptions of the Babylonians. 
Medes. Persians and Assyrians, when carved 
ill rocks, were cut with bronze chisels. The 
same characlers on bricks may have been 
made when the material was in a plastic 

Stone, lead, brass, ivory and wood were 
all writing materials, and required pens with 
sharp and hard points. 

In later times, leather was used by the 
Jews; linen, silk, skins of serpents and 
fishes by the Greeks and parchment by the 

Papyrus was in early use by the Egyp- 
tians, and eventually found its way amorg 
tlie European nations, where it continued in 
general use until about the end of the 
seventh century, and was then superseded by 
parchment and vellum, except that for a 
time it was used for correspondence. 

Its use continued by the Popes until the 
twelfth century. 

Parchment is said to have been used by 
Emmenes, King of Pergamos. two and u 
half centuries before the Christian era. 

From the begioning of the eighth century 
until a comparatively recent period, parch- 
ment and vellum were most highly es- 
teemed, and ofttimes difficult to obtain in 
sufilcient quantities by the nations of Europe 
as well as portions of the East. 

The natives of India, at the present day, 
write on tbe palm leaf with a stylus re- 
sembling a long darning needle. In writing 
they use the forefinger of the left hand as a 
writing desk, around which they fold the 
leaf upon which they write. 

The Arab uses a similar instrument, with 
which he iuscribes his signature on the 
shoulder blade of a sheep. 

Of pens we may enumerate in the order 
of their use the chisel, the reed, the quill, 
the gold and the steel pen. 

The mode of using the chisel was but lit- 
tle like that of tbe modern pen. The sty- 
lus was a dangerous instrument, not un- 
worthy of its progeny the Italian stiletto. 

It was by order of the Emperor Julian tbat 
Cnasianus, a refugee bishop who bad set up 
a school at Rome, was martyred by his 
scholars with the stylus, and C'lesar. in full 
senate, seized and pierced the arms of Cas- 
sius with his stylus. 

The monks of the Middle Ages employed 
both reed and quill pens, as they bad need 
for broad or narrow lines. 

The calamus, or reed pen, is still used in 
ita native place, Egypt, but better reeds are 
found on the Persian Gulf, where they are 
gathered in the month of March and im- 
mersed iu fermenting manure for a period 
of six months. This coats them with the 
yellow or black varnish for which tliey are 

The first mention of a quill pen is by St_ 
Isidore, of Seville, who lived about the mid- 
dle of the seventh century. It gradually 
came to be the principal instrument of 
writing, and its use continued to be general 
until superseded by the steel pen about a 
half century since. 

The first metal pen, properly so-called, 
mentioned in history, was the gold pen of 
the famous writing master, Peter Bales, of 
Queen Elizabeth's time. 

The first steel pen was manufactured iu 
180S. since which time constant improve- 
ments have been made until now its use is 
nearly universal. 

In China a bair pencil is used with India 

The diamond-pointed pen, although 
usually ranked as a modern combination, 
seems to have been known away beyond the 
memory of the oldest inhabitant, for the 
prophet Jeremiah uses the expression, 
"written with a pen of iron and with the 
point of a diamond." 

Of ink, a poet has said: 
" Hard that his name it should not Fave, 
Who first poured foi'th the snlile wave." 

The most ancient ink, Sepia, has been 
found in the solid rock where it had re- 
mained for a hundred thousand years and 
yet possessing all the qualities of the color- 
ing matter of the cuttle-fish of to-day. 

The Spartans used Sepia for making in- 
scriptions on sarcophagi. 

The ink of the ancients was usually a pre- 
paration of lampblack and a gum. Dios- 
coridcs gives the proportions, 3 of soot to 1 
of gum. This was formed into cakes or 
rolls and tempered with water when it was 
to be used. 

In the excavations at Ilerculaneum an 
inkstand was unearthed which contained an 
ink perfectly preserved. 

The Roman emperors used a very expen- 
sive red ink in writing signatures, and its 
use was prohibited to all others except that 
their sons if of adult age could use it; other- 
wise they must have recourse to green ink. 

The ancient Romans frequently com- 
plained that their ink did not How freely, 
ftnd they sometimes gave vent to expressions 
closely bordering on profanity, in conse- 

Charlemagne signed his charters and ordi- 
nances by " dipping the thumbof hisde.vter 
glove into a fluid resembling Day & Martin's 
Superior Blacking, and dabbing il boldly 
on to tbe royal sheepskin." 

The old rule of thumb, without the glove 
was deservedly popular as a signature, and, 
although not specially ornamental yet an 
impression made from the thumb with its 
varied lines would at all times be more diffi- 
cult to duplicate than any signature executed 
with pen and ink. In fact it could be done 
only by tbe original thumb. 

The sign of the cross, used by persons 
who could not write, is said to have origin- 
ated during the Crusades, and was originally 
made with tbe blood of the signer. It was 
subsequently used with tbe signature to 
further attest to its sacredncss. 

Among tbe many kings and emperors 
■who could not write a signature it is said 
that Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, 
was so illiterate and stupid that during the 
ten years of bis reign, he was not able to 
write four letters. Tbe letters were cut 
for bim in a plate of gold and the plate 
being laid on paper, he then traced out the 
letters with a quill. 

Tbe Emperor Justin used a piece of wood 
with letters cut for the same purpose, but 
in addition to this aid he was compelled to 
employ a secretary to guide his band. 

Signatures were written with but little 

regard to orthographical uniformity, a sort 
of go as-you-please style, and this continued 
at least to the time of Queen Elizabeth. 

We have thus hastily glanced at the sev- 
eral branches of our subject and have been 
compelled by limited space to omit much 
that would tend to make the subject sym- 
metrical and, as in the subject matter, so in 
tbe illustrations we limit ourselves to two 
names showing alphabetical forms, as used 
at two periods remote from each other — the 
first tbat of Darius, one of the Persian kings 
who reigned between four and five hundred 
years before our era, and the second tbe sig- 
nature of king "Henry of Navarre." The 
latter is given as among tbe later signatures, 
the letters of which are disjoined. This sig- 
nature proved a successful one, as copsider- 
able sums of money were borrowed upon it, 
but when the time came for payment, the 
man like tbe letters of the signature, " failed 
to connect." 

In No. 3 we reproduce a connected, flow- 
ing and somewhat elaborate signature char- 
acteristic of the writing of that age, from 
Bickbam's " Universal Penman," published 
in 1743, for tbe purpose of contrasting it 
with the very simple disccnnected signature 
of " Henry of Navarre," and also for com- 
parison with those of today. 

Wealsopresent/ac»i/Hi/f«of those of John 
Hanci tk, Stephen Girard, and John Jacob 
Astor, the first of these as a good example of 
a vigorous, determined, undoubting and per- 
fectly legible hand ; the others as showing 
varieties of the paraph or flourish prevailing 
in the past century but which is rarely seen 
at the present day. 

The essential element of all signatures as 
far as penmanship goes is legibility, and the 
four following, numbered 7, 8, 9, 10, are 
examples of its utter absence. There are. 
however, a few people having the happy 
faculty of being able to solve the most puz- 
zling examples of crude, awkward or indis- 
tinct cbirography. There are also a (fortu- 
nately) limited number of persons who easily 
decipher the indecipherable. To three of 
this latter class the aforementioned four sig- 
natures were shown, and they were "read 
like print," although the result was a num- 
ber of renderings corresponding to the num- 
ber of readers ; and we here take pleasure in 
slating that the author of the supposed sig- 
natures, when writing tbem, did not intend 
tbem to represent the names of any individ- 
uals, either past, present or prospective. 

The signature of F. E. Spinner might be 
appropriately classed with this group, as 
illegible, although it resulted from years of 
labor in perfecting it and was intended to be 
proof against all the machinations of the 
emissaries of tbe "evil one" who might 
attempt to forge it, but there is scarcely a 
penman in the country who has not suc- 
ceeded in making very accurate copies of it. 

Nos. 12, 13. 14, 15, 10, are designs for sig- 
natures executed by tbe writer of this article, 
some of which are too much like the famous 
Mark Checkup style to he wholly practical 

Tbe remaining signatures, except Qie last, 
will be recognized as those of " Knights of 
the Quill" more or less celebrated (gen- 
erally more), throughout the civilized world, 
all of which are inimitable. 

Of tbe last signature we have only to say 
or sing, — "as tbe case may be," — 
Tbe scrawl of Mark Checkup, 
Should all of us take up, 

And follow Id tenohlne at sohool; 
Our bright pupils amazed. 
By such lines would be dazed, 
Aii<l perchance call the teacher a f . 

Penmanship Definition 

Inasmuch as a large number of the Jour- 
nal readers are teachers of penmanship, I 
take the responsibility of presenting a few 
penmanship definitions. These definitions 
are perhaps not Infallible, nor exhaustive, 
but it is possible tbat they may be of some 
value to the younger members of the frater- 
nity who may unexpectedly have some brain- 
bewildering question propounded to tbem, 
and with which they might be able to grapple 
to better advantage after having read and 
considered these definitions and remarks. 

1. Penmanship is the art of expressing ideas 

by vieane of characters executed with pen 
and iTik. 

Renmrks. — Tbe term penmanship is also 
applied to the assemblage of characters thus 

Does the definition include flourishing and 
pen drawing 1 In flourishing a bird or draw- 
ing a chair, do we express ideus? "What 
about blackboard work, is it penmanship ? 
Let us have some reports on this definition. 

2. Writing is the art of expressiur/ ideas by 

means of script characters executed with 
pen, pencil, or crayon, or with their sub- 
Remarks. — If a romantic lover writes the 
name of his fair one on the sands of the 
seashore with bis finger, or in the beautiful 
snow with a stick, bis finger aud the stick 
respectively may be considered as substi- 
tutes for pen, pencil or crayon. 

How does this definition stand in relation 
to shorthand ? 

3. Plain Penmanship is writing adapted to 

the ordinary affavrs of life, 
liemarks. — This definition docs not neces- 
sarily mean that Horace Greeley's writing 
should come under tbe head of ornamental 

4. AitTisTic, or Ornamental Penmanship 

isthat in tphichornamentation andbeauty, 
as icell as legibility, are essentials. 

5. Movement is the action oftfie arm, hand, 

and fingers in executing forms which the 
mind dictates. 

6. Muscular Movb.ment m the combined 

and simultaneous action of the ann, hand 
and fingers white writing, the arm rest 
being stationary, and the hand rest 
liemarks.— It is certainly a fact that no 
practical, rapid writing can be executed 
with ease and facility with cither a so called 
purely furearm, or purely finger movement. 
It is also a fact that much of the quarreling 
about movements is caused by a misunder- 
standing or a misconstruction of the term, 
" muscular movement." I don't think it is 
best to leach that the muscular movementis 
simply the action of the arm wilh the fingers 
kept quiet or rigid, as this invariably leads 
to a stiff and distressingly awkward move- 
ment. It may be well enough in the initia- 
tory exercises to order the pupil to keep bis 
fingers quiet and produce the forms by 
means of the rolling action of the arm only, 
in order to break up his excessive finger 
movement. But after the pupil understands 
thoroughly, and has acquired this rolling 
arm motion, it is better for bim to know 
tbat an auxiliary action of the fingers is per- 
missible 1 but he should also be made to un- 
derstand distinctly that be must keep up a 
continuous arm motion, and that the hand 

must slide continually on the corner of the 
nails of tbe third and fourth fingers. 

7. Wholeahm Movement is the combined 

and simultaneous action of the arm, hand, 
and fingers while writing, the arm being 
raised so that there is no ann rest. 
Remarks. — The only difference between 

muscular and wholearm is that in wholearm 

writing the arm is raised. 
Let us hear from those who know whether 

wholearm should always precede muscular 

as an essential aid in developing the latter 


8. FiNOKit Movement is the independent ac- 

tion of the thumb and the first and second 
fingers while writing, both the arm rest 
and hand rest being stationary. 

9. A Line is the path of a moving point. 
Remarks. — Inasmuch as all writing is 

made up of lines, it seems proper that the 
pupil should know what a line is. The 
above definition, while used iu mathematics, 
is especially applicable in penmanship, inas- 
much as the pen producing the lines in 
writing is a " pointed" instrument, and the 
words " moving point " suggest tbe impor- 
tance of movement. 

10. A STHAianT Line is one that doei not 
change its direction at any point. 

11. A Curved Line m one that datv^ee^its 
direction at every point. 

IS. A Right Curve m on* having its convex 
side either toward the right or downwa/!-d. 

13. A Left Curve is one having its convex 
side either tojeard the left or upward. 

14. A Compound Curve is the union of the 
right and left curves in a wave line. 

Remarks. — To say a "compound curve" 
is somewhat indefinite, as it does not desig- 
nate which lines comes first. To make it 
more definite, the terms, "Right-and-left," 
or " Leftaud-right." may be used. 

15. A HoHizoNTAL STRAinnT Line is one 
that is paridkl with the base line. 

Remarks. — We cannot very -well say that 
a horizontal line in writing is one that is 
level, or parallel with the horizon, because 
it is not true. The base line muBt-flervirns 
a standard for detenu in iii-r the position of 
tbe other lines. 

16. A Horizontal Curve is one whose ex- 
tremities may be connected by a horieontal 
straight line. 

17. A Vertical STRAionT Line is one at 
right angles to the base line. 

18. A Ykkticm.Vvkve is one whose extrein- 
ities maybe connected by a vertical straight 

19. An OuLiquE Line is one that is neither 
vertii-al nor horizontal. 

{To be continued.) 

Esthetics of Penmanship. 

There is much shallow criticism in this 
world, and it is not surprising that some 
part of it has been directed against the orna- 
mental in penmanship. 

Many men seem to thiuk that utility is 
the only quality deserving of recognition. 
Such men would probably prefer a drum- 
head cabbage to a jacqueminot rose, or a 
patch of potatoes to a bed of pansies as 
ornaments for their front yard. They are 
ever ready to cry out against tbe artistic 
beauties which ihe skilled pen artist may 
produce. Beauty is ^ust as really a quality 
in penmanship as utility, and deserves etpial 
recognition ; and while men are consiitutcii 
as they now are, beauty has a pecuniary 
valvie. Pecuniary considerations are by im 
means the highest, but they are the only 
ones that appeal to some men. 

The man never has and never will live 
who is not in some measure susceptible to 
the power of beauty. Even those who criti- 
cise tbe ornamental in penmanship are nut 
exceptions to this rule, despite their assever- 

Whv are not o 

r dwellings 
ir proiectio 

not mere sheds 

sulfieient for o 

J? What is the 

meaning of to^ 

era and pi 

inacles, coUimns 

and corukfs v 

It is Ik-chus 

3 everyone prar 

ticallv n--,..j„,. 

~ 'liiin 

8 of beauty and 

vahK-. I 1 ■ ■ 

ity a pecuniary 
vby the beauties 

a pen :iin~i nni 

Ml- In :i silt 

et of engrossing 

shoirid ic: _ 

fact they d<i not. ^ 

People of cultivated tastes/iglilly i 
nize this quality in its reciftiremi-nt! 
carping critics simply eshjFjit their 
ignorance and folly. g 

TuUy, N. Y. / 


sand Copy-Books. 

Kditor of Uie Journal : — I have read with 
coasiderable interest the comments made 
both for and against Ga«keirs CompcDdiiim. 
Ilaviog been to an extent a "Compendium 
boy" myself, probably my experience will 
be of interest to most of the readers of the 
JouitNAii. Like Mr. Vogel, I had a lastt 
for fine penmaoship and ten years ago, at 
fourteen years of age, I was probably as 
poor a writer as the majority, as specimens 
enclosed will show. When Qaskell's Com- 
pendium fell into my hands, using Mr. 
Vogel's words. "I was simply fascinated 
with the endless variety of work placed be- 
fore me." and I immediately went " hard at 
it "to become as fine a writcrns the auto- 
graphs I had seen in \he Penvian's (.iazette. 
After practicing for some time. I acquired 
a regular Mark Checkup style in its general 
make up, as some of the enclosed writing, 
executed at the lime, will show. Unfor- 
tunately (or rather fortunately) I loaned it 
to a friend, and have never seen it since. 
This ended my experience with Gaskell's 

I'.iit uow what 1 wish to say in favor of 

I iiskell's Compendium is that it gave me 
a freedom of movement (probably a little 
too free) which otherwise I might not have 
obtained. Now my opinion is that Gaskell's 
Compendium is only good so far as move- 
ment is concerned ; the crude and endlessly 
varied capitals have the appearance of benm 
executed rapidly, hence everj one praclic 
ing from the Compendium will endea\or to 
do it rapidly, and at the expense of form 
for surely there is no form or rather s^ stem 
about it. 

While writing the M. C style I placed 
inywt'lf under Prof. Flickingcr also sub 
stribed for the Journal, and two jeais. 
iifliTwards my writing uml mmt j fii\ i 
iil'lc I'liange which yiiii will i 

111' .vriiin- fiu'U>H-'i - 
improved, til] my wriiiN_ 
riMW, though r candidly bch \ n _) uniiu^ 
\\'>\\\d be far different, had I not to the 
l">f of my ability, obliterated the sljk 

II '(iiired from the Compendium 

-NiAv, lastly, have not the cop> books, for 
vrais past been at fault, with then fault 
'-^■ly exact copies, between ruUdhncs* Ihc 
IriiuitT invariably endeavormg to imitate 
" I'v, must necessarily use a cramped hngei 
iiiovLment, and in nine cases out of ten 
ri.ini's to the conclusion that j-ootZ writers 
arc born and not made. This is simply 
because he was not taught a free movement 
from the first, which when acquired, and 
seeing how easily it was executed, he t?icn 
should combine the movement with correct 
forms, or in other words, movement first 
and form combined afterwards. 

I was exceedingly pleased while at the 
Iju'^iiiess Educators' Convention in examin- 
ini.' " Spencer Brotbers' New Copy-Books." 
I Im\ are everything one could desire, the 
\viinug being a free and graceful running 
li iimI fombined with perfect letters, giving 
ii 'In appearance of being executed rapidly, 
ml ilierefore the very best books on pen- 
iii.insbip for the learner I have ever seen. 
\\ hni I was attending school, the writing 
li;ni ibe appearance of being drawn, hence 
most scholars k-fl school with an awkward, 
stiff, schoul-boy hand, which we now so 
often see ou vwvy sid{;, 

I am not a teaL-her by profession though I 
do give private lessons. My experieuce has 
been that most of those who come under 
niy instruciion invariablv write a cramped 
finger movement, and I have seen the most 
li 'tUriiig results in most every case where I 
'iiv, ;,Mven them plenty of movement ex- 
'iii'^Ls right from the first, discarding for 
H\\ Ink- the forms and formations of letters ■ 
and It is rarelv that pupils do not become 
lulcrested. louse their own words. Ibey 
" did not know it was so easy, as they had 
never been taught to begin that way." 

In the foregoing I have endeavored to 
(uuveyto the reader that Gaskell's Com- 
p< ndium is movement without form, while 
iiio^t of our copy-books of to-day are form 
\Mtlxmt movement. lam not exactly pre- 
I'.ir. li ir. say which IS the best for the bcgin- 
II' r Prnjiiihly some of my older brethren 
iti till' ]iiu(.->ion, having had more es- 
IKTK.rm, iiiuy be better able to decide. 
tb.iii-b iu\ opinion is that the New Spencer 
Copy Books will meet a long felt 

laiit. iind should be adopted 
">'-il'Ie in all our school.^. 

C. H. K 

The Power of Acquiring. 

The power of acquiring quickly and well 
is a distinctive trait of the American people. 
It seems to be our natural inheritance. From 
the hour when an American child begins to 
talk, straight on through the entire educa- 
tional process, llie power of acquisition 
manifests ilself in a remarkable degree. In- 
deed, so rapid are the unfoldings, the de- 
velopment of a child's mind with us, that 
we are outgrowing the old methods of 
education. The child seems to grasp intui- 
tively much that was formerly arrived at 
by slow, mechanical processes. For in- 
stance. American children now-adays learn 
to read by the "word method," — taking in 
a whole word at a glance, instead of analyz- 
ing it into its separate letters. In fact, the 
English alphabet in this country to-day, as 
a basis for instruction, is almost as much a 
collection of "dead letters" as the Greek 

avail themselves of it, over past ages and 
other peoples. 

One can hardly fail to remark how rapid- 
ly young men in this country mature ; how 
readily and naturally they assume places of 
trust and responsibility. To what can this 
be due, if not to the extraordinary power of 
acquisition, which is becoming a marked 
characteristic of the American people ? Our 
youth are quick to apprehend, quick to 
learn, quick to make jtractical application 
of what they acquire. 

This is particularly and noticeably true, 
I think, of young penmen. Is there any 
class which can show so many beardless 
young men — boys, one would almost call 
them — holding places of high responsibility 
and importance in the leading business 
houses of the land ? I had the pleasure 
recently of glancing over a gallery of por- 
traits of yoiing men who had graduated 
from one of our leading business colleges, 
had obtained responsible and trustworthy 
positions all over the country, and gladly 
embraced the opportunity of testifying to 
the good which they had received from 

An Illinois View 

or Coniiiendiun 


Editor of the yoHrna/;— It has been my 
good fortune to have been a subscriber to 
this valuable assistant and teachers' guide 
for the past two years, and I must say that 
it would be hard to find a publication that 
performs its mission so admirably and well 
as does the Journal. 

There has been a great deal said upon the 
Compendium qiK'slion of late, and while 

Ca^-Kill'-f jii luliunL has been the means 

of h.'i I I Miiiy in learning the art, 

yc I I ' .11 anything very desir- 

alilc "I |.i... i.>.l; ,ii il, especially as every 
one i>iav;;u^ iliLic ;iic better compcndiums 
to be bad fur the siime money. One would 
suppose, from statements made by some 
that Ihere. is nothing in its line equal to 
Gaskell's. I hope they will get their eyes 
open, that they may be able to see the dif- 
ference between the "true light," and a 
"biased mind." 

The copy books have also been attacked 
in many ways, atui, I think, in many cases 
unscnipiilnii-l\ :iii<l nnjustly. Copybooks 

have iliiir Tiii-i imi in .such they should 

be (i>[isjdri( li \\ iiik' it is better, when 
possible, to ha\c writtL'U copies for learners, 
yet when they are not to be bad, what is to 




o'^^wmmw m^mmwMmfmm 



■0€r>?zy ^^9t^.'e^'n'<^.6''n^. 

2©^ S>ro^'i\^ @or. cTulTon. ^tr<ct ^ 

The same tendency is manifesting itself 
more extensively in what is called the "new" 
or "Quincy method" of teaching, the 
Proebel or kindergarten method, etc. ; the 
principle underlying all these systems being 
simply to let the natural workings of the 
child's mind take the lead, while the teacher 
follows with pertinent example and in- 

This power of acquisition, at once natural 
and cultivated, is the secret of the extra- 
ordinary advance of the American people 
in every department of modern science, art, 
learning and practical achievement. Young 
as we arc as a people, we are rapidly taking 
the lead in every direction in which human 
efTort is expended. And it is well that our 
young men especially — those who are com- 
ing up to take the places of the leaders of 
to-day— should understand the advantage 
which they have, or may have if they only 

their alma mater. The faces were, in the 
main, remarkably youthful, in some cases 
boyish ; but they all had that bright, inde- 
pendent, aggressive look Which characterizes 
young America everywhere. It was evident 
that they had cultivated their natural 
powers of acquisition to the best advantage; 
naturally gifted, they had made the most of 
themselves, and won a position from which 
all the prizes of life lie within their grasp. 

If all others who possess ine same God- 
given power should follow their example, 
there would be no failures, no Bitter dis- 
appointments, in the struggle of life. But 
to make the most of one's self requires 
energy, devotion, sacrifice. The prizes are 
not for those who snatch at them, but for 
those who strive for them. A man may 
have the highest power for acquiring, and 
yet not acquire. It all depends upon our- 

be done ':* Nothing but to get a set of copy 
books. I think the great cry against them 
comes from theinjudicious manner in which 
they have been used. Michael is the great 
one horse blow, who seems to run down 
everything that is not his own work ; and 
now I sec he has got out copy books of his 
own make up. which will cast a "black 
shadow " on everything yet devised. I 
prove his great, 
t will be br — 
Probobly it will be that he i_ ._, 
only penman now alive. I say. just dues to 
such self-sufliciency and crankyism. 

Some are trying to make us believe that a 
child can be taught to write from the start 
at the astonishing rate of twenty words per 
minute, What kind nf scrawls would they 
be in three months? How many "penmen " 
are there who will sanction such a "false 
outlay " of wind V Give us facts or give 
us nothing. Make statements that are 
within the bounds of reason, and keep on 
the right side of common sense. 

E. G. Barkows. 

Mrndoia, III, Bvainess College. 

past wbi 

pocted to " sit and sing tberaselves away to 
everluBiing bliss." The work to be dune is 
urgent, and demands energy. Tbe old medi- 
tative era of seclusion bns passed, and a new 
era of action is upon us. It is useless to spec- 
ulate as to the comparative values of tlic dif- 
ferent epochs tbrougli which tbe world has 
passed, whether this is a worse or better age 
than the past, and whether it would not be 
well to fight theprevailingspiritof tbe times. 
A torrent of thought .and action is rushing 
past US; whence it came, or whither it is 
going, is not our question. We must act 
just now, in accordance with the current. 
All mournings and lamentations are fruit- 
less. "Get up and go to work !" "Go and 
do something!" "What can you do?" 
These are the seoleiiccs we hear on all sides. 
The wise man beeds them. The fools pass 
on and are punished. — Teadier's Inntitute, 
JV. Y. 

Wave the Danger Signal ! — No, no, 
success is not reckoned by the millions a 
man has acquired. One may have become 
rich whose career has seemed a poor, mis- 
erable failure. Kank ! and riches ! These 
are the two raits along which it is supposed 
by some, every train is now to run. I tell 
you there are more wrecks on the railroad 
constructed in that way, than upon any 
railroad ever built iu this broad land.— />r. 
John Hall. 

Drawing as a Training Esercise.— 
Popular opinion appears to consider draw- 
ing purely as an accomplishment. Thisisa 
popular fallacy. Tlie earliest efforts of a 
child with a pencil are iiltcmpts to represent 
things. There is scarcely a person in Topeka 
but has more use for ability to draw than 
for ability to repeat tbe rules of syntax, to 
solve problems in the " rule of three," or to 
describe the vegetation of the table laud of 
Thibet. Yet school time is willingly given 
to tbe latter and denied to the former. — D. 
C. Tillotson, Topekfi, Kans. 

The BitionT Finic of Human Impulse. 
^Enthusiasm is a fire that glows in every 
successful man. In fact, it is one of the 
strongest factors of success. A man with- 
out enthusiasm is an engine without steam. 
Tour train won't move unless the water is 
boiling. Carry a full bead of steam, young 
friends. Time and experience will tone 
down any eitcess. Don't bank the tires in 
your furnace. Don't try to be a conserva 
live old man while you are young. Rather 
keep your furnace hot till old ai;e, and imi- 
tate that gmnd old man, who approaching 
the eighties, rides at the front of the hottest 
battle in Great Britain during this genera- 
tion, challenging tbe gaze of the world, and 
shaking the Empire of Her Majesty with the 
force of his enthusiasm. Enthusiasm is the 
driving force of character. There are ener- 
gies slumbering in you that may prove 
mighty if once kindled by enthusiasm. En- 
thusiasm makes strong men ; wakes up 
latent powers ; arouses unsuspected re- 
sources of ability ; sustains prolonged en- 
deavors ; and renders possible the achieve- 
ment of purposes demiindiiig unwearied 
energies. It generates the invincible im- 
pulses that hurl manhood on noble achieve- 
ments. Men of enthusiasm have been the 
life of church and state, science and philos- 
ophy, art and music, business and reform. 
No man accomplishes much without it ; all 
achieve more with it. — Rev. J. O. Peck to 
OraduaUn of Peircx Biiginrsa CotUge, Phila. 

Learning as You Go.— It will not hurt 
you. boys and girls, to learn a little accurate 
geography by looking up these places be- 
fore going on with the story; and if I were 
your schoolmaster instead of your story 
teller. I should stop here to advise you al- 
ways to look on the map for every town, 
river, lake, mountain, or other geographical 
thing mentioned in any book or paper you 
read. 1 would advise you. too, if I were 

your scboolmasler, to add up all tbe figures 
1,'iven in books and newspapers, to see if the 
writers have made any mistakes ; and it is 
!i good plan, too, to go at once to the dic- 
tionary when you meet a word you do not 
quite comprehend, or the encyclopredia or 
history, or whatever else is handy, whenever 
you read about anything you would like to 
know more about, — Edward Eggleston. 

This Hits the Bull's Eye.— IJducation 
should include 'he whole man— uead, heart 
and body; upiightness of character and 
figure, breadth of scholarship and shoulder. 
— George Washington Ikfs, Baker Univrrsitt/, 

A Teacher's First Requ site. The 
men who often profess to teach may be able 
to show how to add and subtract, to read 
and to write; but. oh ' they fail to educt the 
living stamen, to insert the moral and refin- 
ing pabulum. 1 am convinced that no one 
but a gentleman or lady is fit to teach school. 
No man who is not a gentleman — yea, after 
Lord Chesterfield— is fit to be a teacher. He 
must know more than to teach arithmetic, 
or geography, or the classics, or tbesciences, 
or logic or morality; a rough Christian will 
not do. He must be a gentleman in instincts, 
in manners, in ideas, in his intercourse. — 
Wm. CaUttt in N. C. Teacher. 

Womanly Women.— We detest the man- 
nish girl, who regrets tbe fact that she was 
born a girl; who often wishes that she were 
a man; who breaks loose as early as possible 
from womanly lines of life ; who dresses as 
much like a man as she dares ; who sneers 
at domesticity, at womanhood, and wife- 
hood, and motherhood. She tries to look 
and talk and carry herself like a man, has 
a touch of the fop in her tone, and is, as she 
deserves to be. a laughing stock for both 
girls and boys. Away with such unnatural 
and pitiable specimens of the sex ! Give us 
girls who are glad and proud to be girts ; 
who remember what woman has done in 
literature, in art, in science, in the church, 
and above all as mothers in the home, and 
who esteem themselves honored iif heaven 
iu that they are girts, and not boys. For 
such womanly girls we have high hope, and 
for the society and families in which such 
girls live we have words of hearty congratu- 
lation. They are a blessing now iu early 
girlhood, with their joyous, loving, and art- 
less ways, wise speeches and dawning beauty, 
and they wilt be a greater blessing in the 
later years when age has crowned them, and 
when lovers, and then husbands, and then 
children gather about them for counsel and 
comfort. Blessed are womanly women ! 
And thrice blessed are their fat hers, brothers, 
husbands, sons ! — Dr. J. H. Vincent. 

Kesults m School Work. — A stick that 
lies sizzling among its associates in the fire 
gives no light or beat. It is like a person 
who is constantly complaining about others. 
Light and beat come frora vigorous burning. 
Good teaching comes from activity and good 
preparation added to native gifts. A good 
stick of wood, thoroughly dried, burns well 
with no snapping. Good native talent, well 
prepared by training and experience, gives 
excellent results in school work. — iT. T. 
School Journal. 

The Glory of America. — America is 
the only country which spends more money 
upon education than on war or the prepara- 
tion for war. Great Britain docs not spend 
one-third as much, France not onc-uintb, 
or Uussia one-iwenty-ninth on education as 
on the army. The free common-school sys- 
tem of the land is, probably, after all, the 
greatest single power in the edifying pro- 
cess which is producing the new American 
race. Through the crucible of a good com- 
mon English education, furnished free l)y 
the State, pass tbe various racial elements — 
children of Irishmen, Germans, Italians, 
Spaniards and Swedes, side by side with the 
native American, all to be fused into one, in 
language, iu thought, in feeling and in pa- 
triotism. The Irish boy loses his brogue, 
and the German child learns English. The 
sympathies suited to the feudal systems of 
Europe, which they inherit from their 
fathers, pass off as dross, leaving behind the 
pure gold of a noble political creed : "Alt 
such are elected free and equal." — J^Yom 
Andrew Carnegica " Triumphant Dcino- 

It will be the aim of this department to 
present matters of interest to learners and 
experts in phonography. Although the Mun- 
son system will be tbe standard recognized, 
in the lessons and generally, yet all systems 
of shorthand and of short processes will be 
given just consideration and treated with 
courtesy and liberality. 

A series of lessons on How to Study 
Phonography will be given in the regular 
issues— of which the installment in the 
present number is an indication. 

The department will have the sympathy 
and active aid of Mr. Muuson, both in re- 
porting work from,his pen and in hints and 
suggestions on all topics of interest to 
shorthand writers. 

Also of Mr. J. N. Kimball, Principal 
of Packard's Shorthand School, and former 
editor of Packard's Shorthand Reporter. Mr. 
Kimball's artistic shorthand forms are the 
admiration of all practical phonographers. 

Proper space will be given to shorthand 
news items, to answers to correspondents, 
and articles and suggestions from practical 
writers etc. 

In short, it will be the aim of the con- 
ductor to make this page, month by month, 
interesting and instructive to the readers of 
the Journal, and of value to the profession. 

The Study of Phonography. 

With a fair knowledge of English and an 
honest desire to learn, any person of ordi- 
nary ability should be able to . 
master phonography, and to x P 
attain sufficient speed therein 
to make good use of it in busi- | j 
ness. It can be learned from 
books alone, but much time / 
may be saved and discourage- 
ment avoided by having a 

competent teacher. The les- ^ 

sons here given are intended 
to help those who are with- 
out a teacher. They do not : ^^ 
seek to supersede the text- 
book but merely to supple- .. . 
ment it. The system used is 
Munson'B, and the principles - 
are those laid down in the •■ ^ 
Munson text-book, which it would be well 
for the student to possess. 

length and curve, and of placing the vowels 
properly. Y^ou should have no thought of 
speed in writing, neither should you allow 
your pencil to stop midway in writing a 
word to consider how it is to be finished. 
Form a picture of the complete word in 
your mind before you begio tow-rite it, then 
write without halting. Let all thinking he 
done between words. Do not make heavy 
lines light at first and retouch them; but 
shade with a single stroke, and write a 
shaded stroke just as quickly as u light 
one. If you cannot do this, after a Httle 
practice, your materials are not what they 
should be. A slovenly, careless style of 
writing at the beginning will lead to serious 
trouble iu deciphering illegible phonography 
as you advance. 

CoiiHonnnt Stems, Vowels nnd Dlplitlioiigs. 

1. In phonography each sound has a 
character to represent it. The consonant 
sounds are represented by straight and 
curved strokes, the long vowels by heavy 
dots and dashes, the short vowels by liffht 
dots and dashes, the diphthongs by two 
dashes joined. 

, diagram 







- /N ^^^ 



^M ^ 

) = 


-^w r. 



fr^ ^^ 

Aside from the text-book the only materi- 
als required are a pencil, or pen, and ink and 
paper. If a pencil is used, the paper should 
be neither too hard nor toosmooth but with 
a surface that will suthciently resist the 
point. For pencil writing, reporter's note- 
books containing ninety-six pages, ten inches 
long and four inches wide, may be bought 
for from 60 to IVt cents a dozen. They are 
bound in brown paper, open at the ends 
and ruled in red. Red ruling is preferable 
to blue. A pad or loose sheets of paper 
may be used instead of the book, but if 
desirable to preserve the work for reference 
the book is better. The pencil should be 
so soft that a shaded stroke can be made 
with as much ease and speed as a light one. 
A good gold pen with fountain attachment 
is better than a pencil, though most learners 
and many reporters use the pencil, A fine 
steel pen should never be used. It is well 
to practice with both pen and pencil. Tbe 
ink should be dark, without sediment, and 

To get the best results it is important to 
devote a certain time to the study each day. 
It is far better to study or practice fifteen 
minutes a day than to employ three hours 
at Aue time and then lay aside the book for 
a week,. The necessity for much careful 
reading cannot be too strongly urged. 
Many would-be learners have failed to 
master the art because they did not under- 
stand the value of reading. If the perfect 
forms become familiar before you attempt 
to w.rite without a copy, you will not only 
make fewer blunders but be able to see your 
blunders and correct them. T 
ant if you have no teacher to 
work. Acipiire a habit at the 
making the consonant outlines 

a import- 

\. Words to illustrate the sounds of the 
vowels and diphthongs : 

Ijing rmceU.—Va made mc all these 

81m-i ■mxcde.—Aaxi set it on Swm'a iooi. 
Diphthongs.— My joys hoto few. 

5. Study the consonant stems, bearing in 
mind that these characters as well as the 
vowel signs represent sounds, not letters. 

6. While the consonant sounds have each 
an exact representative, the vowel scale is 
not perfect, though sufficient for practical 

a. Tbe third heavy dot represents the 
sound of e in me. and of ea in hear. 

b. The first light dot represents thr 
sound of a iu at. a in care, ai in/air. 

c. The second light dot represents tin 
sound of e in niet, e iu 7t^, % in sir. 

7. Consonant stems have three positions : 
(1) above tbe line, (3) on the line, (3) through 
or under the line. 


.y.i..C.— O:..^.- 


..\A...C...^ ^-.-^ 

THIRD rosrnoN. 

-\f-^— >^-^ 

8. Vowels and diphthongs have tlirc'- 
places : (1) at the beginning, (2) middle, and 
(3) end of the consonant stem, 


9. The position of the consonant stem i;* 
determined by the place of the vowel nr 

\ \ '^ 1 ~r /^^ '<' 


10. In words having two or mort- vowel 
Hounds, the accented vowel governs the po- 
sition of ibe consonant stem. 

11. When you have become somewhiit 
familiar with the consonant atcms. vowels 
and diphthongs, and have learned to associ- 
ate Ihem with the sounds they represent, 
translate Lesson I. The tranclation should 
be made in writing. If the reporter's note 
book ia used, two columns of words may be 
written on each page. Beginning on first 
page, write on nlternate pages, and when 
they are full, turn the book so as to bring 
the blank pages next you, and write through 
again in the same manner. Thus there will 
be no s|)ace wasted and no necessity for 
moving or foldinjj the book at every change 
of page- Copy each phonographic charac- 
ter precisely as you find it as to size, shad- 
ing and position, and write the longhand 
equivalent after it. Write the sentences at 
the end of the lesson acros-s Ur' ]hil'c on 
alternate lines with the ir.iN-i iM' n i. ;ma 

12. I>o not copy a pti-nii _i ; i . m 

until you know what \m : ■ <■ i i- ■ ! '-, 
else vou will be likely lo wnti 1 1. 1 ii\ 

i:{' -Vlways write the cim.Mmaiitw m-st. 

1 1 Write horizontal stems iiuni left to 
Mu'lii. /-mid the straight stem for /]? upward, 
(/; i^ written at an angle of 30° from the line 
to (li.stinguish It firom CH), all the other 
stems downward. 

1 ...•!_ 1 .1.r._^^...A 




-V -^ "^ ^. .)- ^ c- 

(• (rl.L± 


Remarks on Mr. Munson's Court 

In my court notes furnished for Ibis num- 
ber of the JocRNAi,, there are a few things 
that require explanation, and among them 
the new ticks for of, to and uiho-m, which 
are introduced. 


' • Of. "— Written with a light tick sign in (he. 
fnt position, and standing to the right. 

It has been found in practice that the gen- 
eral use of proximity for of\% not, in all res- 
pects, desirable. If a writer prefers to make 
his word or phrase outlines quite close to- 
gether, proximity interferes, because when 
it prevails everywhere, it cannot be ilsed to 
indicate a particular word. And so in sci- 
entific, or very technical matter, requiring 
great exactness on the part of the stenog- 
rapher, the uncertai